4. WHAT are the SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS?
3. Measuring and using numbers
4. making inferences
7. Using space-time relationship
8. interpreting data
9. Defining operationally
10. Controlling variables
11. Making hypotheses
Using the 5 senses (see, hear, touch, smell, taste) to
find out about objects and events, their characteristics,
properties, differences, similarities, and changes
Qualitative – using the senses
Quantitative – using exact measurement
Observations are recorded.
Example: Describing a pencil as yellow.
21. 2. CLASSIFYING
Using observation to group or
order objects or events according
to similarities or differences in
Example: Placing all rocks having
certain grain size or hardness into
WHY DO WE NEED TO CLASSIFY?
1.Too many items or
2. Items or information are not
HOW DO WE CLASSIFY ?
1.Identify the general
characteristics of the items.
2. Sort out items of the same
characteristics into their
3. Identify other characteristic.
4. Repeat step 1-3 until there is
only one item in each group.
You are classifying when you are ...
1. Detecting similarities.
2. Grouping objects based on certain
3. Using other criterion in grouping
4. Grouping objects in different ways.
32. 3. MEASURING AND USING NUMBERS
Comparing an unknown quantity
with a known (metric units, time,
student-generated frames of
Observations are quantified using
proper measuring devices and
33. measuring & using no
• Measurements are to be recorded
in an orderly and systematic
fashion with labeled units of
measure. Charts, graphs, or
tables can be generated manually
or with computer software.
57. 5. PREDICTING
Stating the outcome of a future event
based on a pattern of evidence.
Example: Predicting the height
of a plant in two weeks time
based on a graph of its growth during the
previous four weeks.
61. 6. COMMUNICATING
• using words (written and spoken) or
graphic symbols to describe an action,
object or event.
Example: Describing the change in
height of a plant over time in writing,
through a graph or drawing.
Using the written and spoken
work, graphs, demonstrations,
drawings, diagrams, or tables to
transmit information and ideas to
To reflect the true nature of
science, ideas must be shared.
63. You are communicating
when you are….
• Speaking, listening or writing to
express ideas or meanings.
• Using charts, graphs and tables to
You are communicating
when you are….
• Recording information from
• Posting questions clearly.
• Using references.
• Writing experiment report to enable
others to repeat the experiment.
67. 7. USING SPACE-TIME
• Describing changes in parameter with time
• Parameters are location, direction, shape,
size, volume, weight and mass.
• Applying numbers and their
mathematical relationships to make
Numbers are basic to science -
mathematical knowledge is applied
69. 8. INTERPRETING DATA
Organizing, analyzing, and
synthesizing data using tables,
graphs, and diagrams to locate
patterns that lead to the construction
of inferences, predictions, or
70. 9. DEFINING OPERATIONALLY
• Creating a definition by
describing what is done and
• It is in the language of the
• Definitions are in context of
students' experiences - not from
the glossary, not to be
72. DEFINING OPERATIONALLY
• It is producing a definition of a thing
or event by giving a physical
description or the results of a given
An acid turns blue litmus paper red and tastes sour.
73. 10. CONTROLLING VARIABLES
Manipulating one factor to
investigate the outcome of an
event while other factors are held
constant (keep the same)
Young children become confused
with multiple variables.
Students need practice in
identifying variables that affect
74. Identify variables in an investigation
( What to keep the same, what to change
and what to observe)
Size of salt
Volume of water
Temperature of water
Rate of stir
75. 11. MAKING HYPOTHESES
• Hypothesizing is stating a
tentative generalization which
may be used to explain a
relatively large number of
events. It is subject to immediate
or eventual testing by
experiments (to determine its
76. Suggest suitable explanations in
line with the evidence at hand
Time taken to
5 spoons 10 min
3 spoons 5 min
1 spoon 2 min
Time taken for the sugar to
dissolve increases as the
quantity of sugar increases.
78. 12. Experimenting
(Designing a fair test)
• Designing experiments involves planning a
series of data-gathering operations which
will provide a basis for testing a hypothesis
or answering a question.
Automobile manufacturers test seat belt
performance in crash tests.
79. Be a scientifically literate
• The scientifically literate person uses
processes of science in solving
problems, making decisions, and
furthering understanding of society and
80. Science Process Skills
• "A Head Start on Science"
emphasizes encouraging a sense
of wonder within young children
through their use of the science
81. • Do not spoon-feed them specific
information about these objects and
• Rather, they are encouraged to expand
their perceptions of the world by
learning how better to observe such
eg. as caterpillars changing into
butterflies, how to compare the smells
of various foods, how to classify
leaves collected on a walk, and how to
communicate what they have learned.