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The Small Reservoirs Toolkit

  1. SMALL RESERVOIRS TOOLKIT A Senzanje Bioresources Engineering University of KwaZulu-Natal Pietermaritzburg, 3201 RSA
  2. CAUTION – TOOLS & TOOLKITS!  “If the only tool you have is a hammer, then you see all your problems as nails...” Abraham Maslow  “ A solution in search of a problem…”
  3. Outline of Presentation  Background to the SR Toolkit  SR Toolkit main applications  Intervention Planning  Application (1 case) + Linkage with Phase II  Water Quantification & Hydrology  Health & Ecosystems  Exercise (1 case to try out)  Management issues  Feedback/Discussion
  4. SR TOOLKIT INTRODUCTION …1  DEVELOPMENT  From CPWF Phase I Project PN46 – Small Reservoirs Project  PARTICIPATING INSTITUTIONS  IWMI ZEF  IRD WRI  UZ (UKZN) TU-Delft  SEI Embrapa  DGIRH UFV  FUNDING  CPWF GTZ  PUT TOGETHER  M Andreini, T Schuetz & L Harrington
  5. SR TOOLKIT INTRODUCTION …2  SMALL RESERVOIRS & RURAL LIVELIHOODS  SR central to water provision for rural communities  Key feature of rural water supply infrastructure  TYPICAL USEAGE  Truly MUS  Domestic, livestock watering, small-scale irrigation, gardening, small-scale fishing, brick making, wildlife, silt traps for larger dams, etc
  6. SR TOOLKIT INTRODUCTION …3  SMALL RESERVOIRS ISSUES  Planning & development (maybe) not so properly done (cf large dams)  Different players involved, different developmental trajectories  Not considered as systems – thought of in local context  Impact on hydrology not properly researched or documented – based on numbers & density
  7. SR TOOLKIT INTRODUCTION …4  SMALL RESERVOIRS QUESTIONS  Ownership issues?  Roles and responsibilities for O&M and R&M?  Some falling into disrepair & functioning sub-optimally?  Possible conflicts over water use?  Worthiness not quantified?  MUS water productivity unknown?  Ecosystems goods and services?  MORE QUESTIONS  Socio-institutional – technical – economic – environmental - etc
  8. SR TOOLKIT INTRODUCTION …5  MAIN RESEARCH IDEA BEHIND TOOLKIT – Twin objectives  Basin level objective  Promote & support SR planning, development and development  satisfy water related ecosystems services  Local level objective  Support use of SR that are properly located, well designed, well maintained and operated  rural livelihoods improvement
  9. SR TOOLKIT INTRODUCTION …6  SOURCE MATERIALS FOR SR TOOLKIT  Research from the 3 basins  Literature material  Journal articles  PG theses/dissertations  Grey literature  etc  Other research activities – directly & indirectly linked to SRP46
  10. SR TOOLKIT …1  SR TOOLKIT MAIN PURPOSE  Make information more ACCESSIBLE in a USEABLE manner to practitioner  SR Toolkit to complement “other” tools  TARGET USERS  All involved in and with SRs  NGOs  Government agencies  Researchers – NARES, universities, etc  Donor agencies  Multilateral agencies
  11. SR TOOLKIT …2  WHAT IS the SR TOOLKIT?  Frameworks, tools, flowcharts, processes and procedures, literature sources, suggestions/recommendations, …  How to…
  13. SR TOOLKIT …4  SR TOOLKIT – 33+ TOOLS  I – INTERVENTION PLANNING [4]  I01 – I04  II – STORAGE & HYDROLOGY [5] +[8]  IIa01 – IIa05  IIb01 – IIb08  III – ECOSYSTEMS & HEALTH [9] + (2)  III01 – III09  IV – INSTITUTIONS & ECONOMICS [7]  IVa01 – IVa04  IVb01 – IVb03
  15. SR TOOLKIT USEAGE …2014 Approx. 13000 visits/months
  16.  Website SR Toolkit Access   Requirements  Stable internet connection  What is there?  Project proposal  Institutions involved  Publications  Photos  Toolkit  Documentation describing each tool and how to apply it (pdf)  People to contact for follow-up  References for that toolkit  Participants areas
  17. SR Toolkit Applications - PLANNING  SR TOOL I01 – INTERVENTION PLANNING  Use of PIPA in research or intervention planning  bring about DESIRED OUTPUT
  18.  [A] TITLE SR TOOL I01 – PIPA …1  Participatory Impact Pathways Analysis  [B] SCOPE  Tool to describe processes (what, how, etc, …, linkages) to follow to enhance the uptake of research findings by target group  desired OUTPUTS, OUTCOMES & IMPACTS  see example!  [C] TARGET GROUP of the TOOL  Project & program managers and coordinators  Planners  Implementers  Researchers  Stakeholders and beneficiaries
