Amita ppt on personality theories

INTRODUCTION OF

PSYCHO-ANALYTICAL

    THEORIES

 OF PERSONALITY
PSYCHOANLYTICAL THEORIES EMPHASIS ON
PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE
PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT.
        THE MAIN CONTRIBUTOR TO THIS
THEORY IS “SIGMUND FREUD”. HE DISCOVERED
THAT PEOPLE HAVE UNCONSCIOUS NEEDS, DRIVES,
MOTIVES AND DESIRES FOR PERSONALITY
DEVELOPMENT. PEOPLE DEVELOPS THEIR
PERSONALITY WHEN FACING PHYSICAL & MENTAL
PROBLEMS UNDER SOME SPECIFIC SYSTEMS.
Sigmund Freud
                 (1856-1939)
• Had medical background-
  wanted to do
  “neurophysiological research”
• Private practice with specialty
  in neurology
• Early 1900s published many
  works--
    – Interpretation of Dreams
      (1900)
    – The Psychopathology of
      Everyday Life (1901)
    – 1906 Psychoanalytic Society
      formed
    • DIED OF JAW CANCER IN
      1939.
3 Levels of Awareness
• Conscious
• Preconscious
• Unconscious
Conscious
• Current contents of your
    mind that you actively
    think of
•   What we call working
    memory
•   Easily accessed all the
    time
Preconscious
• Contents of the mind
    you are not currently
    aware of
•   Thoughts, memories,
    knowledge, wishes,
    feelings
•   Available for easy
    access when needed
Unconscious
• Contents kept out of
    conscious awareness
•   Not accessible at all
•   Processes that actively
    keep these thoughts
    from awareness
Unconscious framework includes three conflicting
psychoanalytical concepts:-

•   The Id
•   The Ego
•   The super Ego
What is Id?
THE ID- Id is the mind’s instinctive energy.Id is the source of
    psychic energy & seeks immediate satisfaction of biological
    pleasures. (UNREAL & THEORETICAL CONCEPTION)
    Desires and wishes of an individual exist at the unconscious
    state which is known as Id.
•   Resides completely at the unconscious level
•   Acts under the pleasure principle
     – immediate gratification, not willing to compromise
     – Generates all of the personality’s energy
     – Demands immediate pleasure at whatever cost
     – It provides the mental force to face problems.
              As an individual matures, he learns to control the Id,
       but even then it remains a driving force throughout life and
       becomes an important source of behavior.
What is Ego?
    Ego is a real and practical experience.




•   Resides in all levels of awareness
•   Operates under “reality principle”
•   It translates the energy of Id into action.
•   Attempts negotiation between Id and
    Superego to satisfy both realistically
    The ego of a person keeps the Id in check
    whenever it demands immediate pleasure.
    Ego controls the Id so that the pleasures
    Unconciously demanded by human beings
What is Super Ego?
It is the higher level force to restrain the
    Id.
• The moralist and idealistic part of the
    personality
• Resides in preconscious
     – Operates on “ideal principle”
     – Begins forming at 4-5 yrs of age
     – initially formed form environment
        and others (society, family etc)
     – Internalized conventions and morals
     – Essentially your “conscience “ i.e
        sense of judging what is wrong and
        what is right.
Inter relation between the Id, Ego,
& Super Ego…….
Their must be a proper balance in the relationship
  among these forces to create a normal personality.
For Eg.
          Super Ego
                             If Super Ego is over
 Id Ego                 developed, man will become
                             very impractical and
                        irrational. He will feel guilty
                        over trivial matters…Such a
                        person can't exist in modern
                                   world…
Freudian stages of personality
           Development


–   ORAL STAGE
–   ANAL STAGE
–   PHALLIC STAGE
–   LATENCY STAGE
–   GENITAL STAGE
Oral Stage (0-18 months)
– The Infant first experiences social contact with
  the outside world through mouth-
Crying
Drinking
Laughing
Eating

– Focus: weaning- becoming less dependent
Anal (18-35 months)
  Primary sources of pleasure is the process of elimination.
– Fixation on bowel and bladder elimination
– Focus: search for control


   Phallic (3-6 years)
 Child discovers himself. He realizes all his important
  organs i.e. eyes, hands, nose etc..
  Focus: genital area and difference btwn males and females
Latency (6 yrs to puberty)
 Kids play with same sex others-- until puberty
 No significant impact of parents. The social process
  influences personality development.


