• The word sociology was coined by Auguste Comte –
French Philosopher in 1838. He is consider as a father of
• Sociology is the youngest of all the social Sciences.
• The word Sociology is derived from the Latin Word
‘Socius’ which means companion or associate that is
‘society or group’ and the Greek word ‘logos’ means
‘science or study or advanced study’.
• Science of society or study of society.
• Sociology is the science of society.
• No other science endeavours to study it in its entirety.
• Economic – production, distribution, consumption.
• History – past in accordance with the time order.
• Anthropology – primitive man, communities and their cultures.
• Psychology – behaviour or mind of the individual.
• Political science – citizen, as a ruler and as being ruled.
• Sociology is interested in social relationships not because they
are economic, history etc, but because they are social.
4. Definitions of Sociology
• Kingsley Davis says that “sociology is a general science of society”.
• Park says, “Sociology as the science of collective behaviour”.
• Emile Durkheim defines, “ Sociology as a science of social
• Ogburn and Nimkoff defines, “Sociology as the study of social life”.
• Kimball Young defines, “Sociology deals with the behaviour of men
5. Subject matter of Sociology
• Sociology is
• the study of society
• the study of social life
• the study of social relationships
• the study of human behaviour in groups
• the study of forms of social relationships
• the study of social action
• the study of social groups and social systems
7. Nature of Sociology
1. Sociology is an Independent Science
2. Sociology is a Social Science and not a Physical Science
3. Sociology is a Categorical and not a Normative Discipline
4. Sociology is a Pure Science and not an Applied Science
5. Sociology is Relatively an Abstract Science not a Concrete
6. Sociology is a Generalising and not a Particularsing or
7. Sociology is Both a Rational and an Empirical Science
8. Nature of Sociology
• Sociology is an Independent Science.
• Sociology has now emerged into an independent science.
• It is not treated and studied as a branch of any other science
like philosophy or political philosophy or history.
• As an independent science it has its own field of study,
boundary and method.
9. Nature of Sociology
• Sociology is a Social Science and not a Physical Science.
• As a social science it concentrates its attention on man, his
social behaviour, social activities and social life.
• The fact that sociology deals with the Social universe it
distinguishes from astronomy, physics, chemistry, geology,
mathematics and other physical sciences.
10. Nature of Sociology
• Sociology is a Categorical and not a Normative Discipline
• Sociology “confines itself to statements about what it is, not what
should be or ought to be”.
• But it does not mean that sociological knowledge is useless and
serves no purpose.
• It only means that sociology as a discipline cannot deal with
problems of good and evil, right and wrong, and moral and
11. Nature of Sociology
• Sociology is a Pure Science and not an Applied Science
• Each pure science may have its own applied field.
• For example: physics is a pure science and engineering is its
• Sociology as a pure science has its applied field such as public
administration, diplomacy, social work etc.
12. Nature of Sociology
• Sociology is Relatively an Abstract Science and not a
• Sociology is not interested in concrete only it demonstrations of
• It is more concerned with the form of human events and their
• For example: sociology is not concerned with particular wars and
revolutions but with war and revolution in general, as a social
phenomena, as a type of social conflict.
13. Nature of Sociology
• Sociology is a Generalising and not a particularising or
• Sociology tries to find out the general laws of principle about
human interaction and association, about the nature, form,
content and structure of human groups and societies.
• It does not study each and every event that takes place in society.
It is not possible also.
14. Nature of Sociology
• Sociology is Both a Rational and Empirical Science
• Rationalism, stresses reason and the result from logical inference.
• Empiricism, is emphasises experience and the facts that result
from observation and experimentation.
• In Sociological inquiry both are significant.
16. Field of Sociology
• Sociology is a fast growing discipline.
• Sociologists are at work to bring into its range of study almost all
aspects of man’s social life.
• Sociology has a tendency to break down into an endless list of
• Thus it has several specialised areas of inquiry each of which may
employ its own approach and techniques.
