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Core Concepts of Marketing
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Core Concepts of Marketing
Need: It is state of felt deprivation of some basic satisfaction. eg.- food, clothing, safety, shelter.
Want: The form human needs take as shaped by culture and individual personality.
Ex:- Food is a need –but paneer tikka/ tandoori chicken are wants.
Demand: Human wants that are backed by buying power. Or Want for a specific product backed up
by ability and willingness to buy. eg.- Need – transportation. Want – Car, but able to buy only
Maruti. Therefore, demand is for Maruti. Marketers cannot create needs. Needs preexists. Marketers
can influence wants. This is done in combination with societal influencers.
Types of Demand
 Negative demand – Major market dislikes product, hence try to avoid. eg.- injections.
 No Demand – Constant unaware and uninterested in product. eg.- segway.
 Latent Demand – Need exists, not fulfilled by current products. eg.- ATM, mobile.
 Declining demand – Demand decreases over period of time. eg.- pagers, scooters.
 Irregular Demand – Seasonally. eg.- fans, raincoat.
 Full Demand – Good volume of business. eg.- tooth paste, most of FMCG items.
 Overfull Demand – Demand greater than ability to handle. eg.- VSNL sim card.
 Unwholesome Demand – Unwholesome product. eg.- cigarettes, narcotic drugs.
Products : Product is anything that can satisfy need/ want.
Value- Products capacity to satisfy.
Cost- Price of each products.
Exchange: – The act/ process of obtaining a desired product from someone by offering something in
return. For exchange potential to exist, the following conditions must be fulfilled.
1. There must be at least two parties.
2. Each party has something of value for other party.
3. Each party is capable of communication & delivery
4. Each party is free to accept/ reject the exchange offer.
5. Each party believes it is appropriate to deal with the other party.
Transaction: – Event that happens at the end of an exchange. Exchange is a process towards an
agreement. When agreement is reached, we say a transaction has taken place. Proof of transaction is
BILL/ INVOICE.
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a) Barter transaction.
b) Monetary Transaction.
1. At least two things of value. 4. Condition agreed upon.
2. Time of agreement. 5. Place of agreement.
3. May have legal system for compliance.
Transfer: – It is one way. Hence, differ from Transaction.
Negotiation: – Process of trying to arrive at mutually agreeable terms. Negotiation may lead to
Transaction or Decision not to Transaction
Relationship marketing:- It‘s a pattern of building long term satisfying relationship with customers,
suppliers, distributors in order to retain their long term performances and business, achieved through
promise and delivery of high quality, good service, fair pricing, over a period of time. Outcome of
Relationship Marketing is a marketing network.
Marketing network: It is made up of the company and its customers, employees, suppliers,
distributors, advertisement agencies, retailers, research & development with whom it has built
mutually profitable business relationship.
Market: A market is a situation where potential buyer and potential seller exist.
Marketers/ prospects: Prospect is someone whom marketer identifies as potentially willing and able
to engage in exchange.
Definition of Marketing
The process by which companies create value for customers and build strong customer relationships
in order to capture value from customers in return.
According to American Marketing Association(AMA), "Marketing is an organizational function
and a set of processes for creating, communicating and delivering value to customers and for
managing customer relationships in ways that benefit the organization and its stakeholders."
Definition of Management :
According to Harold Koontz, "Management is the art of getting things done through and with
people in formally organized groups." Management consists of the interlocking functions of creating
corporate policy and organizing, planning, controlling, directing an organization‘s resources in order
to achieve the objectives of the policy.
Definition of Marketing Management
According to Philip Kotler, "Marketing Management is the analysis, planning, implementation
and control of programmes designed to bring about desired exchanges with target audiences for the
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purpose of personal and of mutual gain. It relies heavily on the adoption and coordination of product,
price, promotion and place for achieving responses.".
Nature of Marketing Management
Marketing management combines the fields of marketing and management. Marketing consists of
discovering consumer needs and wants, creating the goods and services that meet those needs and
wants; and pricing, promoting, and delivering those goods and services. Doing so requires attention
to six major areas - markets, products, prices, places, promotion, and people.
Marketing Management is Both Science and Art : ―Marketing management is art and science of
choosing target markets and getting, keeping and growing customers through creating, delivering and
communicating superior customer value.‖ Marketing management is a science because it follows
general principles that guides the marketing managers in decision making. The Art of Marketing
management consists in tackling every situation in an creative and effective manner. Thus it is a
science as well as an art.
The Marketing Process
FIGURE 1.1 A simple model of the marketing process
Figure 1.1 presents a simple five-step model of the marketing process. In the first four steps,
companies work to understand consumers, create customer value, and build strong customer
relationships. In the final step, companies reap the rewards of creating superior customer value. By
creating value for consumers, they in turn capture value from consumers in the form of sales, profits,
and long-term customer equity.
Step 1: Understanding the Marketplace and Customer Needs
As a first step, marketers need to understand customer needs and wants and the marketplace within
which they operate. We now examine five core customer and marketplace concepts: (1) needs,
wants, and demands; (2) marketing offerings (products, services, and experiences); (3) value and
satisfaction; (4) exchanges and relationships; and (5) markets.
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Customer Needs, Wants, and Demands ( Note: need, want, demand, market meanings see above)
Market Offering is some combination of products, services, information, or experiences offered to a
market to satisfy a need or want.
Marketing Myopia is the mistake of paying more attention to the specific products they offer than
to the benefits and experiences produced by these products.
Elements of a modern marketing system: Final users, Marketing intermediaries,
Competitors, Company (marketer), Suppliers.
Marketing involves serving a market of final consumers in the face of competitors. The company and
the competitors send their respective offers and messages to consumers, either directly or through
marketing intermediaries. All of the actors in the system are affected by major environmental forces
(demographic, economic, physical, technological, political/legal, and social/cultural). Each party in
the system adds value for the next level.
Step 2 : Designing a Customer-Driven Marketing Strategy :Once it fully understands
consumers and the marketplace, marketing management can design a customer-driven marketing
strategy. The marketing manager‘s aim is to find, attract, keep, and grow target customers by
creating, delivering, and communicating superior customer value. Marketing management wants to
design strategies that will build profitable relationships with target consumers. There are five
alternative concepts under which organizations design and carry out their marketing strategies: the
production, product, selling, marketing, and societal marketing concepts.