     Genital (puberty and beyond)
 Adolescent starts feeling all senses seriously.
 Attachment with parents is reduced.
Freud: criticisms and critiques

• He studied very few people so not representative
    sample
•   Process of psychoanalysis interviewing- exhibit
    preconceived notions and biases
•   His measures/methods were untreatable
•   Definitions don’t lend themselves to experimentation
•   One’s personality is fixed and unchanging
•   Obsessed with sex and aggression
Different Personality Pattern which influence
organisational behavior are:-

•   AUTHORITARIANISM
•   MACHIAVELLIANISM
•   INTROVERSION & EXTROVERSION
•   TYPE ‘A’ & TYPE ‘B’ PERSONALITY
•   SELF CONCEPT & SELF ESTEEM
•   LOCUS OF CONTROL
AUTHORITARIANISM
• A authoritarian personality tend to be rigid in their
    positions,
•   They place high moral value on their beliefs.
•   Strongly oriented towards conformity of rules &
    regulations.
•   Naturally prefer stable & structured work
    environments which are governed by clear rules &
    procedures.
•    Likely prefer autocratic or directive leadership.
MACHIAVELLIANISM

• This personality trait is also known as ‘Mach’ is named after
    Niceolo Machiavelli.
•   An individual with high Mach is Pagmatic, maintains emotional
    distance, & believes that ends can justify means, manipulate more,
    win more, are persuaded less and persuade others more.
•   Successful when situations have minimum number of rules &
    regulations.
•   Have no hesitation using taking advantage of others in order to
    serve their own goals.
•   High self confidence & high self esteem.
INTROVERSION & EXTROVERSION

• Introverts are:-
Shy, quiet & retiring
Excels at tasks that require thought & analytical
  skills.


• Extroverts are:-
Suitable for positions that require more interaction with
  others..
TYPE ‘A’ & TYPE ‘B’
PERSONALITY
• TYPE A :- People are impatient, aggressive, &
    highly competitive, work hard & are more
    productive. Negative side is that they are very
    impatient, more irritable, have poor judgement.
    Measures success by quantity, does two things at a
    time.
•   TYPE B :- Easy going, non-competitive. Do better in
    complex tasks involving judgement & accuracy rather
    than speed & hard work. Relaxes without guilt, has
    no pressing deadlines. Is never hurry, mild mannered.
SELF CONCEPT & SELF ESTEEM

• Self concept denotes the extent to which they
    consistently regard themselves as capable,
    successful, important & worthy. Self concept
    (Both ‘I’ & ‘Me’) gives the individual a sense of
    meaningfulness and consistency.
•   People assignments & contribute to achieve
    organizational goals. Self esteem is directly related
    to the with high self esteem tend to take
    challenging expectations for success. High self
    esteem people believe that they possess the ability
    needed to succeed at work.
LOCUS OF CONTROL

• Personality is developed on the basis of person’s
    locus of control which is how one perceives the locus
    of control in one’s life.
•   Locus of control was formulated within the
    framework of Rotter’s social learning theory of
    personality.
THANK YOU ALL FOR LISTENING
TO ME PATIENTLY.
        HAVE A NICE DAY


BY AMITA SHARMA
1 von 25

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Amita ppt on personality theories