17. Field of sociology
• Sociology of knowledge
• Sociology of law
• Social or human ecology
• Sociology of education
• Political sociology
• Sociology of occupations
• Sociology of religion
• Rural sociology
• Industrial sociology
• Urban sociology
• Medical sociology
• Historical sociology
• Military sociology
• Folk sociology
• Sociology of art
• Sociology of small groups
• Sociology of sexual behaviour
• Sociology of culture
• Sociology of aesthetics
• Sociology of sexual behaviour
• Sociology of communication and recreation
• Economic sociology or the sociology of economic life
18. Sociology of education
• Sociology is the study of the social relationships of people and
• Teachers and students do not function in a vacuum, but in the social
relationships of their milieu.
• Therefore, sociology is of profound importance to a teacher.
• A good teacher needs to understand how his or her own students'
sociological backgrounds have an impact on their educational
• The teacher needs to attend to the sociology of the classroom as an
19. Sociology of Law
• sociology of law consists of various approaches to the study of law in society.
• Basically all laws at meant for the betterment of the society, which is core
subject matter of sociology.
• A good lawyer must try to understand how laws are impacting the society.
• Laws also have to be amended in various times according to the changes in
• So, there is an inseparable exist between law and society.
• Sociology of law also benefits from and occasionally draws on research
conducted within other fields such as comparative law, critical legal studies,
legal theory, law and economics.
20. Medical Sociology
• Medical sociology, sometimes referred to as health sociology, is the
study of the social causes and consequences of health and illness.
• Major areas of investigation include the social determinants of health
• the social background or behavior of patients and health care providers,
• the social functions of health organizations and institutions,
• the social patterns of the utilization of health services,
• the relationship of health care delivery systems to other social institutions,
• and social policies toward health.
• Social conditions and situations not only promote and, in some cases,
cause the possibility of illness and disability, but also enhance
prospects of disease prevention and health maintenance
21. Sociology of Nursing
• Sociology is includes in the curriculum of nursing because health is
include social component.
• Most of the illness have social causes and social consequences.
• Sociology gives knowledge to deal with patient and to understand
their habits, norms, culture and behaviour etc..
• The sociological knowledge the nurse understand the factors of caste,
faith, community, religion etc..
• As well as a nurse should understand the social position, status and
social responsibilities with regard to health field by studying
22. Industrial sociology
• Industrial sociology studies industrial organization not as a technological or
economic organization, but more than that, as a social or human
• Industrial development (industrialization) affect the condition of sociological
community, and sociological conditions affect the development of industrial
• It deals with study of interaction of human in technological change,
globalization, labour markets, work organisation, and managerial practices.
• It helps in remedies to problems of industrial society, personality
integration, familial integration, labour legislation, industrial planning, etc.
23. Sociology of Ageing
• As our life-expectancy from birth increases, then our population as a whole
• The proportion of people who are over retirement age is increasing and
therefore the median age of the population is also increasing.
• It helps to deal the pressure on the health service as older people are more
likely to be susceptible to age-related illnesses and pressure on families to
care for older relatives.
• However there will also be an increasing political influence as older people
are more likely to vote than younger people.
• It is important that as a society to prepare for an ageing population.
24. Rural Sociology
• Rural sociology presents a scientific picture of rural life.
• Villages are important because they are the springs to feed urban areas.
• It is just like a mirror of the rural social life. It provides a detailed study of
knowledge about different aspects of rural life, its problems, its culture, its
religion, its economic and political life.
• After Independence it is very much necessary for our country to have a
systematic study of the rural social organization, its structure, function and
• The basic aim of the study of rural sociology is to make the village people
self sufficient and also link them with the wider society at regional and
25. Urban Sociology
• Urban sociology is the study of problems and policies in an urban (cities and
towns- not rural) area.
• It helps to understand the institutions and structures that make up a
metropolitan area so as to work with policy makers to solve social problems
in urban areas.
• Much of society today focuses on Urbanization or the developing of urban
areas which are in stark contrast to rural areas and therefore have
completely different social problems.
• Urban planners and urban sociologists attempt to solve the problems that
uniquely plague highly populated urban areas.
26. Sociology of Mass Communication
• Sociology is relevant in mass communication because it gives you the
knowledge on how to communicate with people all over the world.
• For example a person that is learning about mass communication and visits
a third world country may not have the knowledge on how to deal with
situations involving individuals in that country who may approach you and
try to communicate their dire need of help.
• Now a person that has the hands on knowledge in sociology and is studying
mass communication would definitely have a better understanding on what
needs to be communicated in such situations, in a more effective and
27. Military Sociology
• Military sociology aims toward the systematic study of the military as a
social group rather than as a Military organization.
