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The role of bioenergy in the uk's decarbonisation strategy

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The role of bioenergy in the uk's decarbonisation strategy

  1. 1. The Role of Bioenergy in the UK’s Decarbonisation Strategy Future Transport Fuels, DecarboN8 Webinar Series 13th May 2020 Dr. Andrew Welfle, University of Manchester
  2. 2. Today’s Presentations  Introduction to Bioenergy  Bioenergy as a Low Carbon Renewable Energy Option  Bioenergy in the UK  How much Biomass can the UK produce?  How much & what forms of Bioenergy can the UK Generate?  Focus on Biofuels to Decarbonise Transport
  3. 3. Introducing Myself Background:  Environment vs. Engineering Background  Engineering Consultancy  University of Manchester  Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research  Supergen Bioenergy Hub  DECC/ BEIS, DfT, CCC, R-E-A, LowCVP etc Research Focus: o Biomass Resource Modelling o Biomass Supply Chain Analysis o Bioenergy Emissions & Sustainability o Energy Scenarios o Biofuels for Transport
  4. 4. Tyndall Centre www.tyndall.ac.uk/ @TyndallCentre
  5. 5. UK Supergen Bioenergy Hub www.supergen-bioenergy.net/ @SupergenBioHub The Supergen Bioenergy Hub works with academia, industry, government and societal stakeholders to develop sustainable bioenergy systems that support the UK’s transition to an affordable, resilient, low- carbon energy future.
  6. 6. Introduction to Bioenergy
  7. 7. Biomass & Bioenergy Energy from the Sun, Carbon from the Atmosphere • Photosynthesis converts solar energy, water and CO2 into biomass (plant) material • Water + Carbon Dioxide + Sunlight = Glucose + Oxygen • CO2 (a GHG) is transferred from the atmosphere (where it contributes to climate change) to biomass materials where it is fixed • Biomass materials may be used as feedstocks for bioenergy processes
  8. 8. Biomass & Bioenergy Lignocellulosic Wastes, Residues & Biodegradable Materials
  9. 9. Biomass & Bioenergy Starch, Oil & Sugar Crops
  10. 10. Biomass & Bioenergy Biofuel Types
  11. 11. Biomass & Bioenergy Traditional Bioenergy • Main energy source in many developing countries • Mainly used for cooking and heating • Often the only available and affordable energy source • Advantage: low technology • Disadvantage: inefficient use, high pollution, often very time intense to source (collecting)
  12. 12. Biomass & Bioenergy Modern Bioenergy • Used to produce a wide range of products and forms of energy • Using all types of biomass derived from plants: – Forest based feedstocks – Agri-based feedstocks – Short-rotation crops: woody crops – Organic wastes – Novel feedstocks • Advantage: can provide low carbon renewable energy • Disadvantage: need for sustainable supply chains and advanced bioenergy conversion technologies
  13. 13. Bioenergy as a Low Carbon Renewable Energy Option
  14. 14. Advantages of Bioenergy Flexibility Welfle, A., Röder, M., et al. (2020). Supergen Bioenergy Hub Case Study Report: Developing the UK bioenergy sector to enable the transition to a sustainable bioeconomy and low-carbon future. www.supergen-bioenergy.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/Case-studies-report-2020.pdf
  15. 15. Advantages of Bioenergy Low Carbon Sustainable Energy Option • CO2 is removed from the atmosphere during plant growth and converted to hydrocarbon (biomass) • Burning the hydrocarbon releases the energy by converting hydrocarbon to carbon dioxide • BUT it is only the same amount of carbon dioxide as was originally removed during growth • Through sustainable production and sourcing of biomass and efficient conversion, bioenergy can deliver energy with lower GHG emissions than fossil fuels
  16. 16. Advantages of Bioenergy Bioenergy Carbon Balances Bioenergy: A Graphic Introduction supergen-bioenergy.net/comic
  17. 17. Ensuring Bioenergy GHG Performances GHG Life Cycle Assessment of Bioenergy Pathways Welfle A, Gilbert P, Thornley P, Stephenson A. Generating Low-Carbon Heat from Biomass: Life Cycle Assessment of Bioenergy Scenarios. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2017; 149: 448-460. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.02.035 GHG Performance of Generating Heat Bioenergy from UK Miscanthus through Different Resource Production & Bioenergy Conversion Pathways
  18. 18. Accounting Bioenergy GHG Emissions Bioenergy Emissions & Emission Accounting Frameworks Supergen Policy Brief - to be launched via Webinar Wed 3rd June via Teams Live
