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Integrated PestIntegrated Pest
ManagementManagement
(IPM)(IPM)
ByBy
Allah Dad KhanAllah Dad Khan
Allahdad52@gmail.comAllah...
Sustainable AgricultureSustainable Agriculture
 The term sustainable agriculture means an integratedThe term sustainable ...
Integrated Farm ManagementIntegrated Farm Management
 Integrated Farm Management is a whole farmIntegrated Farm Managemen...
Integrated CropIntegrated Crop
ManagementManagement
 Integrated Crop Management (ICM) is a pragmaticIntegrated Crop Manag...
Integrated Disease ManagementIntegrated Disease Management
 Effective control of a particular disastrousEffective control...
1010
• IPM is not just about management of
pests alone; it is a sustainable Crop
Production approach based on sound
eco-sy...
What is IPM?What is IPM?
Ecosystem-basedEcosystem-based
strategy that focusesstrategy that focuses
on long-termon long-ter...
‘A pest management system that, in the context
of the associated environment and population
dynamics of the pest species, ...
Aims of IPM:Aims of IPM:
 Reduce pest populations to levels belowReduce pest populations to levels below
those causing ec...
The Principles of Integrated PestThe Principles of Integrated Pest
ManagementManagement
1.1. Sustainable agriculture requi...
Economic injury levelEconomic injury level
Lowest number of insects that will causeLowest number of insects that will caus...
Economic decision levels - thresholds
• Usually expressed as number of insects per
area, plant, or sampling procedure
• So...
Economic / ActionEconomic / Action
threshold:threshold:
Number of insects that should instigateNumber of insects that shou...
IPM PhilosophyIPM Philosophy
 There are many variants of IPM philosophy.There are many variants of IPM philosophy.
These ...
1.Chemical Control
2.Biological Control
3.Cultural Control
4.Mechanical & Physical Controls
5.Host Plant Resistance
6. Gen...
Biological control:Biological control:
 Natural enemies of pests cause mortality;Natural enemies of pests cause mortality...
IPM = Sustainable PestIPM = Sustainable Pest
Management?Management?
Pest Management vs. PestPest Management vs. Pest
ControlControl
 Pest management aims to maintain insectPest management a...
Insects – prevalent features of our
environment
• Number of species;
• Interactions in
ecosystems and
with us;
• Our major...
Reasons for IPMReasons for IPM
1.1. Chemical pesticidesChemical pesticides
can impact the humancan impact the human
health...
Reasons for IPMReasons for IPM
1.1. Insects canInsects can
become resistantbecome resistant
to chemicalto chemical
pestici...
How does IPM work?How does IPM work?
 Reduces the amount ofReduces the amount of
chemical pesticides bychemical pesticide...
Mechanical approach:Mechanical approach:
1.1. Limits the pest's access toLimits the pest's access to
food, water and harbo...
Biological approach:Biological approach:
1.1. Introduction of aIntroduction of a
natural enemy ofnatural enemy of
the pest...
Chemical approach:Chemical approach:
 PesticidePesticide
applications thatapplications that
have minimal riskshave minima...
Insects use of PheromonesInsects use of Pheromones
1.1. Pheromones are chemicals emitted by an animalPheromones are chemic...
Pheromones and IPMPheromones and IPM
1.1. Pheromones can bePheromones can be
utilized to catch orutilized to catch or
dete...
Advantages & Disadvantages of IPMAdvantages & Disadvantages of IPM
 Reduce chemicals beingReduce chemicals being
usedused...
Multiple Approaches to IPMMultiple Approaches to IPM
 PAMSPAMS
 Prevention, Avoidance, Monitoring, SuppressionPrevention...
3636
ToF Structure
•
Participants
•
30 – 36 Trainees
•
4-6 Facilitators
•
1 Coordinator
•
Fully Residential
•
2 ha. Land for ra...
3838Season-long (seed to seed)
Training of Facilitators (ToF)
3939
• Discovery Based (“Learning by
Contd…
4040
• Non-formal education approaches used throughout
Contd…
4141
Practice FFS
Contd…
4242
• A community based, field study programme
Farmer Field Schools (FFS)
4343
Develop observation skills
Cont….
• Carry out simple field studies – to identify and count pests
and beneficial insects (Defenders)
Cont….
4545
• Carry out studies to compare sprayed and unsprayed plots
Contd…
4646
• Learn how plant compensates for damage by pests
Contd…
4747
• Conduct Insect zoo studies and discover functions of organisms in
the eco-system
Contd…
4848
• Make field observations, conduct Cotton Eco-system Analysis
(CESA) and make informed crop management decisions
Cont...