• This highly specialized sub-discipline examines issues related to service
personnel as a distinct group with coerced collective action based on shared
interests linked to survival in vocation and combat, with purposes and
values that are more defined and narrow than within civil society.
• Military sociology also concerns civil-military relations and interactions
between other groups or governmental agencies.
• It examines issues such as military recruiting, race and gender
representation in the military, combat, military families, military social
organization, war and peace, and the military as welfare.
28. Sociology of Engineering
• The engineering is, the combined application of scientific knowledge and
creativity to meet society’s demand from new technology.
• What engineers are designing, engineering, or building requires engineer
to think about not only the needs but desires, quirks, accidents, faults and
weaknesses of the people who will use them.
• Engineers will not likely not work in a vacuum, people will work with
engineers, for engineers or engineer will work for people.
• Engineers have to understand what motivates people and how that effects
what engineer do.
• An engineer is able to calculate the cheapest way to build something that is
adequate for the purpose, and is not over-built.
30. Scope of Sociology
• Two different views about the scope of sociology.
• There is no one opinion about the scope of sociology.
• In the broadest sense, Sociology is studying human
interactions, their conditions and consequences.
• There are two main schools of thought among sociologist
on this issue.
• Specialistic or Formalistic School
• Synthetic School
31. Specialistic or Formalistic School
• In this group of sociologists demarcates, Sociology clearly from
other branches of social study and confines it to the “enquiry into
certain defined aspects of human relationship” or “Sociology as
pure and independent”.
• Sociology has a limited field of enquiry and deals those problems
which are not dealt with other social science.
• Specialistic or Formalistic School.
32. Synthetic School
• The other group maintains that the field of sociology or social
investigation is too wide for any other social science and
“Sociology as special social science” Such as Economics,
Anthropology, History, etc.
• It also consider of a “Sociology is a general science”.
• Sociology studies everything and anything under the sun.
• Synthetic School
34. Specialistic or Formalistic School
• This group led by Simmel’s views sociology is confined to the
enquiry of certain defined aspects of human relationship and
they consider sociology as pure and independent.
• Simmel’s view sociology deals with same topics as they from a
different angle – from the angle of different modes of social
35. Specialistic or Formalistic School
• Small’s views - sociology does not study all the activities of society.
• The scope of sociology is the study of the generic (general) forms of
social relationships, behaviours and activities, etc.
36. Specialistic or Formalistic School
• Vierkandt’s view – sociology is a special branch of knowledge
dealing with the ultimate forms of mental or psychic
relationships which unite people in society.
• He further maintains that similarly in dealing with culture
sociology should not concern itself with the actual contents
of cultural evolution but it should confine itself to only the
discovery of the fundamental forces of change and
37. Specialistic or Formalistic School
• Max Weber’s view – sociology aims to interpret and
understand social behaviour but it does not include all
human relations because all of them are not social.
• According to him, Sociology concerned with the analysis
and classification of types of social relationships.
• Von Wiese’s view – the scope of sociology is the study of
forms of social relationships.
38. Synthetic School
• Sociology studies everything and anything under the sun.
• According to this group sociology is a general science.
• It wants sociology to be a synthesis (mixture) of the social
sciences or a general science.
40. Synthetic School
• Durkheim’ s view – sociology can be divided into three major
• Social Morphology
• Is concerned with geographical or territorial basis of the life of such as its volume
and density, local distribution and the life.
• Social Physiology
• Is divided into a number of branches such as Sociology of religion, of Morals, of
Laws, of Economic life, of Language etc. this activities related to the various social
• General Sociology
• Is discover the general character of these social facts.
41. Synthetic School
• Hobhouse’s view – sociology is a synthesis of many social
studies – task of three fold.
• Studies in particular part of the field.
• Interconnect the results given by different social sciences.
• Interpret social life as a whole.
• Sorokin’s view- the subject matter of sociology
• The study of relationship between different aspects of social
• The study of understanding the relationship between the
social and non-social aspects.
• The study of general characteristics of social phenomena.
42. Synthetic School
• Karl Mannheim’s view – two branches.
• Systematic and General Sociology.
• Describes one by one the main factors of living together as far as
they may be found in every kind of society.