  19. 19. Bioenergy Sustainability Sustainability Indicators & Trade-offs Lifecycle GHG emissions Soil quality Emissions of non-GHG air pollutants, including air toxics Water use and efficiency Biological diversity in the landscape Price and supply of a national food basket Change in unpaid time spent collecting biomass Bioenergy used to expand access to modern energy Productivity Net energy balance Training and re-qualification of the workforce Energy diversity Harvest levels of wood resources Land use and land-use change Water quality Allocation and tenure of land Change in income Jobs in the bioenergy sector Change in mortality & burden of disease attributable to smoke Incidence of occupational injury, illness and fatalities Gross value added Change in consumption of fossil fuels & traditional biomass Infrastructure and logistics for distribution of bioenergy Capacity and flexibility of use of bioenergy Thornley & Gilbert, “Biofuels: Balancing risks and rewards”, Interface Focus, 2013
  20. 20. Bioenergy, Climate Change & the Bioeconomy Committee on Climate Change: https://www.theccc.org.uk/publication/biomass-in-a-low-carbon-economy/ “Biomass can be produced and used in ways that are both low carbon and sustainable” “Biomass can make a significant contribution to tackling climate change” “There are risks that biomass production and use could in some circumstances be worse for the climate than using fossil fuels” 1. What is biomass and why is it important? 2. When is biomass low carbon and sustainable? 3. Sustainability governance for imported biomass 4. Future sustainable supply 5. What is the role of biomass in meeting UK carbon targets?
  21. 21. Bioenergy in the UK
  22. 22. Current UK Bioenergy Uses Thornley, P., “Biofuels Review”, Report for Government Office for Science, prepared as part of the Foresight Programme, June 2012
  23. 23. Current Contribution of Bioenergy Bioenergy & the UK Energy Mix • Bioenergy is the largest renewable energy technology in the UK, contributing*:  >31% Renewable Electricity  >83% Renewable Heat  5% Total Transport Energy • The Government has strong ambitions to increase bioenergy as part of its industrial strategy and climate change commitments * www.gov.uk/government/statistics/digest-of-uk-energy-statistics-dukes-2019
  24. 24. Future Trajectories UK Bioenergy Sector 2020 2030 2040 2050 Near-Term Mid-Term Long-Term Bio- Heat Sector Demand Trends Gradual increase in demand reflecting both increased traditional and specialist roles for bio-heat Gradual decline in demand reflecting the targeted focus on emerging alternative low carbon heat technologies. Bio-heat continuing within specialist roles such as in industry Key Resource Demands  Wood based resources  Wood based resources (pellets & chips)  Feedstocks for advanced bioenergy technologies  Potential role of heat networks and the gas grid Bio- Power Sector Demand Trends Sharp increase in demand driven by increased and further conversion of conventional power plants to allow co- firing with biomass Gradual decline in demand as co-firing plants are expected to gradually close. Continuing demand for bio-power systems contributing to balance peak energy demands Key Resource Demands  Solid biomass resources (wood, animal based, plant based, wastes) Bio-fuel Sector Demand Trends Sharp increase in demand for biofuels for the transport sector High uncertainty over the long-term due to potential emergence of alternative technologies. Growing role in aviation and shipping Key Resource Demands  Energy Crops  Energy Crops  Lignocellulosic resources.  Wastes
  25. 25. Enabling the Future Sector & the Possibilities • A growing UK bioenergy sector will likely require increasing levels of biomass feedstocks • Likely to be competition for resource both within the bioenergy sector and wider sectors - and potentially internationally • Bioenergy sector will have to adapt to future technologies • Important to prioritise sustainability and carbon performances Future Potential Role • Up to 45% of UK energy demand* • 10% electricity (baseload) • 50% heat (industrial, district, gas) • 20% liquid fuels (aviation, shipping, heavy duty/mobile plant) * Welfle A, Gilbert P, Thornley P. Securing a Bioenergy Future without Imports. Energy Policy. 2014; 68: 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2013.11.079
  26. 26. How much Biomass can the UK produce? How much and what forms of Bioenergy can the UK generate?