  19. SR TOOL I01 – PIPA …2  [D] TOOL DESCRIPTION & APPLICATION  Description of project impact pathways (IPs) from PROBLEM TREE & NETWORK MAPS perspective  Problem tree  cause – effect Day 1  Network maps  network perspectives (now & in the future) Day 2  Develop Outcome Logic Models (OLMs) and M&E Day3  [E] LESSONS LEARNT  Application of tool for M&E of the SR project meant project became more impact oriented  PIPA components (problem tree, outputs, vision, network maps) helped in planning & reviewing progress s towards research objectives  [F] LIMITATION of the TOOL  Impact pathway methodology still being learnt and yet to be fully understood and applied
  20. SR TOOL I01 APPLIED to L2 - LBDC  RESEARCH PROBLEM  Seek for causes of failure and rehabilitation requirements for small scale water infrastructure (SWI).  Identifying, adapting, implementing, demonstrating, promoting and provide training of various RWH structures on the production areas shall be assessed.  Identify the extent of institutional, policy and governance matters towards the causes of dysfunctionality of SWIs and lack of adoption of RWH technologies in the rural communities of the four Limpopo basin countries.
  21. SR TOOL I01 APPLIED to L2 - LBDC  KEY 1ST OUTPUT OF L2 RESEARCH  Definition and categorisation of small scale water infrastructure  See hand-out  WHY?  To make sure that we are all talking the same language!  DOWNSTREAM USE (IMPACTS)?  Interest of definition from many quarters, e.g., LIMCOM, etc
  22. L2 Opportunities, outputs, actors and location Opportunity Role of research Output Next users End users Politically important actors Location Optimization/r evitalisat ion of existing dysfunctional Infrastructure (WP1) Analysis of reasons for failure and assessment of alternative options Inventory of dysfunctio nal infrastruct ure and reasons for dysfuntion ality Government, NGO, Development agencies, private organizations Farmers, rural communities, Provincial & local government, traditional leaders, SA Limpopo, ZIM Mat south Small scale infrastructure development for multiple uses (WP3) Identificatio n of suitable technologies and range of options for crops, livestock and domestic use Appropriat e technology guidelines and production options. Piloted technologi es Extension workers, Government (SRM, IAE), NGO, Farmers, rural communities Provincial & local government, traditional leaders, Donors SA, ZIM, BOT, MOZ
  23. Opportunities, outputs, actors and location Opportunity Role of research Output Next users End users Politically important actors Location Small reservoirs and insitu water harvesting (WP4) Develop appropriate and usable systems and options Appropriate technology and use guidelines Government , NGO, Donors, Private sector, Universities Farmers, rural communities Provincial & local government, traditional leaders SA, ZIM, BOT, MOZ Better use of grey water and harvested water for multiple use (WP4) Develop appropriate technology for gray water use, quality management and ecosystem integrity Guidelines for grey water use Government , Municipaliti es, NGO, Donors, Private sector, Universities Peri-urban and urban farmers, aquaculturalist, municipalities, Municipality BOT, SA, ZIM, MOZ Irrigation scheme (ALL)
  24. Change in Knowledge, Attitude and/or Skills Change in Practice / Behaviour Impacts Project outputs Farmers and rural communities Empowerment and ability to use technical briefs, knowledge pamphlets, demonstrations and other other awareness raising activities for rehabilitation, design and implementation Sustainably implement, rehabilitate and manage improved small-scale SWIs and appropiate RWH technologies Improved rainwater productivity L2 OUTCOME LOGIC MODEL OUTCOMES Provincial and Municipal governments, Traditional leaders and NGOs Do alternative design of SWIs that will foster MUS and appropriate RWH technologies and new investments in the Limpopo basin More understanding of and skills to use various design and operations options of SWIs Positive mindset on the value of multiplier effects of MUS Empowered / capacitated researchers, students, farners Policy makers and investors Pamphlets for investment options. More knowledge of various design options of SWI for MUS Policies incorporated into development plans & implementation support Clear inventory in GIS database of dysfunctional SWI, distribution and reasons for dysfunctionality/failure and rehabilitation guidelines Design manuals for SWI and improved rainwater management technologies Economical ly sustainable MUS SWI design and management Improved yields and income for household food security / l ivel ihoods
  25. L2 RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS  See Technical Brief Hand-out:  “LBDC (L2) Research Project’s Impact on Changes in Stakeholders’ KAP”.