• Historical Sociology.
• Deals with the historical variety and actuality of the general forms of
• Historical Sociology falls into two main sections.
• Comparative Sociology
• Deals with historical variations of the some phenomena and tries to find
by comparison general features as separated from industrial features.
• Social Dynamics
• Deals with the interrelations between the various social factors and
institutions in a certain given society, for instance, in a primitive society.
43. Synthetic School
• Alex Inkeles’s view;
• Social Analysis
• Primary Concepts of Social Life
• Basic Social Institutions
• J.B. Mckee’s view
• Social Action, Social Structure, Social Process and Social
Institutions are included in the scope of Sociology.
45. Importance of Sociology
1. Sociology makes a Scientific of Society.
2. Sociology studies the role of the institutions in the development of the Individual.
3. The study of Sociology is indispensable for understanding and planning of society.
4. Sociology is of great importance in the solution of social problems.
5. Sociology has drawn our attention to the essential worth and dignity of man.
6. Sociology has changed outlook with regard to the problems of crime etc.
7. Sociology has made great contribution to enrich human culture.
8. Sociology is of great importance in the solution of international problems.
9. Sociology is useful as a teaching subject.
10. Sociology as a profession.
46. Importance of Sociology
• Sociology studies society in a scientific way.
• Before the emergence of sociology, there was no systematic and scientific attempt to
study human society with all its complexities.
• Sociology has made it possible to study society in a scientific manner.
• The scientific knowledge about human society is needed in order to achieve progress
in various fields.
• Sociology throws more light on the social nature of man.
• Sociology delves deep into the social nature of man.
• It tells us why man is a social animal, why he lives in a groups, communities and
• It examines the relationship between individual and society, the impact of society on
man and other matters.
47. Importance of Sociology
• Sociology improves our understanding of society and increases the power
of social action.
• The science of society assists an individual to understand himself, his capacities,
talents and limitations.
• It enables him to adjust himself to the environment.
• It help us to lead an effective social life.
• The study of sociology helps us to know not only our society and men but
also others, their motives, aspirations, status, occupations, traditions,
customs, institutions, culture etc.
• In a huge industrialised society our experience is comparatively limited.
• But, from sociology we can learn it.
48. Importance of Sociology
• The contribution of sociology is not less significant in enriching
• Sociology has given training to us to have rational approach to questions
concerning ourselves, our religion, custom, mores, institutions, values,
• The study of societies has made people to become more broad minded.
• It has impressed upon its students to overcome their prejudices,
misconceptions, egoistic ambitions, and class and religious hatreds.
• It has made our life richer, fuller and meaningful.
49. Importance of Sociology
• Another aspect of the practical side of sociology is the study of great social
institutions and the relations of individuals of each one of them.
• The human and marriage, home and family, school and education, state and
government, industry and work, religion and morality, law and legislation, etc., are
some of the main institutions, through which our society functions.
• The need for the study of sociology is greater especially in underdeveloped
• Sociologists have now drawn the attention of economists regarding the social factors
that have contributed to the economic backwardness of a few countries.
• Economists have now realised the importance of sociological in analysing the
economic affairs of a country.
50. Importance of Sociology
• The study of society is of paramount importance in solving social problems.
• The present world is beset with several social problems of great magnitude like
poverty, beggary, unemployment, prostitution, over-population, family
disorganisation, community disorganisation, racial problems, crime, juvenile
delinquency, gambling, alcoholism, youth unrest, untouchability etc.
• A careful analysis of these problems is necessary in order to solve them.
• Sociology provides such an analysis.
• Sociological knowledge is necessary for understanding and planning of
• Social planning has been made easier by sociology.
• Sociology is often considered a vehicle of social reform and social reorganisation.
• It plays an important role in the reconstruction of society.
51. Importance of Sociology
• Study of society has helped several governments to promote the welfare of
the tribal/minorities/weaker people.
• Not only the civilised societies, but even the tribal societies are faced with several
social-economic and cultural problems.
• Studies conducted by sociologists and anthropologists regarding tribal societies and
problems have helped many governments in understanding various social welfare
measures to promote the welfare of the tribal people.
• Sociology help us to up-to-date on modern social situations and
• Sociology makes us to become more alert towards the changes and developments that
take place around us.