The Production Concept : The production concept holds that consumers will favor products
that are available and highly affordable. Therefore, management should focus on improving
production and distribution efficiency. This concept is one of the oldest orientations that guides
sellers. For example, computer maker Lenovo dominates the highly competitive, price-sensitive
Chinese PC market through low labor costs, high production efficiency, and mass distribution.
However, although useful in some situations, the production concept can lead to marketing myopia.
Companies adopting this orientation run a major risk of focusing too narrowly on their own
operations and losing sight of the real objective—satisfying customer needs and building customer
relationships.
The Product Concept : The product concept holds that consumers will favor products that
offer the most in quality, performance, and innovative features. Under this concept, marketing
strategy focuses on making continuous product improvements. Product quality and improvement are
important parts of most marketing strategies. However, focusing only on the company‘s products can
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also lead to marketing myopia. For example, some manufacturers believe that if they can ―build a
better mousetrap, the world will beat a path to their door.‖ But they are often rudely shocked. Buyers
may well be looking for a better solution to a mouse problem but not necessarily for a better
mousetrap. The better solution might be a chemical spray, an exterminating service, or something
that works better than a mousetrap. Furthermore, a better mousetrap will not sell unless the
manufacturer designs, packages, & prices it attractively; places it in convenient distribution channels;
brings it to the attention of people who need it, & convinces buyers that it is a better product.
The Selling Concept :Many companies follow the selling concept, which holds that consumers
will not buy enough of the firm‘s products unless it undertakes a large-scale selling & promotion
effort. The concept is typically practiced with unsought goods—those that buyers do not normally
think of buying, such as insurance or blood donations. Such aggressive selling, however, carries
high risks. It focuses on creating sales transactions rather than on building long-term, profitable
customer relationships.
The Marketing Concept :The marketing concept holds that achieving organizational goals
depends on knowing the needs & wants of target markets & delivering the desired satisfactions better
than competitors do. Under the marketing concept, customer focus & value are the paths to sales and
profits. Instead of a product-centered ―make and sell‖ philosophy, the marketing concept is a
customer-centered ―sense & respond‖ philosophy. The job is not to find the right customers for
your product, but to find the right products for your customers.
Difference between selling concept and Marketing concept
Selling concept Marketing concept
It is inside-out perspective It is outside-in perspective
It starts with the factory, focuses on the
company‘s existing
products, and calls for heavy selling and
promotion to obtain profitable sales
The marketing concept starts with a well-defined
market,
focuses on customer needs, and integrates all the
marketing activities that affect customers
It yield to getting short-term sales with
little concern about who buys
or why.
it yields profits by creating lasting relationships
with the right customers based on customer
value and satisfaction
In many cases, however, customers don‘t know what they want or even what is possible. For
example, even 20 years ago, how many consumers would have thought to ask for now common place
products such as cell phones, notebook computers, iPods, digital cameras, 24-hour online buying,
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and satellite navigation systems in their cars? Such situations call for customer-driving marketing
understanding customer needs even better than customers themselves do and creating products and
services that meet existing and latent needs, now and in the future. Ex:- ―Our goal is to lead
customers where they want to go before they know where they want to go.‖
The Societal Marketing Concept : A principle of enlightened marketing that holds that a
company should make good marketing decisions by considering consumers’ wants, the
company’s requirements, consumers’ long-run interests, and society’s long-run interests.
The societal marketing concept holds that marketing strategy should deliver value to customers in a
way that maintains or improves both the consumer‘s and the society‘s well-being.
Consider the fast-food industry. You may view today‘s giant fast-food chains as offering tasty and
convenient food at reasonable prices. These are promoting monster meals such burger, beef, four
strips of bacon, cheese, & buttered bun, delivering 1,420 calories and 102 grams of fat. McDonald‘s
and Burger King still cook their fried foods in oils that are high in artery-clogging trans fats. Such
unhealthy fare, is leading consumers to eat too much of the wrong foods, contributing to a
national obesity epidemic.
What‘s more, the products are wrapped in convenient packaging, but this leads to waste and
pollution. Thus, in satisfying short-term consumer wants, the highly successful fast-food chains may
be harming consumer health and causing environmental problems in the long run. Companies should
balance three considerations in setting their marketing strategies: company profits, consumer wants,
and society‘s interests.
Step 3: Preparing an Integrated Marketing Plan and Program
The company‘s marketing strategy outlines which customers the company will serve and how it will
create value for these customers. Next, the marketer develops an integrated marketing program that
will actually deliver the intended value to target customers. The marketing program builds customer
relationships by transforming the marketing strategy into action. It consists of the firm‘s marketing
mix,(4 P‘s) the set of marketing tools the firm uses to implement its marketing strategy.
Step4: Building Customer Relationships
The first three steps in the marketing process—understanding the marketplace and customer needs,
designing a customer-driven marketing strategy, and constructing marketing programs—all lead up
to the fourth and most important step: building profitable customer relationships.
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Customer Relationship Management: CRM is a customer data management activity. Which
involves managing detailed information about individual customers and carefully managing
customer in order to maximize customer loyalty. OR
Customer relationship management is the overall process of building and maintaining
profitable customer relationships by delivering superior customer value and satisfaction. It deals with
all aspects of acquiring, keeping, and growing customers. Satisfied customers are more likely to be
loyal customers and to give the company a larger share of their business.
CUSTOMER VALUE: The customer‘s evaluation of the difference between all the benefits and all
the costs of a market offering relative to those of competing offers.
CUSTOMER SATISFACTION : Customer satisfaction depends on the product‘s perceived
performance relative to a buyer‘s expectations. If the product‘s performance falls short of
expectations, the customer is dissatisfied. If performance matches expectations, the customer is
satisfied. If performance exceeds expectations, the customer is highly satisfied or delighted. Higher
levels of customer satisfaction lead to greater customer loyalty, which in turn results in better
Company performance.
Step 5: Capturing Value from Customers
The first four steps in the marketing process involve building customer relationships by creating and
delivering superior customer value. The final step involves capturing value in return, in the form of
current and future sales, market share, and profits. By creating superior customer value, the firm
creates highly satisfied customers who stay loyal and buy more. This, in turn, means greater long-run
returns for the firm.
Creating Customer Loyalty and Retention : Good customer relationship management creates
customer delight. In turn, delighted customers remain loyal and talk favorably to others about the
company and its products.