  26. SR Toolkit Applications – PLANNING  SR TOOL I02 – STAKEHOLDER & CONFLICT ANALYSIS  Tool helps to analyse stakeholders’ aims, goals & interests in a developmental project
  27. SR Toolkit Applications – PLANNING  SR TOOL I03 – CREATING COMMON GROUND FOR DIALOGUE  Drawing tool to foster better communications and bring about improved mutual understanding of issues by stakeholders
  28. SR Toolkit Applications – PLANNING  SR TOOL I04 – OUTCOMES MAPPING – MONITORING CHANGE & OUTCOME  Tool to help planners monitor the implementation, adoption and changes in stakeholders’ attitudes, and behaviour, i.e., tracking behavioural changes in development programmes…
  29. SR Toolkit Applications – STORAGE & HYDROLOGY  SR TOOL IIa01 – RESERVOIR INVENTORY MAPPING  Tool on use of satellite imagery to inventorise SR in a basin or catchment – number, size and distribution.
  30. SR Toolkit Applications – STORAGE & HYDROLOGY  SR TOOL IIa02 – ATLAS OF LAKES AND RESERVOIRS IN BURKINA FASO  Tool for getting an inventory of reservoirs in an area using secondary data (by generating metadata from official sources/reports).
  31. SR Toolkit Applications – STORAGE & HYDROLOGY  SR TOOL IIa03 – SMALL RESERVOIR CAPACITY ESTIMATION  Tool for using remotely sensed surface areas (A) to estimate SR water volumes (V) through developed V = f(A) relationships.
  32. SR Toolkit Applications – STORAGE & HYDROLOGY  SR TOOL IIa04 – NEAR-REAL-TIME MONITORING OF SR WITH REMOTE SENSING  Tool on use of radar satellite imagery (not affected by clouds) to monitor SR volumes fortnightly or monthly in a basin or catchment in near-real-time. Important during droughts (or even floods).
  33. SR Toolkit Applications – STORAGE & HYDROLOGY  SR TOOL IIa05 – ASSESSING HYDROLOGICAL IMPACTS OF SR ENSEMBLES  Tool (analytical framework) for use in assessing the hydrological impacts of SR groups in an area. Impacts include evaporative losses, spillage, irrigation water use, and drainage water.
  34. SR Toolkit Applications – STORAGE & HYDROLOGY  SR TOOL IIb01 – CALIBRATION OF RUNOFF MODELS WITH REMOTELY SENSED SRs  Tool for a method to develop simple hydrological models for dammed upland watersheds based on monitoring reservoir surface areas with radar remote sensing.
  35. SR Toolkit Applications – STORAGE & HYDROLOGY  SR TOOL IIb02 – RAINFALL-DISCHARGE RELATIONSHIPS FOR MOONSONAL CLIMATES  Tool to develop simple water balance models to predict river discharges in arid climates of Africa where you get a distinct dry season and drying of soil layers.
  36. SR Toolkit Applications – STORAGE & HYDROLOGY  SR TOOL IIb03 – ASSESSING DEEP SEEPAGE IN SRs  Tool provides a method for assessing deep seepage (drainage) under SRs.
  37. SR Toolkit Applications – STORAGE & HYDROLOGY  SR TOOL IIb04 – ESTIMATING EVAPORATION LOSSES FROM SRs  Tool for estimating open surface evaporation losses from SRs (evaporation losses are considered unproductive water loss).
  38. SR Toolkit Applications – STORAGE & HYDROLOGY  SR TOOL IIb05 –WATER QUANTITY ASSESSMENT OF SILTED-UP SRs  Tool to estimate amount of water stored in silted-up SRs in the Limpopo basin.
  39. SR Toolkit Applications – STORAGE & HYDROLOGY  SR TOOL IIb06 – RADIONUCLIDE TRACER METHOD TO ESTIMATE EROSION & SEDIMENTATION AT HILLSLOPE AND SRs SCALE  Tool for using measurements of 137Cs concentration in soil samples collected from the watershed to estimate soil erosion losses from fields and that deposited in SRs.
  40. SR Toolkit Applications – STORAGE & HYDROLOGY  SR TOOL IIb07 – MODELLING SOIL EROSION AT SR SCALE USING WaTEM/SEDEM  tool uses soil erosion models to simulate soil erosion and sedimentation rates at the catchment scale and to produce soil erosion hazard maps.