  • 1. INTRODUCTION OF PSYCHO-ANALYTICAL THEORIES OF PERSONALITY
  • 2. PSYCHOANLYTICAL THEORIES EMPHASIS ON PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT. THE MAIN CONTRIBUTOR TO THIS THEORY IS “SIGMUND FREUD”. HE DISCOVERED THAT PEOPLE HAVE UNCONSCIOUS NEEDS, DRIVES, MOTIVES AND DESIRES FOR PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT. PEOPLE DEVELOPS THEIR PERSONALITY WHEN FACING PHYSICAL & MENTAL PROBLEMS UNDER SOME SPECIFIC SYSTEMS.
  • 3. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) • Had medical background- wanted to do “neurophysiological research” • Private practice with specialty in neurology • Early 1900s published many works-- – Interpretation of Dreams (1900) – The Psychopathology of Everyday Life (1901) – 1906 Psychoanalytic Society formed • DIED OF JAW CANCER IN 1939.
  • 4. 3 Levels of Awareness • Conscious • Preconscious • Unconscious
  • 5. Conscious • Current contents of your mind that you actively think of • What we call working memory • Easily accessed all the time
  • 6. Preconscious • Contents of the mind you are not currently aware of • Thoughts, memories, knowledge, wishes, feelings • Available for easy access when needed
  • 7. Unconscious • Contents kept out of conscious awareness • Not accessible at all • Processes that actively keep these thoughts from awareness
  • 8. Unconscious framework includes three conflicting psychoanalytical concepts:- • The Id • The Ego • The super Ego
  • 9. What is Id? THE ID- Id is the mind’s instinctive energy.Id is the source of psychic energy & seeks immediate satisfaction of biological pleasures. (UNREAL & THEORETICAL CONCEPTION) Desires and wishes of an individual exist at the unconscious state which is known as Id. • Resides completely at the unconscious level • Acts under the pleasure principle – immediate gratification, not willing to compromise – Generates all of the personality’s energy – Demands immediate pleasure at whatever cost – It provides the mental force to face problems. As an individual matures, he learns to control the Id, but even then it remains a driving force throughout life and becomes an important source of behavior.
  • 10. What is Ego? Ego is a real and practical experience. • Resides in all levels of awareness • Operates under “reality principle” • It translates the energy of Id into action. • Attempts negotiation between Id and Superego to satisfy both realistically The ego of a person keeps the Id in check whenever it demands immediate pleasure. Ego controls the Id so that the pleasures Unconciously demanded by human beings
  • 11. What is Super Ego? It is the higher level force to restrain the Id. • The moralist and idealistic part of the personality • Resides in preconscious – Operates on “ideal principle” – Begins forming at 4-5 yrs of age – initially formed form environment and others (society, family etc) – Internalized conventions and morals – Essentially your “conscience “ i.e sense of judging what is wrong and what is right.
  • 12. Inter relation between the Id, Ego, & Super Ego……. Their must be a proper balance in the relationship among these forces to create a normal personality. For Eg. Super Ego If Super Ego is over Id Ego developed, man will become very impractical and irrational. He will feel guilty over trivial matters…Such a person can't exist in modern world…
  • 13. Freudian stages of personality Development – ORAL STAGE – ANAL STAGE – PHALLIC STAGE – LATENCY STAGE – GENITAL STAGE
  • 14. Oral Stage (0-18 months) – The Infant first experiences social contact with the outside world through mouth- Crying Drinking Laughing Eating – Focus: weaning- becoming less dependent
  • 15. Anal (18-35 months) Primary sources of pleasure is the process of elimination. – Fixation on bowel and bladder elimination – Focus: search for control Phallic (3-6 years)  Child discovers himself. He realizes all his important organs i.e. eyes, hands, nose etc.. Focus: genital area and difference btwn males and females
  • 16. Latency (6 yrs to puberty)  Kids play with same sex others-- until puberty  No significant impact of parents. The social process influences personality development. Genital (puberty and beyond)  Adolescent starts feeling all senses seriously.  Attachment with parents is reduced.
  • 17. Freud: criticisms and critiques • He studied very few people so not representative sample • Process of psychoanalysis interviewing- exhibit preconceived notions and biases • His measures/methods were untreatable • Definitions don’t lend themselves to experimentation • One’s personality is fixed and unchanging • Obsessed with sex and aggression
  • 18. Different Personality Pattern which influence organisational behavior are:- • AUTHORITARIANISM • MACHIAVELLIANISM • INTROVERSION & EXTROVERSION • TYPE ‘A’ & TYPE ‘B’ PERSONALITY • SELF CONCEPT & SELF ESTEEM • LOCUS OF CONTROL
  • 19. AUTHORITARIANISM • A authoritarian personality tend to be rigid in their positions, • They place high moral value on their beliefs. • Strongly oriented towards conformity of rules & regulations. • Naturally prefer stable & structured work environments which are governed by clear rules & procedures. • Likely prefer autocratic or directive leadership.
  • 20. MACHIAVELLIANISM • This personality trait is also known as ‘Mach’ is named after Niceolo Machiavelli. • An individual with high Mach is Pagmatic, maintains emotional distance, & believes that ends can justify means, manipulate more, win more, are persuaded less and persuade others more. • Successful when situations have minimum number of rules & regulations. • Have no hesitation using taking advantage of others in order to serve their own goals. • High self confidence & high self esteem.
  • 21. INTROVERSION & EXTROVERSION • Introverts are:- Shy, quiet & retiring Excels at tasks that require thought & analytical skills. • Extroverts are:- Suitable for positions that require more interaction with others..
  • 22. TYPE ‘A’ & TYPE ‘B’ PERSONALITY • TYPE A :- People are impatient, aggressive, & highly competitive, work hard & are more productive. Negative side is that they are very impatient, more irritable, have poor judgement. Measures success by quantity, does two things at a time. • TYPE B :- Easy going, non-competitive. Do better in complex tasks involving judgement & accuracy rather than speed & hard work. Relaxes without guilt, has no pressing deadlines. Is never hurry, mild mannered.
  • 23. SELF CONCEPT & SELF ESTEEM • Self concept denotes the extent to which they consistently regard themselves as capable, successful, important & worthy. Self concept (Both ‘I’ & ‘Me’) gives the individual a sense of meaningfulness and consistency. • People assignments & contribute to achieve organizational goals. Self esteem is directly related to the with high self esteem tend to take challenging expectations for success. High self esteem people believe that they possess the ability needed to succeed at work.
  • 24. LOCUS OF CONTROL • Personality is developed on the basis of person’s locus of control which is how one perceives the locus of control in one’s life. • Locus of control was formulated within the framework of Rotter’s social learning theory of personality.
  • 25. THANK YOU ALL FOR LISTENING TO ME PATIENTLY. HAVE A NICE DAY BY AMITA SHARMA