Building Customer Equity: Customer equity is the combined discounted customer lifetime values
of all of the company‘s current and potential customers. The more loyal customers, the higher the
firm‘s customer equity.
Chapter 2:
Company-Wide Strategic Planning:
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strategic planning—the process of developing and maintaining a strategic fit between the
organization‘s goals and capabilities and its changing marketing opportunities. Companies usually
prepare annual plans, long-range plans, and strategic plans. The annual and long-range plans deal
with the company‘s current businesses and how to keep them going. Company starts the strategic
planning process by defining its overall purpose and mission Planning marketing
Steps in Strategic Planning
1. Defining a Market-Oriented Mission : An organization exists to accomplish something, and this
purpose should be clearly stated. Mission begins with the following questions: What is our business?
Who is the customer? What do consumers value? What should our business be?
A mission statement is a statement of the organization‘s purpose—what it wants to accomplish in
the larger environment. A clear mission statement acts as an ―invisible hand‖ that guides people in
the organization. Mission statements should be meaningful and specific yet motivating. They should
emphasize the company‘s strengths in the marketplace. Ex: -The, McDonald‘s mission is not ―to be
the world‘s best and most profitable quick-service restaurant‖; but it‘s “to be our customers’
favorite place and way to eat.”
Designing the Business Portfolio
Business portfolio is the collection of businesses & products that make up the company. The best
business portfolio is the one that best fits the company‘s strengths& weaknesses to opportunities in
the environment. Business portfolio planning involves 2 steps. 1. The company must analyze its
current business portfolio & determine which businesses should receive more, less, or no investment.
2. it must shape the future portfolio by developing strategies for growth and downsizing.
Analyzing the Current Business Portfolio
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The major activity in strategic planning is
business portfolio analysis, whereby
management evaluates the products and
businesses that make up the company.
Management‘s first step is to identify the
key businesses that make up the company,
called strategic business units (SBUs). An
SBU can be a company division, a
product line within a division, or
sometimes a single product or brand.
The purpose of strategic planning is to find ways in which the company can best use its strengths to
take advantage of attractive opportunities in the environment. The best-known portfolio-planning
method was developed by the Boston Consulting Group, a leading management consulting firm.
Using BCG approach, a company classifies all its SBUs according to the growth-share matrix. On
the vertical axis, market growth rate provides a measure of market attractiveness. On the horizontal
axis, relative market share serves as a measure of company strength in the market. The growth-share
matrix defines four types of SBUs:
1. Stars. Stars are high-growth, high-share businesses or products. They often need heavy
investments to finance their rapid growth. Eventually their growth will slow down, and they will turn
into cash cows.
2. Cash Cows. Cash cows are low-growth, high-share businesses or products. These are established
and successful SBUs, and need less investment to hold their market share. Thus, they produce a lot
of the cash that the company uses to pay its bills and support other SBUs that need investment.
Incomes from cash cows will help finance the company‘s question marks, stars, and dogs.
3. Question Marks. Question marks are low-share business units in high-growth markets. They
require a lot of cash to hold their share. If they are successful they become ―star‖ or they will be
―Dogs‖.
4. Dogs. Dogs are low-growth, low-share businesses and products. They may generate enough cash
to maintain themselves but do not promise to be large sources of cash.
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The 10 circles in the growth-share matrix represent the company‘s 10 current SBUs. The company
has two stars, two cash cows, three question marks, and three dogs. The areas of the circles are
proportional to the SBU‘s dollar sales.
As time passes, SBUs change their positions in the growth-share matrix. Many SBUs start out as
question marks and move into the star category if they succeed. They later become cash cows as
market growth falls and then finally die off or turn into dogs toward the end of their life cycle.
Developing Strategies for Growth and Downsizing
Companies need growth if they are to compete more effectively, satisfy their stakeholders, and
attract top talent. The company‘s objective must be to manage ―profitable growth.‖ One of the useful
devices for identifying growth opportunities is the product/market expansion grid,.
Figure : The Product/ Market expansion Grid
The company can achieve deeper market penetration—making more sales without changing its
original product. It can spur growth through marketing mix improvements—adjustments to its
product design, advertising, pricing, and distribution efforts.
For example, Armour provides styles and colors in its original apparel lines. It recently added direct-
to-consumer distribution channels, Web site, and toll-free call center.
Market development is identifying and developing new markets for its current products.
Ex: Armour, recently stepped up its emphasis on women consumers and predicts that its women‘s
apparel business will someday be larger than its men‘s apparel business.
Product development is offering modified or new products to current markets. Ex:- Modified ―Fair
& Lovely‖ ie New ―Fair & Lovely‖ with extra fairness
Diversification is starting up or buying businesses beyond its current products and markets. Ex:-
‗Fair & Handsome‖ Men‘s Fairness Cream.
Companies must not only develop strategies for growing their business portfolios but also strategies
for downsizing them. There are many reasons that a firm to downsize their businesses it may be
because of lack in experience or a firm enters too many international markets without the proper
research or when a company introduces new products that do not offer superior customer value.
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Finally, some products or business units simply age and die. When a firm finds brands or businesses
that are unprofitable or that no longer fit its overall strategy, it must carefully prune, harvest, or
divest them.
Value chain.
Each department carries out value-creating activities to design, produce, market, deliver, and support
the firm‘s products. The firm‘s success depends not only on how well each department performs its
work but also on how well the various departments coordinate their activities.
Value chain is the process or activities by which a company adds value to an article, including
production, marketing, and the provision of after-sales service
Ex:-Walmart‘s goal is to create customer value & satisfaction by providing shoppers with the
products they want at the lowest possible prices. They prepare advertising & merchandising
programs & assist shoppers with customer service. The marketing department needs help from the
other departments. Walmart‘s ability to offer the right products at low prices depends on the
purchasing department‘s skill in developing the needed suppliers & buying from them at low cost.
Walmart‘s information technology department must provide fast & accurate information about which
products are selling in each store.
A company‘s value chain is only as strong as its weakest link. Success depends on how well each
department performs its work of adding customer value and on how the company coordinates the
activities of various departments. At Walmart, if purchasing can‘t obtain the lowest prices from
suppliers, or if operations can‘t distribute merchandise at the lowest costs, then marketing can‘t
deliver on its promise of unbeatable low prices.
