2. PSYCHOANLYTICAL THEORIES EMPHASIS ON
PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE
THE MAIN CONTRIBUTOR TO THIS
THEORY IS “SIGMUND FREUD”. HE DISCOVERED
THAT PEOPLE HAVE UNCONSCIOUS NEEDS, DRIVES,
MOTIVES AND DESIRES FOR PERSONALITY
DEVELOPMENT. PEOPLE DEVELOPS THEIR
PERSONALITY WHEN FACING PHYSICAL & MENTAL
PROBLEMS UNDER SOME SPECIFIC SYSTEMS.
3. Sigmund Freud
• Had medical background-
wanted to do
• Private practice with specialty
• Early 1900s published many
– Interpretation of Dreams
– The Psychopathology of
Everyday Life (1901)
– 1906 Psychoanalytic Society
• DIED OF JAW CANCER IN
9. What is Id?
THE ID- Id is the mind’s instinctive energy.Id is the source of
psychic energy & seeks immediate satisfaction of biological
pleasures. (UNREAL & THEORETICAL CONCEPTION)
Desires and wishes of an individual exist at the unconscious
state which is known as Id.
• Resides completely at the unconscious level
• Acts under the pleasure principle
– immediate gratification, not willing to compromise
– Generates all of the personality’s energy
– Demands immediate pleasure at whatever cost
– It provides the mental force to face problems.
As an individual matures, he learns to control the Id,
but even then it remains a driving force throughout life and
becomes an important source of behavior.
10. What is Ego?
Ego is a real and practical experience.
• Resides in all levels of awareness
• Operates under “reality principle”
• It translates the energy of Id into action.
• Attempts negotiation between Id and
Superego to satisfy both realistically
The ego of a person keeps the Id in check
whenever it demands immediate pleasure.
Ego controls the Id so that the pleasures
Unconciously demanded by human beings
11. What is Super Ego?
It is the higher level force to restrain the
• The moralist and idealistic part of the
• Resides in preconscious
– Operates on “ideal principle”
– Begins forming at 4-5 yrs of age
– initially formed form environment
and others (society, family etc)
– Internalized conventions and morals
– Essentially your “conscience “ i.e
sense of judging what is wrong and
what is right.
12. Inter relation between the Id, Ego,
& Super Ego…….
Their must be a proper balance in the relationship
among these forces to create a normal personality.
If Super Ego is over
Id Ego developed, man will become
very impractical and
irrational. He will feel guilty
over trivial matters…Such a
person can't exist in modern
14. Oral Stage (0-18 months)
– The Infant first experiences social contact with
the outside world through mouth-
– Focus: weaning- becoming less dependent
15. Anal (18-35 months)
Primary sources of pleasure is the process of elimination.
– Fixation on bowel and bladder elimination
– Focus: search for control
Phallic (3-6 years)
Child discovers himself. He realizes all his important
organs i.e. eyes, hands, nose etc..
Focus: genital area and difference btwn males and females
16. Latency (6 yrs to puberty)
Kids play with same sex others-- until puberty
No significant impact of parents. The social process
influences personality development.
Genital (puberty and beyond)
Adolescent starts feeling all senses seriously.
Attachment with parents is reduced.
17. Freud: criticisms and critiques
• He studied very few people so not representative
• Process of psychoanalysis interviewing- exhibit
preconceived notions and biases
• His measures/methods were untreatable
• Definitions don’t lend themselves to experimentation
• One’s personality is fixed and unchanging
• Obsessed with sex and aggression
18. Different Personality Pattern which influence
organisational behavior are:-
• INTROVERSION & EXTROVERSION
• TYPE ‘A’ & TYPE ‘B’ PERSONALITY
• SELF CONCEPT & SELF ESTEEM
• LOCUS OF CONTROL
• A authoritarian personality tend to be rigid in their
• They place high moral value on their beliefs.
• Strongly oriented towards conformity of rules &
• Naturally prefer stable & structured work
environments which are governed by clear rules &
• Likely prefer autocratic or directive leadership.
• This personality trait is also known as ‘Mach’ is named after
• An individual with high Mach is Pagmatic, maintains emotional
distance, & believes that ends can justify means, manipulate more,
win more, are persuaded less and persuade others more.
• Successful when situations have minimum number of rules &
• Have no hesitation using taking advantage of others in order to
serve their own goals.
• High self confidence & high self esteem.
21. INTROVERSION & EXTROVERSION
• Introverts are:-
Shy, quiet & retiring
Excels at tasks that require thought & analytical
• Extroverts are:-
Suitable for positions that require more interaction with
22. TYPE ‘A’ & TYPE ‘B’
• TYPE A :- People are impatient, aggressive, &
highly competitive, work hard & are more
productive. Negative side is that they are very
impatient, more irritable, have poor judgement.
Measures success by quantity, does two things at a
• TYPE B :- Easy going, non-competitive. Do better in
complex tasks involving judgement & accuracy rather
than speed & hard work. Relaxes without guilt, has
no pressing deadlines. Is never hurry, mild mannered.
23. SELF CONCEPT & SELF ESTEEM
• Self concept denotes the extent to which they
consistently regard themselves as capable,
successful, important & worthy. Self concept
(Both ‘I’ & ‘Me’) gives the individual a sense of
meaningfulness and consistency.
• People assignments & contribute to achieve
organizational goals. Self esteem is directly related
to the with high self esteem tend to take
challenging expectations for success. High self
esteem people believe that they possess the ability
needed to succeed at work.
24. LOCUS OF CONTROL
• Personality is developed on the basis of person’s
locus of control which is how one perceives the locus
of control in one’s life.
• Locus of control was formulated within the
framework of Rotter’s social learning theory of
25. THANK YOU ALL FOR LISTENING
TO ME PATIENTLY.
HAVE A NICE DAY
BY AMITA SHARMA