Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is major non-cereal
food crop, ranks 4th in area & production in the world
after wheat, maize & rice.
Originated in Andean region i.e. Southern Peru and
Bolivia where it is domesticated 7000-10000 year ago.
Europeans introduced potato in India during late 16th
century or early 17th century
The Great Irish Famine, due to late blight in the 1845
which resulted in 1 million Irish people died and
another 1 million migrated.
TPS is practically pathogen free & quite easy for
transportation and storage.
3. Taxonomy & Morphology
Important cultivated species
Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum
Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena
2n= 48, tetraploid
About 60 cm high culm
Green cherry fruits (300 seed in each)
Potato stolons: lateral stems grow
Potato tubers: modified stem,
initiation of young tubers at the tip
of stolons at 35-40 DAP, process
4. BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION
It is vegetatively propagated by
means of tubers
The leaves are alternate &
The root is adventitious,arising from
the base of a sprout
The root growth is restricted upto
The flower of the potato are in
terminal cluster which contain five
stamens,two celled pistil,five sepals
5. Area, Production & Productivity
Total Production = 368.1 m t
China = 88.9 m t
India = 48.53 m t
Russia = 30.2 m t
Area = 2.13 m ha
Production = 48.53 m t
Productivity = 227.876 q/ha
Area = 595200 ha
Production = 14755000 t
Productivity = 247.9 q/ha
1/3 of total produced by
China and India.
Major potato producing states:
U.P., W.B., Bihar, Punjab, Haryana
Source FAO 2016-17
8. SEED POTATO
Potato tuber of definite size
are used for further
Should be free from all viral
Should not have been grown
in areas where wart, cyst
nematode and other
quarantine diseases are
Should be either free from
soil and tuber borne diseases
or carry them within
Should be of proper
9. Different Agronomic practices
involved in production of quality
seed1. Seed treatment
2. Seed rate (25-30)q/h
3. Seed size (4-6)cm or >40 g
4. Spacing (60x20)cm
5. Method of planting (3-4 cm depth)
6. Inter-culture (Earthing up etc.)
8. Fertilizer managemet (100-125N,80-100P,100-125K)
9. Weed management
10.Disease & pest management
11. Haulm cutting
11. True Potato Seed Technology
What is TPS?
True Potato Seed (TPS) is
the actual botanical seed
produced by the sexual
reproduction, and is
formed inside the
tomatoes. TPS is
occasionally formed after
the potato has finished
12. True Potato seed is very effective & cheap source of
planting material. The shortage of good quality seed
tubers, high cost of seed, transportation problem,
virus infiltration in seed tubers are some of the
problems associated with the use of seed tubers as
planting material. The concept of raising potato crop
from true potato seeds (TPS) or botanical seeds was
conceived in India in the early fifties by Dr. S.
Ramanujan, the founder director of CPRI.
13. Paired-row concept for Cultivation
of True Potato Seed
Paired-row concept for cultivation of True
Potato Seed (TPS) is the innovation in
which TPS are sown in narrow inter space
of 10 cm ×10 cm with 5 cm for plant to plant
distance. A total of 100 plants per
m2 were maintained in all cases.
This innovation is less laborious than a
single row system, which need more time.
Very high level of seedling maintenance
is the major utility of this concept.
14. Selection of parents
Selection of parents is based on quantity of hybrid
TPS, which can be produced from per unit area from
heterosis. Usually, clones of S. tuberosum are used as
female and S. andigena as male that result in heterosis
with added advantage of high pollen load.
15. Planting of parents
Cut pieces of tuber obtained from male and female
plants are planted in separate blocks with required
staggering period i.e. 7 days early planting of male
than the female to facilitate pollen availability.
Recommended planting geometry for male is 60 x 20
cm an 50 x 15 cm for female
The block with tuber of female parent is kept 1 m wide
with a walking space of 80 cm between blocks.
16. Light requirement
Potato plant require large photoperiodic condition for
flowering. In plains flowering can be achieved by
providing 5 hr of extra illumination during flowering
i.e. December-January from 4 to 9 pm with sodium
vapour lamp of 150 watt. One sodium bulb is sufficient
to cover an area of 100 sqm.
17. Pollination and fertilization
To minimize duration of pollination, bud and flower
bunches are trimmed to remain 6 buds/branch.
The mature male flower are collected in the evening
and stored over night at room tempreture for higher
recovery of pollens.
In commercial seed production programme
pollination is done 2-3 times at interval of 8 hr without
emasculation to save the time.
It allow 1-5% selfing.
18. Harvesting and processing
Berries are picked after 45-50 day of pollination and
allow to ripen. A hand operated reverse screw juice
extractor is used to extract the seed.
The seed and pulp is treated with 10% HCL with
continuous stirring for 20 minutes. The debris is
removed by nylon net of 3.13 mm mesh size.