Marketing Strategy and the Marketing Mix
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The strategic plan defines the company‘s overall mission and objectives. Marketing‘s role is shown
in figure , which summarizes the major activities involved in managing a customer-driven marketing
strategy and the marketing mix.
Consumers are in the center. The goal is to create value for customers and build profitable customer
relationships. Marketing strategy—the marketing logic by which the company hopes to create
this customer value and achieve these profitable relationships.
The company decides which customers it will serve (segmentation and targeting) and how
(differentiation and positioning). It identifies the total market and then divides it into smaller
segments, selects the most promising segments, and focuses on serving and satisfying the customers
in these segments.
Guided by marketing strategy, the company designs an integrated marketing mix made up of factors
under its control—product, price, place, and promotion (the four Ps). To find the best marketing
strategy and mix, the company engages in marketing analysis, planning, implementation, and
control.
Customer-Driven Marketing Strategy
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To succeed in today‘s competitive marketplace, companies must be customer centered. They must
win customers from competitors and then keep and grow them by delivering greater value. But
before it can satisfy customers, a company must first understand customer needs and wants. Thus,
sound marketing requires careful customer analysis.
Market Segmentation
There are too many different kinds of consumers with too many different kinds of needs. Thus, each
company must divide up the total market, choose the best segments, and design strategies for that
segments. Consumers can be grouped and served in various ways based on geographic, demographic,
psychographic, and behavioral factors. The process of dividing a market into distinct groups of
buyers who have different needs, characteristics, or behaviors, and who might require separate
products or marketing programs is called market segmentation.
A market segment consists of consumers who respond in a similar way to a given set of
marketing efforts. In the car market, for example, consumers who want the biggest, most
comfortable car regardless of price make up one market segment.
Market Targeting
After a company has defined its market segments, it can enter one or many of these segments.
Market targeting involves evaluating each market segment’s attractiveness and selecting one
or more segments to enter.
A company with limited resources might decide to serve only one or a few special segments. Ex:
Ferrari sells only 1,500 of its high-performance cars in the US each year but at very high prices—
from an eye-opening $229,500 for its Ferrari F430 F1 sports car.
Market Differentiation and Positioning
After a company has decided which market segments to enter, it must decide how it will differentiate
its market offering for each targeted segment and what positions it wants to occupy in those
segments. Marketers want to develop unique market positions for their products.
Positioning is arranging for a product to occupy a clear, distinctive, and desirable place
relative to competing products in the minds of target consumers. Marketers plan to distinguish
their products from competitors and give them the greatest advantage in their target markets. The
effective positioning begins with differentiation. Differentiation is differentiating the company’s
market offering so that it gives consumers more value.
Developing an Integrated Marketing Mix
After determining its overall marketing strategy, the company is ready to begin planning the details
of the marketing mix. The marketing mix is the set of tactical marketing tools that the firm
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blends to produce the response it wants in the target market. The marketing mix consists of four
Ps, Product, Price, Place & Promotion.
Product means the goods-and-services combination the company offers to the target market.
Price is the amount of money customers must pay to obtain the product.
Place includes company activities that make the product available to target consumers.
Promotion means activities that communicate the merits of the product & persuade target
customers to buy it.
An effective marketing program blends each marketing mix element into an integrated marketing
program designed to achieve the company‘s marketing objectives by delivering value to consumers.
The marketing mix constitutes the company‘s tactical tool kit for establishing strong positioning in
target markets. The service is also considered as service products. The Four P‘s are described as the
four C‘s
4P’s 4 C’s
Product Customer solution
Price Customer Cost
Place Convenience
Promotion Communication
Managing the Marketing Effort
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Managing the marketing process requires the four marketing management functions analysis,
planning, implementation, and control. The company first develops company-wide strategic plans
and then translates them into marketing and other plans for each division, product, and brand.
Through implementation, the company turns the plans into actions. Control consists of measuring
and evaluating the results of marketing activities and taking corrective action where needed. Finally,
marketing analysis provides information & evaluations needed for all the other marketing activities.
Marketing Analysis
Marketing analysis will be done by SWOT analysis by which it evaluates the company‘s overall
strengths (S), weaknesses (W), opportunities (O), and threats (T)
 Strengths include internal capabilities, resources, and positive situational factors that may help
the company serve its customers and achieve its objectives.
 Weaknesses include internal limitations and negative situational factors that may interfere with
the company‘s performance.
 Opportunities are favorable factors or trends in the external environment that the company may
be able to exploit to its advantage.
 Threats are unfavorable external factors or trends that may present challenges to performance.
The goal is to match the company‘s strengths to attractive opportunities in the environment, while
eliminating or overcoming the weaknesses and minimizing the threats.
Marketing Planning
Through strategic planning, the company decides what it wants to do with each business unit. A
detailed marketing plan is needed for each business, product, or brand. The plan begins with an
executive summary that quickly reviews major assessments, goals, and recommendations. The main
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section of the plan presents a detailed SWOT analysis. A marketing strategy consists of specific
strategies for target markets, positioning, the marketing mix, and marketing expenditure levels.
Marketing planning addresses the what and why of marketing activities.
Marketing Implementation
Planning good strategies is only a start toward successful marketing. Marketing implementation is
the process that turns marketing plans into marketing actions to accomplish strategic marketing
objectives. Marketing implementation addresses the who, where, when, and how.
Many managers think that ―doing things right‖ (implementation) is as important as, or even more
important than, ―doing the right things‖ (strategy). Marketing system must work together to
implement marketing strategies and plans.
Marketing Control
Marketing Control is measuring and evaluating the results of marketing strategies and plans and
taking corrective action to ensure that the objectives are achieved. Marketing control involves four
steps. Management first sets specific marketing goals. It then measures its performance in the
marketplace and evaluates the causes of any differences between expected and actual performance.
Finally, management takes corrective action to close the gaps between goals and performance. This
may require changing the action programs or even changing the goals. Operating control involves
checking ongoing performance against the annual plan and taking corrective action when necessary.
Its purpose is to ensure that the company achieves the sales, profits, and other goals set out in its
annual plan. It also involves determining the profitability of different products, territories, markets,
and channels. Strategic control involves looking at whether the company‘s basic strategies are well
matched to its opportunities. The major tool for strategic control is a Marketing Audit. Marketing
Audit is a comprehensive, systematic, independent and periodic examination of a company‘s
environment, objectives, strategies and activities to determine problem areas and opportunities. It
also helps to improve company‘s performance.