4949
 In the FFS:
 The farmers are assisted in solving their
problems by themselves; they are not provided
with ready ma...
Bacterial wilt symptoms
on pumpkin
Striped cucumber beetles
5151
Integrated pest management By Allah Dad Khan
Integrated pest management By Allah Dad Khan
Integrated pest management By Allah Dad Khan
Integrated pest management By Allah Dad Khan
Integrated pest management By Allah Dad Khan
Integrated pest management By Allah Dad Khan
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Integrated pest management By Allah Dad Khan

  1. 1. Integrated PestIntegrated Pest ManagementManagement (IPM)(IPM) ByBy Allah Dad KhanAllah Dad Khan Allahdad52@gmail.comAllahdad52@gmail.com
  2. 2. Sustainable AgricultureSustainable Agriculture  The term sustainable agriculture means an integratedThe term sustainable agriculture means an integrated system of plant and animal production practices having asystem of plant and animal production practices having a site-specific application that will, over the long term:site-specific application that will, over the long term: 1.1. Satisfy human food and fiber needs;Satisfy human food and fiber needs; 2.2. Enhance environmental quality and the natural resourceEnhance environmental quality and the natural resource base upon which the agricultural economy depends;base upon which the agricultural economy depends; 3.3. Make the most efficient use of nonrenewable resources andMake the most efficient use of nonrenewable resources and on-farm resources and integrate, where appropriate, naturalon-farm resources and integrate, where appropriate, natural biological cycles and controls;biological cycles and controls; 4.4. Sustain the economic viability of farm operations; andSustain the economic viability of farm operations; and 5.5. Enhance the quality of life for farmers and society as aEnhance the quality of life for farmers and society as a whole."whole."
  3. 3. Integrated Farm ManagementIntegrated Farm Management  Integrated Farm Management is a whole farmIntegrated Farm Management is a whole farm system providing efficient and profitablesystem providing efficient and profitable production that isproduction that is environmentally responsibleenvironmentally responsible.. IFM works by integrating beneficial naturalIFM works by integrating beneficial natural processes into modern farming techniques andprocesses into modern farming techniques and ensures that high standards of stewardshipensures that high standards of stewardship and environmental care are practiced.and environmental care are practiced. 
  4. 4. Integrated CropIntegrated Crop ManagementManagement  Integrated Crop Management (ICM) is a pragmaticIntegrated Crop Management (ICM) is a pragmatic approach to the production of crops, unlike Integratedapproach to the production of crops, unlike Integrated Pest Management (IPM) which focuses on cropPest Management (IPM) which focuses on crop protection, ICM includes more aspects. This canprotection, ICM includes more aspects. This can include such things as IPM, soil, social andinclude such things as IPM, soil, social and environmental management. Over recent decades theenvironmental management. Over recent decades the focus on crop production has moved from yields tofocus on crop production has moved from yields to quality and safety, then more recently sustainability.quality and safety, then more recently sustainability. This results in new challenges for farmers and growersThis results in new challenges for farmers and growers each season. The Syngenta approach to ICM is aimingeach season. The Syngenta approach to ICM is aiming to combine all aspects of crop inputs and managementto combine all aspects of crop inputs and management to achieve the needs of the producer and consumerto achieve the needs of the producer and consumer
  5. 5. Integrated Disease ManagementIntegrated Disease Management  Effective control of a particular disastrousEffective control of a particular disastrous disease, or all the common diseases of adisease, or all the common diseases of a plant can be achieved by using allplant can be achieved by using all relevant, appropriate methods of diseaserelevant, appropriate methods of disease control. Such an approach of diseasecontrol. Such an approach of disease control is called ''integrated diseasecontrol is called ''integrated disease managementmanagement
  6. 6. 1010 • IPM is not just about management of pests alone; it is a sustainable Crop Production approach based on sound eco-system analysis. Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
  7. 7. What is IPM?What is IPM? Ecosystem-basedEcosystem-based strategy that focusesstrategy that focuses on long-termon long-term prevention of pests orprevention of pests or their damage throughtheir damage through a combination ofa combination of techniques such astechniques such as biological control,biological control, habitat manipulation,habitat manipulation, modification ofmodification of cultural practices, andcultural practices, and use of resistantuse of resistant varieties.varieties.
  8. 8. ‘A pest management system that, in the context of the associated environment and population dynamics of the pest species, utilizes all suitable techniques and methods in as compatible a manner as possible and maintains the pest population at levels below those causing economic injury’ ----- FAO
  9. 9. Aims of IPM:Aims of IPM:  Reduce pest populations to levels belowReduce pest populations to levels below those causing economic impact, usingthose causing economic impact, using multiple, compatible techniques;multiple, compatible techniques;  Reduce environmental impact of pestReduce environmental impact of pest management.management.