• As a result, we come to know abut our changed roles and expectations and
52. Importance of Sociology
• Sociology is useful as a teaching subject too.
• A few years ago, sociologists could only teach sociology in schools and colleges.
• But sociology has now become practical enough to be practised outside of
• Careers apart from teaching are now possible in sociology.
• The various areas of applied sociology are coming more and more into
prominence in local, state, national and international levels.
• Sociologists, especially those in research procedures, are in increasing demand
in business, government, industry, city planning, race relations, social work,
social welfare, supervision, advertising, communications, administration, and
many other areas of community.
54. Sociology relation with other social sciences
• Social sciences deal with the social universe or phenomena in general.
• It deal with forms and contents of man’s interaction.
• It study human groups, society and social environment.
• Different social sciences deal with the different aspects of the social
life of man.
• Accordingly, history, anthropology, psychology, economics, political
sciences, etc. study the various facets of the same realty, i.e. the social
• Naturally, social sciences are then very much interrelated.
55. Sociology and History: History
• History is the reconstruction of man’s past.
• It is the story of the experience of mankind.
• It is a record of the human past.
• It is a systematic record of man’s life and achievements from
the dim past to the present.
• The historian is interested in what happened at a particular
time in the past.
56. Sociology and History: Sociology
• Bierstedt argued that “sociology has a long past but only a short
• Sociology as a science of society, on the other hand is interested in the
• It tries to analyse human interactions and interrelations with all their
complexity and diversity.
• It also studies the historical development of societies.
• It studies various stages of human life, modes of living, customs,
manners and their expression in the form of social institutions and
57. Sociology and History: History helps Sociology
• Sociology has thus to depend upon history for its material.
• History with its record of various social events of the past offers data and
facts to sociologists.
• History is a storehouse of records, a treasury of knowledge.
• It supplies materials to various social sciences including sociology.
• History contains records even with regard to social matters. This
information about the past is of great help to a sociologist.
• A sociologist has to make use of the historical records.
• The present-day society can be better understood from the knowledge of
58. Sociology and History: Sociology help History too
• Historian also use Sociology.
• Until recently it was perhaps from philosophy that the historian took
his clues to important problems and historical concepts and ideas.
• But now these are drawn increasingly from sociology.
• Sociology provides the social background for the study of History.
• History is now being studied and read from the sociological point of
• It is said that history would be meaningless without the appreciation
of socially significant evets.
59. Differences between History and Sociology
Study of the present social phenomena Deals with the past events of man
Relatively a young social science It is an age-old science
It is an analytical science It is a descriptive science
Abstract in nature It is concreate
Generalising science Individualising science
60. Sociology and Political Science: Political Science
• Political science deals with the political activities of man.
• It studies social groups under the sovereignty of the state.
• It studies man as a ruler and being ruled.
• It has its own topics such as the origin, evolution and
functions of state, the form of government, types of
constitution, administration, law, legislation, international
relations, elections, voting, political movement, political
61. The relationship between
Political Science and Sociology
• Political activity is only a part of social activity.
• Political activity influences and is influenced by the social life of man.
• In fact, political activities will have no meaning outside the social
• Politics is after all the reflection of society.
• Political science gives sociology facts about the organisation and
functions of the state and government.
• Political science is concerned with the state. But sociology also
studies state as one of the human associations.
62. Differences between Sociology and Political Science
Sociology Political Science
Science of society Science of state and government
Studies all kinds of societies, organised
as well as unorganised
Studies only the politically organised
It has a wider scope It has a narrower field
General social science Special social sciences
Sociological approach Political approach
Quite young Older science
63. Sociology and Anthropology: Anthropology
• Anthropologist Kroeber pointed out that the two sciences are twin
• The word Anthropology is derived from two Greek words – Anthropos
meaning ‘man’ and logos meaning ‘study’.
• Anthropology is concerned not with particular man but with man in
groups, with races and peoples and their happenings and doings.
• It studies man both as a member of the animal kingdom and as a
member of the human society.
64. Sociology and Anthropology:
Relationship between Sociology and Anthropology
• Sociologists have to depend upon anthropologists to understand the
present-day social phenomena from out knowledge of the past which
is often provided by anthropology.