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Marketing management module 1 core concepts of marketing mba 1st sem by babasab patil (karrisatte)

  • 1. Core Concepts of Marketing Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com Page 1 Core Concepts of Marketing Need: It is state of felt deprivation of some basic satisfaction. eg.- food, clothing, safety, shelter. Want: The form human needs take as shaped by culture and individual personality. Ex:- Food is a need –but paneer tikka/ tandoori chicken are wants. Demand: Human wants that are backed by buying power. Or Want for a specific product backed up by ability and willingness to buy. eg.- Need – transportation. Want – Car, but able to buy only Maruti. Therefore, demand is for Maruti. Marketers cannot create needs. Needs preexists. Marketers can influence wants. This is done in combination with societal influencers. Types of Demand  Negative demand – Major market dislikes product, hence try to avoid. eg.- injections.  No Demand – Constant unaware and uninterested in product. eg.- segway.  Latent Demand – Need exists, not fulfilled by current products. eg.- ATM, mobile.  Declining demand – Demand decreases over period of time. eg.- pagers, scooters.  Irregular Demand – Seasonally. eg.- fans, raincoat.  Full Demand – Good volume of business. eg.- tooth paste, most of FMCG items.  Overfull Demand – Demand greater than ability to handle. eg.- VSNL sim card.  Unwholesome Demand – Unwholesome product. eg.- cigarettes, narcotic drugs. Products : Product is anything that can satisfy need/ want. Value- Products capacity to satisfy. Cost- Price of each products. Exchange: – The act/ process of obtaining a desired product from someone by offering something in return. For exchange potential to exist, the following conditions must be fulfilled. 1. There must be at least two parties. 2. Each party has something of value for other party. 3. Each party is capable of communication & delivery 4. Each party is free to accept/ reject the exchange offer. 5. Each party believes it is appropriate to deal with the other party. Transaction: – Event that happens at the end of an exchange. Exchange is a process towards an agreement. When agreement is reached, we say a transaction has taken place. Proof of transaction is BILL/ INVOICE.
  • 2. Core Concepts of Marketing Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com Page 2 a) Barter transaction. b) Monetary Transaction. 1. At least two things of value. 4. Condition agreed upon. 2. Time of agreement. 5. Place of agreement. 3. May have legal system for compliance. Transfer: – It is one way. Hence, differ from Transaction. Negotiation: – Process of trying to arrive at mutually agreeable terms. Negotiation may lead to Transaction or Decision not to Transaction Relationship marketing:- It‘s a pattern of building long term satisfying relationship with customers, suppliers, distributors in order to retain their long term performances and business, achieved through promise and delivery of high quality, good service, fair pricing, over a period of time. Outcome of Relationship Marketing is a marketing network. Marketing network: It is made up of the company and its customers, employees, suppliers, distributors, advertisement agencies, retailers, research & development with whom it has built mutually profitable business relationship. Market: A market is a situation where potential buyer and potential seller exist. Marketers/ prospects: Prospect is someone whom marketer identifies as potentially willing and able to engage in exchange. Definition of Marketing The process by which companies create value for customers and build strong customer relationships in order to capture value from customers in return. According to American Marketing Association(AMA), "Marketing is an organizational function and a set of processes for creating, communicating and delivering value to customers and for managing customer relationships in ways that benefit the organization and its stakeholders." Definition of Management : According to Harold Koontz, "Management is the art of getting things done through and with people in formally organized groups." Management consists of the interlocking functions of creating corporate policy and organizing, planning, controlling, directing an organization‘s resources in order to achieve the objectives of the policy. Definition of Marketing Management According to Philip Kotler, "Marketing Management is the analysis, planning, implementation and control of programmes designed to bring about desired exchanges with target audiences for the
  • 3. Core Concepts of Marketing Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com Page 3 purpose of personal and of mutual gain. It relies heavily on the adoption and coordination of product, price, promotion and place for achieving responses.". Nature of Marketing Management Marketing management combines the fields of marketing and management. Marketing consists of discovering consumer needs and wants, creating the goods and services that meet those needs and wants; and pricing, promoting, and delivering those goods and services. Doing so requires attention to six major areas - markets, products, prices, places, promotion, and people. Marketing Management is Both Science and Art : ―Marketing management is art and science of choosing target markets and getting, keeping and growing customers through creating, delivering and communicating superior customer value.‖ Marketing management is a science because it follows general principles that guides the marketing managers in decision making. The Art of Marketing management consists in tackling every situation in an creative and effective manner. Thus it is a science as well as an art. The Marketing Process FIGURE 1.1 A simple model of the marketing process Figure 1.1 presents a simple five-step model of the marketing process. In the first four steps, companies work to understand consumers, create customer value, and build strong customer relationships. In the final step, companies reap the rewards of creating superior customer value. By creating value for consumers, they in turn capture value from consumers in the form of sales, profits, and long-term customer equity. Step 1: Understanding the Marketplace and Customer Needs As a first step, marketers need to understand customer needs and wants and the marketplace within which they operate. We now examine five core customer and marketplace concepts: (1) needs, wants, and demands; (2) marketing offerings (products, services, and experiences); (3) value and satisfaction; (4) exchanges and relationships; and (5) markets.