  10. 10. The Principles of Integrated PestThe Principles of Integrated Pest ManagementManagement 1.1. Sustainable agriculture requires that today's production needs are met whileSustainable agriculture requires that today's production needs are met while improving the productionimproving the production 2.2. resource base for future generationsresource base for future generations.. IPM, as a corner stone of sustainableIPM, as a corner stone of sustainable agriculture, seeks to improveagriculture, seeks to improve 3.3. farmer practices in order to create higher profits while not only protecting, butfarmer practices in order to create higher profits while not only protecting, but improving environment qualityimproving environment quality 4.4. and community health. In order to do this IPM implementation is based on fourand community health. In order to do this IPM implementation is based on four practical principles:practical principles: A.A. Grow a healthy cropGrow a healthy crop B.B. Conserve natural enemiesConserve natural enemies C.C. Observe fields regularlyObserve fields regularly D.D. ••Farmers become expertsFarmers become experts
  11. 11. Economic injury levelEconomic injury level Lowest number of insects that will causeLowest number of insects that will cause economic damageeconomic damage..
  12. 12. Economic decision levels - thresholds • Usually expressed as number of insects per area, plant, or sampling procedure • Sometimes use extent of plant damage • Include biological and economic information
  13. 13. Economic / ActionEconomic / Action threshold:threshold: Number of insects that should instigateNumber of insects that should instigate management actionmanagement action
  14. 14. IPM PhilosophyIPM Philosophy  There are many variants of IPM philosophy.There are many variants of IPM philosophy. These differences form a continuum fromThese differences form a continuum from simply using knowledge of pest biology tosimply using knowledge of pest biology to apply pesticides with timing that is optimal forapply pesticides with timing that is optimal for managing pests, while minimizing applicationsmanaging pests, while minimizing applications of pesticides, to the total exclusion of "hard"of pesticides, to the total exclusion of "hard" pesticides in favor of "soft" or naturally derivedpesticides in favor of "soft" or naturally derived materials that are less disruptive to nontargetmaterials that are less disruptive to nontarget organisms and the environment ("bio-intensive"organisms and the environment ("bio-intensive" or "bio-based" IPM).or "bio-based" IPM).
  15. 15. 1.Chemical Control 2.Biological Control 3.Cultural Control 4.Mechanical & Physical Controls 5.Host Plant Resistance 6. Genetic Control 7.Behavioral Control 8.Regulatory Control Tactics of Pest Management
  16. 16. Biological control:Biological control:  Natural enemies of pests cause mortality;Natural enemies of pests cause mortality;  Can maintain pest population at below-thresholdCan maintain pest population at below-threshold levelslevels PredatorsPredators ParasitoidsParasitoids PathogensPathogens
  17. 17. IPM = Sustainable PestIPM = Sustainable Pest Management?Management?
  18. 18. Pest Management vs. PestPest Management vs. Pest ControlControl  Pest management aims to maintain insectPest management aims to maintain insect populations below a threshold;populations below a threshold;  Emphasis is not on eradication.Emphasis is not on eradication.
  19. 19. Insects – prevalent features of our environment • Number of species; • Interactions in ecosystems and with us; • Our major competitors.