• Sociological topics such as the origin of family, beginning of marriage,
genesis of religion, private property, etc., can better be understood in
the light of anthropological knowledge.
• Sociology has borrowed many concepts from anthropology.
• In a number of universities anthropology and sociology are
administratively organised into one department.
65. Differences between Sociology and Anthropology
Studies the modern, civilised and complex
Studies the simple, uncivilised or primitive and
Sociologists more often study parts of a society
and generally specialise in institutions such as
family, marriage, or processes, such as social
change, social mobility
Anthropologists tend to study societies in all
their aspects, as wholes. They concentrate their
studies in a given ‘culture area’, such as
Malanesia or Nagaland.
Sociologists study ‘small’ as well as ‘large’
Anthropologists usually concentrate on small
societies such as those of Naga, Rengma Naga,
Khasis, Gond, Bhil, etc.
Sociology makes use of observation, interview,
social survey, questionnaires and other methods
and techniques in its investigations
Anthropologists directly go and live in the
communities for study. They make use of direct
observations and interviews
66. Sociology and Psychology
• Psychology has been defined as the study of human behaviour.
• It is interested in his intelligence and his learning, his hopes and his
fears and the order and the disorder of his mind.
• Social psychology serves as a bridge between Psychology and
• Social psychology is the science of the behaviour of the individual in
• Social psychology deals with the mental processes of man,
considering him as a social being.
67. Sociology and Psychology:
Interdependence of the two sciences
• Psychology has to depend on sociology to understand properly human nature and
behaviour in society.
• Sociology which provides the necessary material regarding the structure,
organisation and culture of societies to which individuals belong.
• Similarly, sociologists have taken the assistance from Psychology.
• They have recognised the importance of psychological factors in understanding
the changes in social structure.
• Sociologists and psychologists may have to study together certain common topics
such as – individual disorganisation, crime, juvenile delinquency, social
disorganisation, public opinion, propaganda, leadership, war conflicts,
socialisation, suggestion, imitation, fashion and so on.
68. Sociology and Psychology:
Social Psychology helps to face social problems
• Problems such as racial conflicts, religious prejudices, communal
tensions, crimes, juvenile delinquency, prostitution, gambling and
alcoholism are not totally isolated cases in the society.
• Deviant patterns such as stealing, suicide, divorce and prostitution are
also normal consequences of our social institutions.
• As social behaviour and misbehaviour are very closely interrelated,
applied social psychologists must be an expert in the details of the
69. Differences between Sociology and Psychology
Studies society and social groups Studies the behaviour of individual in
group situation or in society
Analyse social processes Analyse mental processes of man
Interested in the social forms and
structures within which the behaviour of
man takes place
Concerned with the behaviour of
individuals as such
Studies the groups themselves and the
larger social structure
Studies the individual as social
psychology the individual in his social
Studies society from sociological view
Studies individual behaviour from the
view point of psychology
70. Sociology and Economics: Economics
• Economics deals with the economics activities of man.
• It also be understood as the science of wealth in its three stages
namely: production, distribution and consumption.
• It studies man as a wealth-getter and wealth disposer.
• It studies the interrelations of purely economic factors and forces: the
relations of price and supply, money flows, input-output ratios and
• It also studies the structure and function of economic organisations
like banks, factories, business firms, corporations, transport, etc.
71. Sociology and Economics: Mutually help
• Economic relationships bear a close relation to social activities.
• At the same time, social relationships are also affected by economic
• Economists said, the study of economics would be incomplete
without an understanding of human society.
• Economic system is embedded in the social structure as a part of it.
• Sociologists have contributed to study of different aspects of
72. Sociology and Economics: Mutually help
• Knowledge of property, division of labour, occupations, industrial
organisation, etc., is provided by a sociologists to an economist.
• Labour relations, standard of living, employer-employee relations,
social classes, socio-economic planning, socio-economic reforms, etc.,
are common to both economists and sociologists.
• Economists are now analysing the social factors influencing economic
• Socio-economic problems of greater importance to be studied by
both economists and sociologists.
73. Differences between Sociology and Economics
Studies all kind of social relationships Deals with only those social relationships
which are economic in character
General social science Special social science
It seems to be wider It is narrower
Science of recent emergence Attained an advanced degree of maturity
Abstract in nature Concrete in nature