  • 4. Core Concepts of Marketing Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com Page 4 Customer Needs, Wants, and Demands ( Note: need, want, demand, market meanings see above) Market Offering is some combination of products, services, information, or experiences offered to a market to satisfy a need or want. Marketing Myopia is the mistake of paying more attention to the specific products they offer than to the benefits and experiences produced by these products. Elements of a modern marketing system: Final users, Marketing intermediaries, Competitors, Company (marketer), Suppliers. Marketing involves serving a market of final consumers in the face of competitors. The company and the competitors send their respective offers and messages to consumers, either directly or through marketing intermediaries. All of the actors in the system are affected by major environmental forces (demographic, economic, physical, technological, political/legal, and social/cultural). Each party in the system adds value for the next level. Step 2 : Designing a Customer-Driven Marketing Strategy :Once it fully understands consumers and the marketplace, marketing management can design a customer-driven marketing strategy. The marketing manager‘s aim is to find, attract, keep, and grow target customers by creating, delivering, and communicating superior customer value. Marketing management wants to design strategies that will build profitable relationships with target consumers. There are five alternative concepts under which organizations design and carry out their marketing strategies: the production, product, selling, marketing, and societal marketing concepts. The Production Concept : The production concept holds that consumers will favor products that are available and highly affordable. Therefore, management should focus on improving production and distribution efficiency. This concept is one of the oldest orientations that guides sellers. For example, computer maker Lenovo dominates the highly competitive, price-sensitive Chinese PC market through low labor costs, high production efficiency, and mass distribution. However, although useful in some situations, the production concept can lead to marketing myopia. Companies adopting this orientation run a major risk of focusing too narrowly on their own operations and losing sight of the real objective—satisfying customer needs and building customer relationships. The Product Concept : The product concept holds that consumers will favor products that offer the most in quality, performance, and innovative features. Under this concept, marketing strategy focuses on making continuous product improvements. Product quality and improvement are important parts of most marketing strategies. However, focusing only on the company‘s products can
  • 5. Core Concepts of Marketing Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com Page 5 also lead to marketing myopia. For example, some manufacturers believe that if they can ―build a better mousetrap, the world will beat a path to their door.‖ But they are often rudely shocked. Buyers may well be looking for a better solution to a mouse problem but not necessarily for a better mousetrap. The better solution might be a chemical spray, an exterminating service, or something that works better than a mousetrap. Furthermore, a better mousetrap will not sell unless the manufacturer designs, packages, & prices it attractively; places it in convenient distribution channels; brings it to the attention of people who need it, & convinces buyers that it is a better product. The Selling Concept :Many companies follow the selling concept, which holds that consumers will not buy enough of the firm‘s products unless it undertakes a large-scale selling & promotion effort. The concept is typically practiced with unsought goods—those that buyers do not normally think of buying, such as insurance or blood donations. Such aggressive selling, however, carries high risks. It focuses on creating sales transactions rather than on building long-term, profitable customer relationships. The Marketing Concept :The marketing concept holds that achieving organizational goals depends on knowing the needs & wants of target markets & delivering the desired satisfactions better than competitors do. Under the marketing concept, customer focus & value are the paths to sales and profits. Instead of a product-centered ―make and sell‖ philosophy, the marketing concept is a customer-centered ―sense & respond‖ philosophy. The job is not to find the right customers for your product, but to find the right products for your customers. Difference between selling concept and Marketing concept Selling concept Marketing concept It is inside-out perspective It is outside-in perspective It starts with the factory, focuses on the company‘s existing products, and calls for heavy selling and promotion to obtain profitable sales The marketing concept starts with a well-defined market, focuses on customer needs, and integrates all the marketing activities that affect customers It yield to getting short-term sales with little concern about who buys or why. it yields profits by creating lasting relationships with the right customers based on customer value and satisfaction In many cases, however, customers don‘t know what they want or even what is possible. For example, even 20 years ago, how many consumers would have thought to ask for now common place products such as cell phones, notebook computers, iPods, digital cameras, 24-hour online buying,
  • 6. Core Concepts of Marketing Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com Page 6 and satellite navigation systems in their cars? Such situations call for customer-driving marketing understanding customer needs even better than customers themselves do and creating products and services that meet existing and latent needs, now and in the future. Ex:- ―Our goal is to lead customers where they want to go before they know where they want to go.‖ The Societal Marketing Concept : A principle of enlightened marketing that holds that a company should make good marketing decisions by considering consumers’ wants, the company’s requirements, consumers’ long-run interests, and society’s long-run interests. The societal marketing concept holds that marketing strategy should deliver value to customers in a way that maintains or improves both the consumer‘s and the society‘s well-being. Consider the fast-food industry. You may view today‘s giant fast-food chains as offering tasty and convenient food at reasonable prices. These are promoting monster meals such burger, beef, four strips of bacon, cheese, & buttered bun, delivering 1,420 calories and 102 grams of fat. McDonald‘s and Burger King still cook their fried foods in oils that are high in artery-clogging trans fats. Such unhealthy fare, is leading consumers to eat too much of the wrong foods, contributing to a national obesity epidemic. What‘s more, the products are wrapped in convenient packaging, but this leads to waste and pollution. Thus, in satisfying short-term consumer wants, the highly successful fast-food chains may be harming consumer health and causing environmental problems in the long run. Companies should balance three considerations in setting their marketing strategies: company profits, consumer wants, and society‘s interests. Step 3: Preparing an Integrated Marketing Plan and Program The company‘s marketing strategy outlines which customers the company will serve and how it will create value for these customers. Next, the marketer develops an integrated marketing program that will actually deliver the intended value to target customers. The marketing program builds customer relationships by transforming the marketing strategy into action. It consists of the firm‘s marketing mix,(4 P‘s) the set of marketing tools the firm uses to implement its marketing strategy. Step4: Building Customer Relationships The first three steps in the marketing process—understanding the marketplace and customer needs, designing a customer-driven marketing strategy, and constructing marketing programs—all lead up to the fourth and most important step: building profitable customer relationships.