  41. SR Toolkit Applications – STORAGE & HYDROLOGY  SR TOOL IIb08 – IDENTIFYING SEDIMENTATION BULGES & SRs SILTATION RATES USING BATHYMETRIC MEASUREMENTS & CORING OF LAKE SEDIMENTS  Tool presents approaches/methods using bathymetric surveys and lake sediment retrievals to monitor changes in reservoir morphology, to measure the thickness of accumulated soil particles, and to calculate siltation rates.
  42. SR Toolkit Applications – ECOSYSTEM & HEALTH  SR TOOL III01 – PARTICIPATORY HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT (PHIA)  Tool provides step-wise guidelines intended to reduce the health risks and increase the health benefits from SRs. Focus is on major water-related diseases associated with SRs in Africa, plus:  Added value of community participation in health assessment  Opportunities to mitigate health risks & improve health through better planning & operation of SRs
  43. SR Toolkit Applications – ECOSYSTYEM & HEALTH  SR TOOL III02 – HEALTH QUESTIONAIRRE FOR SCHOOL SURVEYS FOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH  Tool describes the use of school surveys, an important tool that supports both participatory and biomedical research
  44. SR Toolkit Applications – ECOSYSTEM & HEALTH  SR TOOL III03 – EPIDEMIOLGICAL SURVEYS FOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH  Tool uses standard biomedical methodologies to determine infection rates for key water-related (or “reservoir-related”) diseases including schistosomiasis and other intestinal parasites, and malaria
  45. SR Toolkit Applications – ECOSYSTEM & HEALTH  SR TOOL III04 – VECTOR STUDIES TOOL  Tool describes the use of selected methods to help stakeholders understand the ecological preferences of vector organisms in relation to small reservoirs.
  46. SR Toolkit Applications – ECOSYSTEM & HEALTH  SR TOOL III05 –WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT TOOL  Tool describes selected methods for assessing the suitability of reservoir water quality. It covers:  Biological (parasites, cysts, coliforms, etc)  Chemical (EC, chemical)
  47. SR Toolkit Applications – ECOSYSTEM & HEALTH  SR TOOL III06 – BLUE GREEN ALGAE ASSESSMENT TOOL IN SRs  Tool aims to contribute to a better understanding of blue green algae (cyanobacteria, cyanotoxins, photosynthetic prokaryotes) in SRs in less developed countries in tropical basins
  48. SR Toolkit Applications – ECOSYSTEMS & HEALTH  SR TOOL III07 – AGRICULTURAL INTENSIFICATION AND ECOLOGICAL THREATS TO SRs  Tool demonstrates how to begin the process of analysing the impact of mans activities on the reservoirs.
  49. SR Toolkit Applications – ECOSYSTEMS & HEALTH  SR TOOL III08 –WATER QUALITY MONITORING IN SRs USING PLANKTON ABUNDANCE & DIVERSITY  Tool uses plankton (zooplankton and phytoplankton) abundance and diversity to measure water quality. Changes in abundance and diversity of these organisms represent direct and profound responses to pollution entering reservoirs.
  50. SR Toolkit Applications – ECOSYSTEMS & HEALTH  SR TOOL III09 – PARTICIPATORY DEFINITION OF INDICATORS FOR HEALTH & THE ENVIRONMENT  Tool uses mutually agreed indicators to facilitate communication among key stakeholders to assist in better planning & management of SRs. Indicators from various sources can be tailored to suit local conditions. Example indicators:  Water resources  Water use  Water quality  Status of natural resources  Agricultural production
  51. SR TOOL III09 TRIAL EXERCISE…1  [A] TITLE  Impacts of reservoirs: Participatory definition of indicators for health & environment  [B] SCOPE  Need to develop mutually agreed indicators for health & the environment using local expertise, experiences, knowledge to facilitate communication among concerned key stakeholders  [C] TARGET GROUP  Health professionals, researchers, planners, designers, builders, managers, and users of SRs  Tool requires disciplinary expertise
  52. SR TOOL III09 TRIAL EXERCISE…2  [D] TOOL DESCRIPTION & APPLICATION  Understand definition of ‘impact’ = change due to SRs  Identify levels of IMPACT based on thematic groups & effects  Water  resource, mobilisation, management issue  Health  disease, risk, hygiene  Environment  soil, fauna, flora, water properties  Agric production system  crops, irrigation, livestock, fisheries, etc  Socio-economics  income, immigration, gender, infrastructure, labour, etc  Select robust indicators of impact based on how well they meet relevant criteria  Feasibility Reliability Reproducibility  Frequency Quality Coverage  Appropriateness Multi-disciplinarity  (See Table 2)
  53. SR TOOL III09 TRIAL EXERCISE…3  [D] TOOL DESCRIPTION & APPLICATION …(cont.)  Develop impact indicators  These should indicate state of the system before &/or after the impacts of any change are realised  Can be qualitative or quantitative – represent reality  Finally select key indicators Theme Impact Key impact indicator Water Water resources Volume imponded Water quality Microbial analysis Water use Water consumed
  54. SR TOOL III09 TRIAL EXERCISE…4  [D] TOOL DESCRIPTION & APPLICATION …(cont.)  Expert indicators  [E] LESSONS LEARNT  Indicators derived are site-specific, practical and more relevant  [F] LIMITATIONS of the TOOL  Indicator list is never complete  With time circumstances change, so …
  55. SR TOOL III09 TRIAL EXERCISE…5  EXERCISE  Identify key applicable indicators for Case Study II given to you  NOTE  Developed indicators need not be total or complete but for you to get a feel of going through the full use of the tool.