The seed is washed 3-4 times with water for complete
removal of HCL.
Seeds is spread over a thin layer and dried under shade
for 72 hr and exposed to sunlight for 30 minutes so
that the moisture content up to 5-7% is maintained.
19. Packaging and storage
The seed is packed in double layred polythene bags
and stored at room temperature for short-term storage
and at 6-10 degree calcius for long term storage.
20. Seed sowing
Freshly harvested TPS have dormancy of approximate
180 day therefore, storage for atleast a year is
Dormancy can be released by soaking the seed in 1500-
2000 ppm GA3 solution for 48 hr.
The TPS are sown in nursery beds @ 2 g/sqm and
seedling are transplanted in field within 25 days.
In heavy soil, TPS can be sown directly.
21. Production and utilization of TPS
Selection of parents (1st yrs)
Staggered planting of parental line
Flowering (40 DAP)
Pollination & fertilization
Initiation of berries (45-48 DAP)
22. Maturation of berries (75-80 DAP)
Harvesting of berries, seed extraction &
storage (80 DAP)
Planting of seed in nursery bed ( 2nd yrs)
Seedling tuber production (90 DAP)
Multiplication of seed
24. TPS utilization technologies for
Using TPS, potato crop can be grown by two method
1- direct field sowing
2- Transplanting seedling to the field
3- Planting seedling tuber produced from TPS
25. Advantages of using True Potato
Seeds as planting material
100 grams is sufficient to cover one hectare instead
of planting 2.5-3.0 tons of Potato seed tuber.
TPS has capability of giving more production.
No cold storage facility is required for storing TPS
Comparatively more resistance to pests and diseases.
Net profit is more as cost of cultivation is less and also
as per hectare production is much more.
The seed tubers being utilized could be otherwise
used for consumption.
26. Some varieties of true potatoseeds:-
Some of the important true potatoes seeds
(TPS) varieties are-
HPS 1/13,HPS II/63, TPS C-3, 92-PT-27 etc
27. General Seed Certification
Standards for Seed Potato
I. Classification :
1. Hill Seed (HS): 2500 m ASL2. Plains seed (PS): 2500m BSL
II. Land Requirements : not infested with wart , cyst forming
nematodes, brown rot within the previous 3 years or common
III. Field Inspection: Minimum 4 inspections :
In the hills- 45 DAP
In Plains- 35 DAP
Second inspection: 60-70 DAP
Third inspection: Immediately after haulms cutting/destruction
Fourth inspection: 10 days after haulms cutting/destruction
IV. Isolation: 5 m for FS and CS
V. Isolation for TPS : 200m
29. Potato varieties developed during last 5 years (8)
Indian plains Yield
potential of 40 t/ha
Resistance to early
and late blight, early
bulker, suitable for
Adapted to UP
potential of 40
to late blight,
Adapted to Indo-
gangetic plains and
Yield potential of35
Field resistant tolate
Adapted to North
Indian plains Yield
potential of 40 t/ha
Perform well under
of fertilizers )
Kufri SadabaharKufri Khyati TABLEVARIETIES (4)
30. Kufri Frysona
Adapted to North
Yield potential of40
Resistance to late
blight and wart,
Adapted to Hills
Yield potential of 35
t/ha Resistance to late
blight and wart
Potato varieties developed during last 5 years…contd.
PROCESSING VARIETIES (2)
Adapted to Indian
Hills Yield potential of
35 t/ha Extreme
resistance to late
blight (Joseph et al.,
Yield potential of
30 t/ha Resistance
to early blight, late
blight and cyst
DISEASE RESISTANTVARIETIES (2)
31. Potato Research in India
Central Potato Research Institute,
Shimla (CPRI) established in 1949
It has 7 research centres
• CPRIC, Modipuram, Meerut (UP)
• CPRS, Jalandhar (Punjab)
• CPRS, Gwalior (MP)
• CPRS, Patna (Bihar)
• CPRS, Kufri-Fagu, Shimla (HP)
• CPRS, Udagamandalam (Tamilnadu)
•CPRS, Shillong (Meghlaya)
All India Coordinated Reseaech Project
has headquarter at CPRI, Shimla has a
nationwide network of 25 centers (7 CPRI
based centers, 17 SAU based centers and 1
33. Scope of this technique
In india seed replacement rate of potato crop is ~13%.
So there is a need to increase SR but by potato tuber it
can not be achieve because of their transportation
cost, less availability, requirement of care during
storage etc. For increase of SRR there is a lot of scope
for TPS because it required in less amount, easy to
transport and store.
`It may be concluded that this technique is used for
disease and virus free seed production. The viral
infiltration in the seed tuber is also less. The cost of
tuber treating chemicals is also reduced and requires
very little space for storage. This technique can be used
to checked the diseases to new areas.