  • 7. Core Concepts of Marketing Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com Page 7 Customer Relationship Management: CRM is a customer data management activity. Which involves managing detailed information about individual customers and carefully managing customer in order to maximize customer loyalty. OR Customer relationship management is the overall process of building and maintaining profitable customer relationships by delivering superior customer value and satisfaction. It deals with all aspects of acquiring, keeping, and growing customers. Satisfied customers are more likely to be loyal customers and to give the company a larger share of their business. CUSTOMER VALUE: The customer‘s evaluation of the difference between all the benefits and all the costs of a market offering relative to those of competing offers. CUSTOMER SATISFACTION : Customer satisfaction depends on the product‘s perceived performance relative to a buyer‘s expectations. If the product‘s performance falls short of expectations, the customer is dissatisfied. If performance matches expectations, the customer is satisfied. If performance exceeds expectations, the customer is highly satisfied or delighted. Higher levels of customer satisfaction lead to greater customer loyalty, which in turn results in better Company performance. Step 5: Capturing Value from Customers The first four steps in the marketing process involve building customer relationships by creating and delivering superior customer value. The final step involves capturing value in return, in the form of current and future sales, market share, and profits. By creating superior customer value, the firm creates highly satisfied customers who stay loyal and buy more. This, in turn, means greater long-run returns for the firm. Creating Customer Loyalty and Retention : Good customer relationship management creates customer delight. In turn, delighted customers remain loyal and talk favorably to others about the company and its products. Building Customer Equity: Customer equity is the combined discounted customer lifetime values of all of the company‘s current and potential customers. The more loyal customers, the higher the firm‘s customer equity. Chapter 2: Company-Wide Strategic Planning:
  • 8. Core Concepts of Marketing Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com Page 8 strategic planning—the process of developing and maintaining a strategic fit between the organization‘s goals and capabilities and its changing marketing opportunities. Companies usually prepare annual plans, long-range plans, and strategic plans. The annual and long-range plans deal with the company‘s current businesses and how to keep them going. Company starts the strategic planning process by defining its overall purpose and mission Planning marketing Steps in Strategic Planning 1. Defining a Market-Oriented Mission : An organization exists to accomplish something, and this purpose should be clearly stated. Mission begins with the following questions: What is our business? Who is the customer? What do consumers value? What should our business be? A mission statement is a statement of the organization‘s purpose—what it wants to accomplish in the larger environment. A clear mission statement acts as an ―invisible hand‖ that guides people in the organization. Mission statements should be meaningful and specific yet motivating. They should emphasize the company‘s strengths in the marketplace. Ex: -The, McDonald‘s mission is not ―to be the world‘s best and most profitable quick-service restaurant‖; but it‘s “to be our customers’ favorite place and way to eat.” Designing the Business Portfolio Business portfolio is the collection of businesses & products that make up the company. The best business portfolio is the one that best fits the company‘s strengths& weaknesses to opportunities in the environment. Business portfolio planning involves 2 steps. 1. The company must analyze its current business portfolio & determine which businesses should receive more, less, or no investment. 2. it must shape the future portfolio by developing strategies for growth and downsizing. Analyzing the Current Business Portfolio
  • 9. Core Concepts of Marketing Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com Page 9 The major activity in strategic planning is business portfolio analysis, whereby management evaluates the products and businesses that make up the company. Management‘s first step is to identify the key businesses that make up the company, called strategic business units (SBUs). An SBU can be a company division, a product line within a division, or sometimes a single product or brand. The purpose of strategic planning is to find ways in which the company can best use its strengths to take advantage of attractive opportunities in the environment. The best-known portfolio-planning method was developed by the Boston Consulting Group, a leading management consulting firm. Using BCG approach, a company classifies all its SBUs according to the growth-share matrix. On the vertical axis, market growth rate provides a measure of market attractiveness. On the horizontal axis, relative market share serves as a measure of company strength in the market. The growth-share matrix defines four types of SBUs: 1. Stars. Stars are high-growth, high-share businesses or products. They often need heavy investments to finance their rapid growth. Eventually their growth will slow down, and they will turn into cash cows. 2. Cash Cows. Cash cows are low-growth, high-share businesses or products. These are established and successful SBUs, and need less investment to hold their market share. Thus, they produce a lot of the cash that the company uses to pay its bills and support other SBUs that need investment. Incomes from cash cows will help finance the company‘s question marks, stars, and dogs. 3. Question Marks. Question marks are low-share business units in high-growth markets. They require a lot of cash to hold their share. If they are successful they become ―star‖ or they will be ―Dogs‖. 4. Dogs. Dogs are low-growth, low-share businesses and products. They may generate enough cash to maintain themselves but do not promise to be large sources of cash.
  • 10. Core Concepts of Marketing Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com Page 10 The 10 circles in the growth-share matrix represent the company‘s 10 current SBUs. The company has two stars, two cash cows, three question marks, and three dogs. The areas of the circles are proportional to the SBU‘s dollar sales. As time passes, SBUs change their positions in the growth-share matrix. Many SBUs start out as question marks and move into the star category if they succeed. They later become cash cows as market growth falls and then finally die off or turn into dogs toward the end of their life cycle. Developing Strategies for Growth and Downsizing Companies need growth if they are to compete more effectively, satisfy their stakeholders, and attract top talent. The company‘s objective must be to manage ―profitable growth.‖ One of the useful devices for identifying growth opportunities is the product/market expansion grid,. Figure : The Product/ Market expansion Grid The company can achieve deeper market penetration—making more sales without changing its original product. It can spur growth through marketing mix improvements—adjustments to its product design, advertising, pricing, and distribution efforts. For example, Armour provides styles and colors in its original apparel lines. It recently added direct- to-consumer distribution channels, Web site, and toll-free call center. Market development is identifying and developing new markets for its current products. Ex: Armour, recently stepped up its emphasis on women consumers and predicts that its women‘s apparel business will someday be larger than its men‘s apparel business. Product development is offering modified or new products to current markets. Ex:- Modified ―Fair & Lovely‖ ie New ―Fair & Lovely‖ with extra fairness Diversification is starting up or buying businesses beyond its current products and markets. Ex:- ‗Fair & Handsome‖ Men‘s Fairness Cream. Companies must not only develop strategies for growing their business portfolios but also strategies for downsizing them. There are many reasons that a firm to downsize their businesses it may be because of lack in experience or a firm enters too many international markets without the proper research or when a company introduces new products that do not offer superior customer value.
