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Surgical Site Infection by Doctor Saleem Plastic Surgeon
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Surgical site infection

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Surgical Site Infection

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Surgical site infection

  2. 2. WHAT IS SURGICAL SITE INFECTION? • A surgical site infection is an infection that occurs in the wound created by an invasive surgical procedure. • It leads to increased morbidity increased mortality Increased duration of hospital stay (7 days on an average) increased cost
  3. 3. Types of SSI • Superficial incisional SSI • Deep incisional SSI • Organ / space SSI
  4. 4. Superficial incisional SSI • Infection occurs within 30 days after surgical procedure AND • Involves only skin and subcutaneous tissue of the incision AND • Patient has at least 1 of the following: • a. Purulent drainage from the superficial incision • b. Organism isolated from an aseptically-obtained culture of fluid or tissue • c. Superficial incision that is deliberately opened by a surgeon and is culture positive or not cultured and patient has at least one of the following signs or symptoms: pain or tenderness, localized swelling, redness, heat • d. Diagnosis of superficial SSI by surgeon or attending physician
  5. 5. Do not report the following condition as SSI • Stitch abscess (minimal inflammation and discharge confined to the points of suture penetration) • Infection of an episiotomy or newborn circumcision site • Infected burn wound • Incisional SSI that extends into the fascial and muscle layers.
  6. 6. Deep Incisional SSI • Infection occurs within 30 days after the operation if no implant is left in place or within 1 yr. if implant is in place and the infection appears to be related to the operation. AND • Involves deep soft tissues of the incision, e.g., fascial & muscle layers AND • Patient has at least 1 of the following: a. Purulent drainage from deep incision b. Deep incision spontaneously dehisces or opened by surgeon and is culture positive or not cultured and fever >38 C, localized pain or tenderness (Note: a culture negative finding does not meet this criterion) c. Abscess or other evidence of infection found on direct exam, during invasive procedure, by histopathologic exam or imaging test d. Diagnosis of deep SSI by surgeon or attending physician
  7. 7. Organ Space SSI • Infection occurs within 30 days after the operation if no implant is left in place or within 1 yr. if implant is in place and the infection appears to be related to the operation. AND • Infection involves any part of the body, excluding the skin incision, fascia, or muscle layers that is opened or manipulated during the operative procedure AND • Patient has at least 1 of the following: a. Purulent drainage from drain placed into the organ/space b. Organism isolated from an aseptically-obtained culture of fluid or tissue in the organ/space c. Abscess or other evidence of infection found on direct exam, during invasive procedure, or by histopathologic or exam or imaging test d. Diagnosis of an organ/space infection by a surgeon or attending physician
  8. 8. Further classification • Severity a) Minor discharge without cellulitis or deep tissue destruction b) Major Pus discharge with tissue breakdown , Partial or total dehiscence of the deep fascial layers of wound Systemic illness is present.
  9. 9. a) Early Infection presents within 30 days of procedure b) Intermediate Occurs between one and three months c) Late Presents more than three months after surgery
  10. 10. Pathophysiology • Micro-organisms are normally prevented from causing infection in tissues by • mechanical: intact epithelium • chemical: low gastric pH; • humoral: antibodies, complement and opsonins; • cellular: phagocytic cells, macrophages, polymorphonuclear cells and killer lymphocytes. ……….may be compromised by any comorbid condition of the patient, surgical intervention and treatment leading to SSI.
  11. 11. Risk factors for developing SSI • Patient factor • Local factor • Microbial factor
  12. 12. Patient factor • Older age • Immunosuppression • Obesity • Diabetes mellitus • Chronic inflammatory process • Malnutrition • Peripheral vascular disease • Smoking • Anaemia • Radiation • Steroid use
  13. 13. Local factor • Poor skin preparation • Contamination of instruments • Inadequate antibiotic prophylaxis • Prolonged procedure • Site and complexity of procedure • Local tissue necrosis • Hypoxia • Hypothermia
  14. 14. Microbial factor • Wound Class • Prolonged hospitalization (leading to nosocomial organisms) • Resistance
  15. 15. Wound Class
  16. 16. Common pathogen in surgical patients
  17. 17. Wound assessment • ASEPSIS • SOUTHAMPTON • enable surgical wound healing to be graded according to specific criteria, usually giving a numerical value, thus providing more objective assessment of wound
  18. 18. ASEPSIS wound scoring system