  27. 27. Growing Interest in Biomass & Bioenergy Increasing Reliance on Modelling to Inform Decisions Annual Number of Journal Papers Published with Focus on Modelling Bioenergy Issues Welfle A, Thornley P, Röder M. A Review of the Role of Bioenergy Modelling in Renewable Energy Research & Policy Development. Biomass and Bioenergy: 2020; 136. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2020.105542
  28. 28. Beringer et al. (2011), Berndes et al. (2003) Dornburg et al. (2010), Erb et al. (2009), Field et al. (2008), Fischer and Schrattenholzer (2001), Gregg and Smith (2010), Haberl et al. (2011, 2010), Hakala et al. (2009), Hoogwijk and Graus (2008), Hoogwijka et al. (2003), Lauri (2014), Smeets et al. (2007), Smeets and Faaij (2007), WBGU (2008) UK Biomass Resources Opportunities Forecast Ranges of UK Biomass Resource Availability Ranges of UK Biomass Resource Availability (2030) as Forecast by Research
  29. 29. UK Biomass Resources Opportunities UK Energy Crop & Biomass Growth Scenarios Welfle A, Gilbert P, Thornley P. Securing a Bioenergy Future without Imports. Energy Policy. 2014; 68: 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2013.11.079 Availability of UK Land & Potential Energy Crops Production
  30. 30. Explaining Variability in Forecasts Key Drivers Influencing Biomass Availability Development Drivers 1) Population Change 2) Changes in Built-Up Land Area Food Production System Drivers 3) Crop & Agriculture Productivity 4) Food Waste Generation 5) Food Commodity Imports 6) Food Commodity Exports 7) Utilisation of Agricultural Wastes & Residues Forestry & Wood- based Industry Drivers 8) Forestry Expansion & Productivity 9) Wood-based Industry Productivity 10 ) Imports of Forestry Product 11) Exports of Forestry Product Biomass Residue & Waste Utilisation Drivers 12) Utilisation of Forestry Residues 13) Utilisation of Industrial Residues 14) Utilisation of Arboriculture Arisings 15) Waste Generation Trends 16) Waste Management Strategies. Biomass Strategy Drivers 17) Land Dedicated for Biomass Resource Growth 3) Modelling Assumptions & Model Drivers1) Scope of Analysis 2) Modelling Approach Welfle A, Gilbert P, Thornley P. Increasing Biomass Resource Availability through Supply Chain Analysis. Biomass & Bioenergy. 2014; 70: 249–66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2014.08.001
  31. 31. Identifying the UK’s Biomass Opportunities Tyndall Manchester’s Biomass Resource Model (BRM): Food vs. Biomass Land vs. BiomassIndustry vs. Biomass Welfle A, Gilbert P, Thornley P. Securing a Bioenergy Future without Imports. Energy Policy. 2014; 68: 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2013.11.079
  32. 32. The UK’s Biomass & Bioenergy Opportunities UK Bioenergy Contribution Scenarios Welfle A, Gilbert P, Thornley P. Securing a Bioenergy Future without Imports. Energy Policy. 2014; 68: 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2013.11.079 UK Bioenergy Potential from Indigenous Resources vs. Primary Energy Demand
  33. 33. The UK’s Biomass & Bioenergy Opportunities UK Biomass Demands vs. UK Biomass Availability Welfle A, Gilbert P, Thornley P. Securing a Bioenergy Future without Imports. Energy Policy. 2014; 68: 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2013.11.079 Forecast UK Biomass Resource Demand UK Biomass Availability Scenarios
  34. 34. Balancing UK Biomass Resource Demands Key Supply & Demand Regions – Trade Hub Europe Forecast UK Biomass Resource Demand UK Biomass Availability Scenarios Trade Hub Europe: • All major biomass trade flows headed towards the EU • Driven by the EU’s renewable energy and GHG emission reduction targets • Positive: central hub of trade will present resource opportunities • Negative: biggest competitors for resource are your neighbours Trade Hub Europe: Welfle A. Balancing Growing Global Bioenergy Resource Demands - Brazil's Biomass Potential and the Availability of Resource for Trade. Biomass & Bioenergy. 105: 83-95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2017.06.011
  35. 35. The UK’s Biomass & Bioenergy Opportunities UK Biomass Resource Scenarios Welfle A, Gilbert P, Thornley P. Securing a Bioenergy Future without Imports. Energy Policy. 2014; 68: 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2013.11.079 Food & Organic Wastes Animal Based Agricultural Wastes Plant Based Agricultural Residues Specifically Grown Resources
  36. 36. Focus on Biofuels to Decarbonise Transport Welfle, A., Röder, M., et al. (2020). Supergen Bioenergy Hub Case Study Report: Developing the UK bioenergy sector to enable the transition to a sustainable bioeconomy and low-carbon future. www.supergen-bioenergy.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/Case- studies-report-2020.pdf