  • 11. Core Concepts of Marketing Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com Page 11 Finally, some products or business units simply age and die. When a firm finds brands or businesses that are unprofitable or that no longer fit its overall strategy, it must carefully prune, harvest, or divest them. Value chain. Each department carries out value-creating activities to design, produce, market, deliver, and support the firm‘s products. The firm‘s success depends not only on how well each department performs its work but also on how well the various departments coordinate their activities. Value chain is the process or activities by which a company adds value to an article, including production, marketing, and the provision of after-sales service Ex:-Walmart‘s goal is to create customer value & satisfaction by providing shoppers with the products they want at the lowest possible prices. They prepare advertising & merchandising programs & assist shoppers with customer service. The marketing department needs help from the other departments. Walmart‘s ability to offer the right products at low prices depends on the purchasing department‘s skill in developing the needed suppliers & buying from them at low cost. Walmart‘s information technology department must provide fast & accurate information about which products are selling in each store. A company‘s value chain is only as strong as its weakest link. Success depends on how well each department performs its work of adding customer value and on how the company coordinates the activities of various departments. At Walmart, if purchasing can‘t obtain the lowest prices from suppliers, or if operations can‘t distribute merchandise at the lowest costs, then marketing can‘t deliver on its promise of unbeatable low prices. Marketing Strategy and the Marketing Mix
  • 12. Core Concepts of Marketing Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com Page 12 The strategic plan defines the company‘s overall mission and objectives. Marketing‘s role is shown in figure , which summarizes the major activities involved in managing a customer-driven marketing strategy and the marketing mix. Consumers are in the center. The goal is to create value for customers and build profitable customer relationships. Marketing strategy—the marketing logic by which the company hopes to create this customer value and achieve these profitable relationships. The company decides which customers it will serve (segmentation and targeting) and how (differentiation and positioning). It identifies the total market and then divides it into smaller segments, selects the most promising segments, and focuses on serving and satisfying the customers in these segments. Guided by marketing strategy, the company designs an integrated marketing mix made up of factors under its control—product, price, place, and promotion (the four Ps). To find the best marketing strategy and mix, the company engages in marketing analysis, planning, implementation, and control. Customer-Driven Marketing Strategy
  • 13. Core Concepts of Marketing Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com Page 13 To succeed in today‘s competitive marketplace, companies must be customer centered. They must win customers from competitors and then keep and grow them by delivering greater value. But before it can satisfy customers, a company must first understand customer needs and wants. Thus, sound marketing requires careful customer analysis. Market Segmentation There are too many different kinds of consumers with too many different kinds of needs. Thus, each company must divide up the total market, choose the best segments, and design strategies for that segments. Consumers can be grouped and served in various ways based on geographic, demographic, psychographic, and behavioral factors. The process of dividing a market into distinct groups of buyers who have different needs, characteristics, or behaviors, and who might require separate products or marketing programs is called market segmentation. A market segment consists of consumers who respond in a similar way to a given set of marketing efforts. In the car market, for example, consumers who want the biggest, most comfortable car regardless of price make up one market segment. Market Targeting After a company has defined its market segments, it can enter one or many of these segments. Market targeting involves evaluating each market segment’s attractiveness and selecting one or more segments to enter. A company with limited resources might decide to serve only one or a few special segments. Ex: Ferrari sells only 1,500 of its high-performance cars in the US each year but at very high prices— from an eye-opening $229,500 for its Ferrari F430 F1 sports car. Market Differentiation and Positioning After a company has decided which market segments to enter, it must decide how it will differentiate its market offering for each targeted segment and what positions it wants to occupy in those segments. Marketers want to develop unique market positions for their products. Positioning is arranging for a product to occupy a clear, distinctive, and desirable place relative to competing products in the minds of target consumers. Marketers plan to distinguish their products from competitors and give them the greatest advantage in their target markets. The effective positioning begins with differentiation. Differentiation is differentiating the company’s market offering so that it gives consumers more value. Developing an Integrated Marketing Mix After determining its overall marketing strategy, the company is ready to begin planning the details of the marketing mix. The marketing mix is the set of tactical marketing tools that the firm
  • 14. Core Concepts of Marketing Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com Page 14 blends to produce the response it wants in the target market. The marketing mix consists of four Ps, Product, Price, Place & Promotion. Product means the goods-and-services combination the company offers to the target market. Price is the amount of money customers must pay to obtain the product. Place includes company activities that make the product available to target consumers. Promotion means activities that communicate the merits of the product & persuade target customers to buy it. An effective marketing program blends each marketing mix element into an integrated marketing program designed to achieve the company‘s marketing objectives by delivering value to consumers. The marketing mix constitutes the company‘s tactical tool kit for establishing strong positioning in target markets. The service is also considered as service products. The Four P‘s are described as the four C‘s 4P’s 4 C’s Product Customer solution Price Customer Cost Place Convenience Promotion Communication Managing the Marketing Effort
  • 15. Core Concepts of Marketing Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com Page 15 Managing the marketing process requires the four marketing management functions analysis, planning, implementation, and control. The company first develops company-wide strategic plans and then translates them into marketing and other plans for each division, product, and brand. Through implementation, the company turns the plans into actions. Control consists of measuring and evaluating the results of marketing activities and taking corrective action where needed. Finally, marketing analysis provides information & evaluations needed for all the other marketing activities. Marketing Analysis Marketing analysis will be done by SWOT analysis by which it evaluates the company‘s overall strengths (S), weaknesses (W), opportunities (O), and threats (T)  Strengths include internal capabilities, resources, and positive situational factors that may help the company serve its customers and achieve its objectives.  Weaknesses include internal limitations and negative situational factors that may interfere with the company‘s performance.  Opportunities are favorable factors or trends in the external environment that the company may be able to exploit to its advantage.  Threats are unfavorable external factors or trends that may present challenges to performance. The goal is to match the company‘s strengths to attractive opportunities in the environment, while eliminating or overcoming the weaknesses and minimizing the threats. Marketing Planning Through strategic planning, the company decides what it wants to do with each business unit. A detailed marketing plan is needed for each business, product, or brand. The plan begins with an executive summary that quickly reviews major assessments, goals, and recommendations. The main
  • 16. Core Concepts of Marketing Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com Page 16 section of the plan presents a detailed SWOT analysis. A marketing strategy consists of specific strategies for target markets, positioning, the marketing mix, and marketing expenditure levels. Marketing planning addresses the what and why of marketing activities. Marketing Implementation Planning good strategies is only a start toward successful marketing. Marketing implementation is the process that turns marketing plans into marketing actions to accomplish strategic marketing objectives. Marketing implementation addresses the who, where, when, and how. Many managers think that ―doing things right‖ (implementation) is as important as, or even more important than, ―doing the right things‖ (strategy). Marketing system must work together to implement marketing strategies and plans. Marketing Control Marketing Control is measuring and evaluating the results of marketing strategies and plans and taking corrective action to ensure that the objectives are achieved. Marketing control involves four steps. Management first sets specific marketing goals. It then measures its performance in the marketplace and evaluates the causes of any differences between expected and actual performance. Finally, management takes corrective action to close the gaps between goals and performance. This may require changing the action programs or even changing the goals. Operating control involves checking ongoing performance against the annual plan and taking corrective action when necessary. Its purpose is to ensure that the company achieves the sales, profits, and other goals set out in its annual plan. It also involves determining the profitability of different products, territories, markets, and channels. Strategic control involves looking at whether the company‘s basic strategies are well matched to its opportunities. The major tool for strategic control is a Marketing Audit. Marketing Audit is a comprehensive, systematic, independent and periodic examination of a company‘s environment, objectives, strategies and activities to determine problem areas and opportunities. It also helps to improve company‘s performance.