Diese Präsentation wurde erfolgreich gemeldet.
Die SlideShare-Präsentation wird heruntergeladen. ×

ALLERGY.ppt

Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Wird geladen in …3
×

Hier ansehen

1 von 15 Anzeige
Anzeige

Weitere Verwandte Inhalte

Aktuellste (20)

Anzeige

ALLERGY.ppt

  1. 1. ANTI-ALLERGIC REMEDIES
  2. 2.  Allergy is the hypersensitivity of the organism to exogenous substances possessing antigenic properties (antigens).  When the antigens act on the body, the humoral immunity system is activated and antibodies of the E class are formed, which are fixed on the mast cells.  When re-entering the body, the antigen interacts with the antibodies. This leads to the degranulation of mast cells, the isolation of allergic mediators (histamine, etc.) and the development of allergic reactions.
  3. 3. ALLERGIC REACTIONS ARE OF TWO TYPES:  The immediate action hypersensitivity reaction (IAHR) develops very quickly - a few minutes after the sensitized organism enters the allergen and lasts for hours. The mechanism of their development is associated with the reaction of humoral immunity (anaphylactic shock, pollinosis, Quincke's edema, urticaria).  Hypersensitivity reactions of delayed type (HRDT) develop after 8-12 hours and last for several days and even weeks. They are characterized by tissue reactions and are associated with the response of cellular immunity (autoimmune reactions, eczema, contact dermatitis, transplant rejection reaction, etc.)
  4. 4. CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI-ALLERGIC REMEDIES  Remedies used in the IAHR  1. Remedies that prevent the release of histamine and other BAS from mast cells and basophils.  а) Glucocorticoids: prednisolone, dexamethasone, etc.  б) Adrenomimetics: epinephrine, isadrine, salbutamol, and others.  в)M-holinoblokatory: atropine, atrovent.  г) Inhibitors of degranulation of mast cells: cromoglycic acid (intal), ketotifen, nedocromil.  2. Inhibitors of the interaction of histamine with tissue receptors (antihistamines that block N1 receptors): dimedrol, diprazine, diazolin, tavegil, suprastin, astemizole.  II Remedies used in the HRDT  а) Glucocorticoids: prednisolone, dexamethasone.  б) Cytotoxic drugs: methotrexate, cyclophosphamide, azathioprine.
  5. 5. ADRENOMIMETICS Epinephrine (adrenaline) - is used to stop anaphylactic shock (a deadly allergic reaction, which is accompanied by a drop in blood pressure, bronospasms, swelling of the larynx). Ephedrine (sympathomimetic) can also be used for anaphylactic shock in injection. The effect occurs more slowly (30-40 min.), But more prolonged. In tablets, ephedrine is used to stop lung attacks of bronchial asthma. For relief of allergic bronchospasm, β2-adrenomimetics- salbutamol, terbutaline, fenoterol, are inhaled. Selective β2-adrenomimetics with prolonged action: formoterol, biholterol, salmeterol. They are used to prevent nighttime attacks of bronchial asthma.
  6. 6. REMEDIES THAT PREVENT THE DEGRANULATION OF MAST CELLS (MEMBRANE STABILIZERS)  Mechanism of action: degranulation inhibitors have a pronounced membrane-stabilizing effect on mast cells, thereby limiting the process of their degranulation. The mechanism of action is based on blockade by these remedies of chlorine channels of membranes. Transport of chlorine into the cytoplasm of cells causes hyperpolarization of the membrane, necessary for calcium intake. Preventing calcium intake in the cytoplasm of mast cells, these drugs prevent the release of them mediators of allergy: histamine, leukotrienes, cationic proteins
  7. 7.  Cromoglycic acid (intal) is used to prevent attacks of allergic bronchial asthma.  However, the effect develops very slowly and the pronounced bronchodilator effect occurs only after 2-4 weeks of continuous administration of the drug.  Ketotifen (zaditen) - one of the best drugs for the treatment of atopic bronchial asthma. Along with the membrane-stabilizing action has antihistamine effect. Can be used in children's practice.  Nedocromil (tayled) has bronchodilating and anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, it is used for bronchial asthma not only atopic genesis, but also for other etiology.
  8. 8. ANTIHISTAMINES THAT BLOCK H1 RECEPTORS  Histamine is a biogenic substance that takes part in the development of allergies, inflammations; Stimulates the secretion of hydrochloric acid in the stomach. Histamine dilates the blood vessels, increases their permeability, lowers blood pressure, increases the tone of the bronchial tubes. These effects are associated mainly with the excitation of histamine h1 receptors.  Medicine remedies that block h1 -receptors are used for allergic reactions - urticaria, skin itching, allergic conjunctivitis, angioedema, edema of Quincke, vasomotor rhinitis, etc. h1 - receptor blockers penetrating into the central nervous system have a sedative effect.