  19. 19. • Score 0-10-satisfactory healing • 11-20-disturbance of healing • 20-30-minor wound infection • 31-40-moderate wound infection • >41-severe wound infection
  20. 20. Southampton scoring system
  21. 21. SENIC Risk Index (the study of the effect of nosocomial infection control) • Abdominal operation • Operation greater than 2 hours • Class III or IV surgical wounds • Three or more diagnosis at time of discharge Risk of Infection 0 1% 1 3.6% 2 9% 3 17% 4 27%
  22. 22. Management of surgical site infection • Most SSIs respond to the removal of sutures with drainage of pus if present and, occasionally, there is a need for debridement and open wound care. • Incomplete sealing of the wound edges can often be managed by using a delayed primary or secondary suture or closure with adhesive tape, but in larger open wounds the granulation tissue must be healthy with a low bio- burden of colonizing or contaminating organisms if healing is to occur.
  23. 23. Prevention of SSI • Pre-op factors • Intra-op factors • Post-op factors
  24. 24. Pre-op factors • Preoperative antiseptic showering • Preoperative hair removal • Patient skin preparation in the operating room • Preoperative hand/forearm antisepsis( Alcohol solution, Chlorhexidine gluconate, Iodophors) • Antimicrobial prophylaxis
  25. 25. Antibiotic prophylaxis • Give antibiotic prophylaxis to patients before: • clean surgery involving the placement of a prosthesis or implant • clean-contaminated surgery • contaminated surgery. Do not use antibiotic prophylaxis routinely for clean non-prosthetic uncomplicated surgery. •Consider giving a single dose of antibiotic prophylaxis intravenously on starting anaesthesia.
  26. 26. Wound Classification Antibiotic Penicillin Allergy I 1st generation Cephalosporin Vancomycin Clindamycin II-Biliary,GU, Upper Digestive 1st generation Cephalosporin Vancomycin Clindamycin II-Distal Digestive 2nd generation Cephalosporin Aztreonam and Clindamycin/metronidazole III/IV Generally Therapeutic
  27. 27. Point to remember Once the incision is made, antibiotic delivery to the wound is impaired. Hence must given before incision!
  28. 28. Intra operative factors • Operating room environment Temperature: 68o-73oF, depending on normal ambient temp Relative humidity: 30%-60% Air movement: from “clean to less clean” areas • Surgical attire and drapes • Asepsis and surgical technique
  29. 29. Post operative factors • Incision care  The type of postoperative incision care @ closed primarily: the incision is usually covered with a sterile dressing for 24 to 48 hours. @ left open to be closed later: the incision is packed with a sterile dressing. @ left open to heal by second intention: packed with sterile moist gauze and covered with a sterile dressing.
  30. 30. • Changing dressings Use an aseptic non-touch technique for changing or removing surgical wound dressings. • Postoperative cleansing •Use sterile saline for wound cleansing up to 48 hours after surgery. •Advise patients that they may shower safely 48 hours after surgery. •Use tap water for wound cleansing after 48 hours if the surgical wound has separated or has been surgically opened to drain pus. •Topical antimicrobial agents for wound healing by primary intention
  31. 31. Severe inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis SIRS Two of: hyperthermia (> 38°C) or hypothermia (< 36°C) tachycardia (> 90 /min, no β-blockers) or tachypnea (> 20 /min) white cell count > 12 × 109 / l or < 4 × 109 l • Sepsis is SIRS with a documented infection • Severe sepsis or sepsis syndrome or MODS is sepsis with evidence of one or more organ failures [respiratory (acute respiratory distress syndrome), cardiovascular (septic shock follows compromise of cardiac function and fall in peripheral vascular resistance), renal (usually acute tubular necrosis), hepatic, blood coagulation systems or central nervous system]
  32. 32. Surviving sepsis • Initial evaluation and infection issues • Initial resuscitation ( cvp :8-12 mm hg, MAP>65 mm hg and urine output>0.5 ml/kg/hr) • Diagnosis ( via appropriate cultures) • Antibiotic therapy ( BSAb at the beginning then organism specific) • Source control • Hemodynamic support and adjunctive therapy • Fluid therapy • Vasopressor/inotropic therapy ( MAP> 65) (nor epi and dopamine) • Steroids • Recombinant human activated protein c (in adults with sepsis induced organ dysfunction)
  33. 33. • Other supportive therapy • Blood product administration (if hb < 7 gm%) • Mechanical ventilation(TV- 6 ml/kg, PEEP-to avoid collapse and pleateu pressure < 30 mm hg) • Glucose control • Prophyllaxis ( stress ulcers and dvt)
  34. 34. To sum it up • SSI is an infected wound or deep organ space • SIRS is the body’s systemic response to an infected wound • MODS is the effect that the infection produces systemically • MSOF is the end-stage of uncontrolled MODS • MSOF ultimately leads to death.
  35. 35. Thank you.
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Surgical Site Infection


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