  20. 20. Reasons for IPMReasons for IPM 1.1. Chemical pesticidesChemical pesticides can impact the humancan impact the human health and ecosystemshealth and ecosystems 2.2. Example: DDT, aExample: DDT, a pesticide, canpesticide, can accumulate in theaccumulate in the fatty tissue of animalsfatty tissue of animals and affect birdand affect bird reproductionreproduction
  21. 21. Reasons for IPMReasons for IPM 1.1. Insects canInsects can become resistantbecome resistant to chemicalto chemical pesticidespesticides 2.2. ApproximatelyApproximately 500 species of500 species of insects areinsects are resistant to oneresistant to one or more pesticidesor more pesticides
  22. 22. How does IPM work?How does IPM work?  Reduces the amount ofReduces the amount of chemical pesticides bychemical pesticides by using three possibleusing three possible approaches:approaches:  1. Mechanical1. Mechanical  2. Biological2. Biological  3. Chemical3. Chemical
  23. 23. Mechanical approach:Mechanical approach: 1.1. Limits the pest's access toLimits the pest's access to food, water and harboragefood, water and harborage sites (i.e. proper storage ofsites (i.e. proper storage of food/water supplies orfood/water supplies or installation or repair ofinstallation or repair of physical barriers to futurephysical barriers to future pest intrusion use ofpest intrusion use of mechanical devices (i.e. traps)mechanical devices (i.e. traps) 2.2. Example – Japanese beetleExample – Japanese beetle trapstraps
  24. 24. Biological approach:Biological approach: 1.1. Introduction of aIntroduction of a natural enemy ofnatural enemy of the pestthe pest 2.2. Example – LadyExample – Lady bugs feed on aphidsbugs feed on aphids and can beand can be introduced tointroduced to reduce the aphidreduce the aphid population on cropspopulation on crops
  25. 25. Chemical approach:Chemical approach:  PesticidePesticide applications thatapplications that have minimal riskshave minimal risks associatedassociated with their usewith their use  Using the leastUsing the least amount of chemicalsamount of chemicals that will still bethat will still be effectiveeffective
  26. 26. Insects use of PheromonesInsects use of Pheromones 1.1. Pheromones are chemicals emitted by an animalPheromones are chemicals emitted by an animal that signals another animal of thethat signals another animal of the samesame species.species. 2.2. Example: female gypsy moths emit a pheromone toExample: female gypsy moths emit a pheromone to attract a maleattract a male
  27. 27. Pheromones and IPMPheromones and IPM 1.1. Pheromones can bePheromones can be utilized to catch orutilized to catch or deter insectsdeter insects 2.2. Example: PheromoneExample: Pheromone “traps”, which contain“traps”, which contain the pheromonethe pheromone emitted by the femaleemitted by the female gypsy moth can be setgypsy moth can be set to catch male mothsto catch male moths
  28. 28. Advantages & Disadvantages of IPMAdvantages & Disadvantages of IPM  Reduce chemicals beingReduce chemicals being usedused  May reduce # ofMay reduce # of pesticide resistantpesticide resistant insectsinsects  Only uses chemicals ifOnly uses chemicals if necessarynecessary  Long term benefitsLong term benefits (lower cost for(lower cost for chemicals, better forchemicals, better for environment and humanenvironment and human health)health)  Individual using IPMIndividual using IPM must be educatedmust be educated about the optionsabout the options  Takes more time toTakes more time to initiate than simplyinitiate than simply “spraying for pests”“spraying for pests”  Must be closelyMust be closely monitored for bestmonitored for best resultsresults  Natural enemies ofNatural enemies of pests may becomepests may become pests themselvespests themselves
  29. 29. Multiple Approaches to IPMMultiple Approaches to IPM  PAMSPAMS  Prevention, Avoidance, Monitoring, SuppressionPrevention, Avoidance, Monitoring, Suppression VS.VS.  SeasonalSeasonal  Pre plant, At plant, In season, Harvest, Post harvestPre plant, At plant, In season, Harvest, Post harvest VS.VS.  DisciplineDiscipline  Weeds, Insects, Disease, Culture, etc.Weeds, Insects, Disease, Culture, etc.  Can couch IPM in various combinations orCan couch IPM in various combinations or formatsformats
  30. 30. 3636
  31. 31. ToF Structure • Participants • 30 – 36 Trainees • 4-6 Facilitators • 1 Coordinator • Fully Residential • 2 ha. Land for raising cotton by trainees • Training • Season-long with 2 or 3 small breaks • About 150 days (for cotton) on site excluding the breaks • ToF covers all aspects of crop management
  32. 32. 3838Season-long (seed to seed) Training of Facilitators (ToF)
  33. 33. 3939 • Discovery Based (“Learning by Contd…
  34. 34. 4040 • Non-formal education approaches used throughout Contd…
  35. 35. 4141 Practice FFS Contd…
  36. 36. 4242 • A community based, field study programme Farmer Field Schools (FFS)
  37. 37. 4343 Develop observation skills Cont….
  38. 38. • Carry out simple field studies – to identify and count pests and beneficial insects (Defenders) Cont….
  39. 39. 4545 • Carry out studies to compare sprayed and unsprayed plots Contd…
  40. 40. 4646 • Learn how plant compensates for damage by pests Contd…
  41. 41. 4747 • Conduct Insect zoo studies and discover functions of organisms in the eco-system Contd…
  42. 42. 4848 • Make field observations, conduct Cotton Eco-system Analysis (CESA) and make informed crop management decisions Contd…
  43. 43. 4949  In the FFS:  The farmers are assisted in solving their problems by themselves; they are not provided with ready made solutions  The facilitators expose farmers to ideas and are not trying to convince the farmers to adopt a particular technology  The facilitators help them in analyzing the situation and make informed decisions Contd…
  44. 44. Bacterial wilt symptoms on pumpkin Striped cucumber beetles
  45. 45. 5151

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