  37. 37. Decarbonising UK Transport through Biofuels Growing Focus on Biofuels • Biofuels are targeted to play an increasing role in decarbonising transport • Steadily increasing contribution of blended fuels and; • Long term strategic targets for heavy goods, aviation and shipping. Time Horizons Bioenergy Needs Problems & Opportunities Near Term Flexible Heat & Power from a Diverse Range of Feedstocks Pollutants, Bio-products, Ecosystem Services, Circular Economy Medium Renewable Biofuels – Bio-ethanol, Bio-diesel, Bio-kerosene Catalysis, Pre-Treatment Processes, Bio-fuel Yield Increases Long Term Bio-gas fuels, Negative Emissions and BECCS Technologies Gasification, Anaerobic Digestion, Hydrogen, Carbon Capture
  38. 38. Decarbonising UK Transport through Biofuels Policy Backdrop • The Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO) is the UK’s key policy mechanism driving the transition towards biofuels • RTFO targets and requirements are shaping the future growth of the UK biofuels industry • Feedstock sustainability requirements (ILUC etc.) • GHG emissions performance requirements • Restrictions on use of specific feedstocks, for example limiting use of crop-based feedstocks RTFO Levels: o 9.75% by 2020 o 12.4% by 2032 Development Fuels: o 0.1% by 2019 o 2.8% by 2032 Biofuel Feedstock: o Crop cap at 4% by 2018. Reducing in equal increments annually from 2021 to reach 3% in 2026 and 2% in 2032 Aviation & Advanced Fuels: o Renewable aviation fuels and renewable fuels of non- biological origin brought into the scheme UK Department for Transport, Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation: Proposed Changes for 2017, London, 2017. https://www.gov.uk/government /consultations/renewable- transport-fuel-obligation- proposed-changes-for-2017.
  39. 39. Decarbonising UK Transport through Biofuels An Opportunity for Wastes & Residues? •EU Waste Framework Directive •EU Landfill Directive •Landfill tax •Landfill Allowance (Trading) Scheme •Landfill ban for specific materials •National, regional and local strategies •Renewable Energy Strategy •Renewable Obligations •Climate Change Levy •IPPC regulation and planning •Change to EU Waste Incineration Directive UK Waste Resource Range Resource Available for Bioenergy Welfle, A. Wagland, S. Chong, K. et al, Establishing Viable Pathways for Increasing Biofuel Production from UK Wastes & Residues to meet Transport Energy Targets. Supergen Report for UL Department for Transport. 2019
  40. 40. Decarbonising UK Transport through Biofuels The Challenges for the UK Bio-fuel Sector Secure Resilient Flexible Low Carbon Economic • Rapid development of the biofuel sector and feedstock supply chains required • There will likely be significant rises in demand for both crop and non-crop feedstocks • Unclear how much biomass resource will be available for the bio-fuel sector • What characteristics will these resources have? • What are the infrastructure demands and consequences? • What is the best use of these resources? • To what extent can biofuels be used to deliver net-zero emissions?
  41. 41. Conclusions The Challenges: The Opportunities: • UK has carbon targets and is heavily committed to bioenergy • UK and global demand for biomass resource is rapidly increasing – UK is reliant on imported resources • Large scale production/mobilisation of biomass resources has sustainability and carbon risks and barriers to overcome • Governance frameworks are required to ensure sustainability and carbon performances • Bioenergy strategy needs to be flexible to allow emergence of new technologies and choices about the deployment of bioenergy plants • Bioenergy can provide a low carbon sustainable renewable energy option • Bioenergy can be/is being used to transition sectors towards decarbonisation • Bio-fuels can be the solution to decarbonise strategic transport sectors including aviation, shipping and haulage • The UK has biomass resource opportunities that are under utilised: wastes, agri-residues, grown energy crops • The UK has global leading expertise in bioenergy technologies and systems
  42. 42. Thank you Any questions? Dr. Andrew Welfle Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research The University of Manchester  andrew.welfle@manchester.ac.uk  +44 (0)161 275 4339 @andrew_welfle Andrew Welfle

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • Case Study 2 - Biorefinery - Energy crops – ionic liquids, fermentation and catalysis processes to produce advanced liquid biofuels

    Case Study 3 - Transport Fuels from Wastes 1 - Municipal solid waste, gasification conversion process, syngas to produce (a) gaseous transport fuels and (b) converted to liquid bio-jet fuels through a Fischer-Tropsch process.

    Case Study 4 - Transport Fuels from Wastes 2 - Municipal solid waste, fast pyrolysis process, pyrolysis oil - blend liquid transport fuels.

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