  56. SR Toolkit Applications – INSTITUTIONS & ECONOMICS  SR TOOL IVa01 – WEAP MODEL INCLUDING PARAMETER ESTIMATION (PEST)  Modelling tool (WEAP) for water planning and allocation applicable at multiple scales, from community to catchment to basin. WEAP Model:  Uses scenarios to evaluate different water allocation possibilities  Can be linked to groundwater model (MODFLOW)  Can be linked to water quality model (QUAL2K)  Can be linked to socio-economic models for rural livelihoods assessments based on water allocation
  57. SR Toolkit Applications – INSTITUTIONS & ECONOMICS  SR TOOL IVa02 – FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING MODEL  Tool is to convert the outputs of a water planning model (like WEAP) into variables useful for decision-making by planners and farmers. The tool is designed for the following purposes:  to estimate the initial and recurring farm-level costs of water-related infrastructure,  including capital investment and amortization,  and operational expenses  and to estimate the price and income consequences for farmers of increased production (higher yields, increased planted area) of particular crops
  58. SR Toolkit Applications – INSTITUTIONS & ECONOMICS  SR TOOL IVa03 –WATER-LIMITED YIELD MODEL  Tool estimating the effect on yields of climate and weather (deviations from average rainfall patterns such as drought; climate change) and to estimate the effect on yields and water consumption of improved irrigation practices.  It models crop yields under water-limited conditions and irrigation efficiency for different irrigation techniques.
  59. SR Toolkit Applications – INSTITUTIONS & ECONOMICS  SR TOOL IVa04 – SRs WATER ALLOCATION STRATEGIES BASED ON WATER PRODUCTIVITY  Tool uses estimates of water productivity and social values to inform decisions on the allocation of scarce water resources.  The tool shows how estimates of water productivity can help in the evaluation of the socio-economic contributions of small multiple-use reservoirs
  60. SR Toolkit Applications – INSTITUTIONS & GOVERNANCE  SR TOOL IVb01 – INSTITUTIONS & GOVERNANCE OF SRs WATER RESOURCES  Tool describes the methods used to answer a specific question: “Which indigenous practices, legal frameworks and institutions are most conducive to equitable, win-win, and pro-poor investments within sub-Saharan African transboundary basins”?  It describes case studies on transboundary issues and local water governance institutions from the Volta & Limpopo Basins
  61. SR Toolkit Applications – INSTITUTIONS & GOVERNANCE  SR TOOL IVb02 – INFLUENCE NETWORK MAPPING (NET MAP)  Net-Map is an interview-based mapping tool that helps stakeholders understand, visualize, discuss, monitor, evaluate and improve situations in which many different actors influence outcomes.  Toolkit includes a theoretical framework and two case studies one on organizational learning in multi-stakeholder water governance, and the other one on Research on Fisheries Management in Small Multipurpose Reservoirs
  62. SR Toolkit Applications – INSTITUTIONS & GOVERNANCE  SR TOOL IVb03 – SOCIAL CAPITAL  Tool describes a method to assess and analyse social networks within a community to determine how cooperation in that community influences “who participates, and how” in the development of a collective good such as a small reservoir
  63.  RESULT CONCLUSIONS  Genuine effort at providing useable tools  SR Toolkit being used (?) or being visited  FUTURE  Can be improved (by who & when?)  Will continue to be a good reference point
  64.  KNOWLEDGE PRODUCTS & INFOGRAPHICS  Info briefs  Technical briefs  Policy briefs  Reports & guidelines  TARGET AUDIENCE  All levels PHASE II