  9. 9.  Classification of antihistamines  The first generation: diphenhydramine (dimedrol), clemastine (tavegil), promethazine (diprazine), chloropyramine (suprastin).  The second generation: astemizole, terfenadine.  The third generation: azelastine, loratadine (klaritin).
  10. 10.  Diphenhydramine (dimedrol) blocks central and peripheral N1 receptors; Effectively weakens allergic reactions. Operates 4-6 hours In connection with the blockade of central N1-receptors has a sedative, hypnotic effect, reduces the excitability of the central links of the vestibular apparatus.  Indications for use: Urticaria, itching, pollinosis, angioedema, insect bites, drug allergy, serum sickness. Applied as a hypnotic, as well as for the prevention of motion sickness (sea and air sickness).  Adverse events: short-term numbness, dryness of the oral mucosa, drowsiness, weakness, decreased performance, nausea. In children, large doses of diphenhydramine cause motor and mental arousal, insomnia, seizures.
  11. 11.  Chloropyramine (suprastin) in addition to anti- allergic properties, has M-holinoblokiruyuschimi, spasmolytic properties. Has a moderate oppressive effect on the CNS. The duration of action is 4-6 hours.  Due to the fact that sedative and soporifc effects of these drugs are not always desirable, antihistamines of the second generation - astemizole, terfenadine, and then - the third generation - azelastine, loratadine (claritin) were synthesized. Unlike antihistamines of the first generation, these drugs practically do not inhibit the central nervous system and are characterized by a longer antiallergic effect. So, astemizol and loratadine are prescribed once a day.
  12. 12. ГЛЮКОКОРТИКОИДЫ (ПРЕДНИЗОЛОН, ДЕКСАМЕТАЗОН, ФЛУКОРТОЛОН) Glucocorticoids (HA) have anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties. Inhibit the production of antibodies. In addition, glucocorticoids prevent the degranulation of mast cells. HA cause both absolute and relative T-lymphocytopenia, inhibit the graft rejection reaction, inhibit the activity of phagocytes, increase the sensitivity of adrenoreceptors to catecholamines. GC is used mainly for severe and moderate manifestations of allergies (anaphylactic shock, Quincke's edema, serum sickness, etc.). In dermatological practice, it is used for allergic skin lesions. Glucocorticoids are used as immunosuppressants for autoimmune diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, dermatomyositis, Bechterew's disease, eczema), as well as as auxiliary agents for organ and tissue transplantation.
  13. 13. ЦИТОСТАТИКИ – СРЕДСТВА, УГНЕТАЮЩИЕ РОСТ И ДЕЛЕНИЕ КЛЕТОК  Cytostatics are particularly effective in suppressing the division of rapidly dividing cells: bone marrow cells, gastrointestinal epithelium, gonadal gland cells, tumor cells. Cytostatics are used mainly for tumor diseases, and some as immunosuppressants.  Cyclophosphamide (cyclophosphane) inhibits lymphoid and myeloid hematopoiesis. The proliferation of B- and T-lymphocytes and their precursors is suppressed. It is used for autoimmune diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, etc.).  Due to the suppression of cellular immunity, cyclophosphamide effectively prevents the transplant rejection reaction during organ and tissue transplantation.  Cyclophosphamide is used as an antitumor agent for lung cancer, breast cancer, lymphogranulomatosis, lymphocytic leukemia  Side effects of cyclophosphamide: bone marrow depression (leukopenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia), interstitial pulmonary fibrosis, hemorrhagic cystitis, amenorrhea, azoospermia, nausea, vomiting, alopecia.
  14. 14.  Azathioprine interferes with DNA synthesis. Under the action of azathioprine, cellular immunity is suppressed to a greater extent than humoral immunity. In addition to immunosuppressive properties, azathioprine has anti-inflammatory properties.  It is used for autoimmune diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, dermatomyositis, myasthenia gravis).  Side effects of azathioprine: leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, decreased resistance to infections, dyspepsia, liver dysfunction, skin rashes.  Methotrexate interferes with folic acid metabolism (inhibits dihydrofolate reductase) and disrupts the formation of purine and pyrimidine bases and, accordingly, DNA synthesis.  It has immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory properties.  It is used for rheumatoid arthritis and tumor diseases.
  15. 15.  Thanks for your attention

×