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The Architecture Profession

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The Architecture Profession

  1. 1. Kuwait University College of Engineering and Petroleum Department of Architecture Professional Practice 1
  2. 2. <ul><ul><li>Lecture 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Architecture Profession </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><ul><li>Professional Services Provided by Architects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questionnaire </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Professional Practice Courses introduce architectural students to the world of professional practice. </li></ul><ul><li>The profession as we know it today was formalized in the nineteenth century. </li></ul><ul><li>The twentieth century, and especially the last three decades, has been a time of explosive growth and change for the profession. </li></ul><ul><li>Architects are part of a larger planning, design, and construction enterprise that works to meet our needs for shelter and habitat. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. International The Union of International Architects (UIA) The UIA is an international non governmental organization founded in Lausanne in 1948 to unite architects from all nations throughout the world, regardless of nationality, race, religion or architectural school of thought, within the federations of their national associations. The UIA represents over a million architects throughout the world through national architectural associations that form the 92 UIA Member Sections. A democratically structured body, the UIA is a unique world network uniting all architects. http://www.uia-architectes.org/ <ul><ul><li>The Professional Bodies Around the World </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. USA The American Institute of Architects (AIA) http://www.aia.org UK The Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) was established to define and uphold this professional standard, and since 1931, and the Architects (Registration) Acts, UK law requires that any person who calls themselves an architect or wishes to practice as such and carries on a business with that title must appear on a government register. Presently this register, and the rules governing qualification, conduct and disciplinary actions for architects are maintained by the Architects Registration Board (ARB). The RIBA and the ARB jointly validate the courses that lead to qualification. http:// www. architecture.com <ul><ul><li>The Professional Bodies Around the World </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Kuwait Kuwait Society of Engineers (KSE) Kuwait League of Architects (KLA) <ul><ul><li>The Professional Bodies Around the World </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Project Team Owner Architect General Contractor
  9. 9. Architect <ul><li>(from the Greek work architekton meaning master builder): </li></ul><ul><li>One who designs buildings and superintends their construction. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Architect <ul><li>An individual who starts out </li></ul><ul><li>knowing a little about a lot of different things , </li></ul><ul><li>and, over time, </li></ul><ul><li>learns less and less about more and more , </li></ul><ul><li>until he ends up </li></ul><ul><li>knowing nothing about everything . </li></ul>
  11. 11. Engineer <ul><li>An individual who starts out </li></ul><ul><li>knowing a lot about a few things , </li></ul><ul><li>and, over time, </li></ul><ul><li>learns more and more about less and less , </li></ul><ul><li>until he ends up </li></ul><ul><li>knowing everything about nothing . </li></ul>
  12. 12. Contractor <ul><li>Someone who starts out </li></ul><ul><li>knowing a lot about many things , </li></ul><ul><li>but ends up </li></ul><ul><li>knowing nothing about anything </li></ul><ul><li>due to his association with </li></ul><ul><li>architects and engineers . </li></ul>
  13. 13. Owner <ul><li>Someone who </li></ul><ul><li>starts out with a good relationship with architects, engineers, and contractors . . . </li></ul>but ends up hiring an attorney.
  14. 14. Owner Consultant Consultant Consultant Trade Contractor Trade Contractor Trade Contractor Architect Contractor
  15. 15. <ul><li>Architectural practice encompasses the activities of organizing, managing, and documenting the architectural project delivery process as it applies to the modification of the built-environment through the design of buildings. </li></ul><ul><li>These activities may be grouped into 5 major content areas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Laws and Regulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business and Practice Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project Finance and Building Economics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Architectural Project Delivery Process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contracts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ARCHITECTURAL PRACTICE DEFINED (NAAB) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Legal issues refer to the body of common law, legislation, and regulation (public policy) which affect architectural practice , including the basis for registration of Architects and legal standards of professional conduct. </li></ul><ul><li>This content area also includes the most common causes of actions under which architects are sued : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negligence, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breach (Violation) of Contract, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strict Liability, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implied Warranty. Liability, exposure, and Insurance issues will be generally addressed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LAWS AND REGULATIONS </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Management issues refer to establishing an architectural practice under the different forms of business organization including the professional ethics applicable to the conduct of the practice of architecture. </li></ul><ul><li>The types of information required to document the Architect's design intent, given the Architect's duty to render &quot; reasonably&quot; competent professional services , as well as other methods of risk management that attempt to limit the Architect's professional liability. </li></ul><ul><li>The marketing of architectural services and the basis for fee negotiations and professional compensation . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BUSINESS AND PRACTICE MANAGEMENT </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Economic issues refer to the financial aspects of a building project, including the economics of development and the financial management of the firm . </li></ul><ul><li>This content area also includes site acquisition and development costs, building costs - and the factors influencing them, design cost control procedures, and value analysis . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PROJECT FINANCE AND ECONOMICS </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Process issues refer to the entire range of activities involved in an architectural project as it moves from inception through design and construction phases to beneficial occupancy by the Owner/Client/User. </li></ul><ul><li>These processes not only include those services performed by the architect, but also those performed by other participants . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ARCHITECTURAL PROJECT DELIVERY PROCESS </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. These activities (from the Architect's viewpoint) may be grouped into 6 major phases of work: • Pre-Design Phase: Program Definition, Feasibility Analysis • Design Phase: Schematic Design, Design Development • Construction Document Phase: Documentation of the Design Intent • Bidding and Negotiation Phase: Establishing the Cost of the Design Intent • Construction Phase: Administration of the Construction Contract • Post-Construction Phase: Warranty Review, Post Occupancy Evaluation <ul><ul><li>ARCHITECTURAL PROJECT DELIVERY PROCESS </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Process issues also refer to the different types of contractual arrangements and to the procedures for their administration. </li></ul><ul><li>This includes the major participant's roles and ways in which the various major participants in the design and construction processes are related and obligated to one another , including the specification of these relationships and obligations. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ARCHITECTURAL PROJECT DELIVERY PROCESS </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><ul><li>Lecture 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Project Cycle </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>PRE-DESIGN </li></ul><ul><li>It is in the preliminary stages of brief preparation and design where the opportunity to effectively influence the successful outcome of a project is greatest and the cost of doing so least. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional Services Provided by Architects </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>PRE-DESIGN </li></ul><ul><li>The range of Pre-Design elements include: </li></ul><ul><li>Identification of the client's needs and options </li></ul><ul><li>Feasibility and costing studies </li></ul><ul><li>Value management studies </li></ul><ul><li>Project delivery programs and building procurement advice </li></ul><ul><li>Life-cycle cost analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Site , geotechnical and infrastructure investigations </li></ul><ul><li>Detailed project brief preparation . </li></ul><ul><li>Master Planning . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional Services Provided by Architects </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>SCHEMATIC DESIGN </li></ul><ul><li>Schematic Design is an advance of the preferred planning options while ensuring that the broad spatial and functional planning requirements are achieved. </li></ul><ul><li>The Schematic Design will result in the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Site Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Plans, elevations and sections of the preferred design </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule of proposed materials, finishes and signage </li></ul><ul><li>Color Board of all materials and finishes </li></ul><ul><li>Cost Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Schematic Design Report </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment drawings. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional Services Provided by Architects </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. <ul><li>DESIGN DEVELOPMENT </li></ul><ul><li>From the broad brush requirements of the Schematic Design, a design proposal is developed and agreed with the client and includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Refinement of the function and form </li></ul><ul><li>Structural systems </li></ul><ul><li>Internal spaces of the building </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical </li></ul><ul><li>Hydraulic services </li></ul><ul><li>More detailed estimates of cost </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of time program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional Services Provided by Architects </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DESIGN DEVELOPMENT </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>From this stage the client will receive the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Fully developed Site Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Fully developed plans of each level of the preferred design </li></ul><ul><li>Roof Plan (slopes, materials and penetrations) </li></ul><ul><li>Elevations of all aspects and general sections </li></ul><ul><li>Chosen plans and sections that describe the building form through the overall scheme or part of it at a scale of 1:100 </li></ul><ul><li>Part and elevations of typical elements and sections </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule of finishes and sample board </li></ul><ul><li>A report from the Building Surveyor explaining the approach to the design solution. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional Services Provided by Architects </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. <ul><li>CONTRACT DOCUMENTATION </li></ul><ul><li>Drawings and specifications are detailed from the Design Development and may include: </li></ul><ul><li>Bills of Quantities sufficient for the calling of competitive tenders and to enable the building to be constructed as intended. </li></ul><ul><li>A tender estimate </li></ul><ul><li>Coordination and integration of the work of each discipline . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional Services Provided by Architects </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><li>TENDER EVALUATION </li></ul><ul><li>When design and documentation is completed, the project goes to tender and this service includes the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Calling of tenders </li></ul><ul><li>Answering tender inquiries </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of tenders in conjunction with or on behalf of the client </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis and advice in respect of tenders received, including any necessary negotiations with tenders </li></ul><ul><li>The preparation of formal contract documents </li></ul><ul><li>Arrangements for the execution of the contract . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional Services Provided by Architects </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. <ul><li>CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION </li></ul><ul><li>The administration of the contract is carried out, including: </li></ul><ul><li>Reporting on construction progress and cost </li></ul><ul><li>Observance of compliance with the documented intent by periodic inspection of the works </li></ul><ul><li>Supplying information , checking progress claims and issuing progress certificates , negotiating variations and cost adjustments and dealing with claims for extensions of time and other matters included in the building contract. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional Services Provided by Architects </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. <ul><li>POST CONSTRUCTION SERVICES </li></ul><ul><li>When the project is ready for occupancy Project Services provides aftercare services including: </li></ul><ul><li>Manuals for facilities management or maintenance and operation purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Systems and equipment commissioning and adjustment </li></ul><ul><li>Periodic maintenance inspections </li></ul><ul><li>Replacement cost estimating for insurance purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Warranty and operational reviews </li></ul><ul><li>Contractor maintenance evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Post-occupancy evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Energy and environmental health surveys. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional Services Provided by Architects </li></ul></ul>
  32. 33. <ul><ul><li>Professional Services Provided by Architects </li></ul></ul>
  33. 34. <ul><ul><li>Professional Services Provided by Architects </li></ul></ul>
  34. 35. <ul><ul><li>Professional Services Provided by Architects </li></ul></ul>
  35. 36. <ul><ul><li>Professional Services Provided by Architects </li></ul></ul>
  36. 37. <ul><ul><li>Professional Services Provided by Architects </li></ul></ul>
  37. 38. <ul><ul><li>Professional Services Provided by Architects </li></ul></ul>
  38. 39. <ul><ul><li>Professional Services Provided by Architects </li></ul></ul>
  39. 40. <ul><ul><li>Professional Services Provided by Architects </li></ul></ul>
  40. 41. END