1. ART NOUVEAU
Art Nouveau was most popular during 1890–1910, is an international philosophy and style
of art, architecture and applied art—
especially the decorative art. It was inspired
by natural forms and structures, not only in
flowers and plants, but also in curved lines.
Architects tried to harmonize with the natural
environment. Art Nouveau is most of the
decorative arts including jewellery, furniture,
textiles, household silver and other utensils
and lighting, as well as the fine arts.
As an art style, Art Nouveau has affinities with the Pre-
Raphaelites and the Symbolist styles and could be classed
in more than one of these styles. Art Nouveau did not
negate machines, as the Arts and Crafts Movement did. Art
Nouveau architecture made use of many technological
innovations of the late 19th century, especially the use of
exposed iron and large, irregularly shaped pieces of glass
The style was the first major
artistic stylistic movement in which mass-produced graphics
played a key role, often techniques of colour printing developed
relatively recently. A key influence was the Paris-based Czech
artist Alphonse Mucha, who produced a lithographed poster.
Two-dimensional Art Nouveau pieces were painted, drawn, and
printed in popular forms such as advertisements, posters, labels,
magazines, and the like. Japanese wood-block prints, with their
curved lines, patterned surfaces, contrasting voids, and flatness
of visual plane, also inspired Art Nouveau. Some line and curve
patterns became graphic clichés that were later found in works
of artists from many parts of the world.
Glass art was a medium in which the style found tremendous expression. Examples include
the lamps and favrile glass of Louis Comfort Tiffany. Art Nouveau
ceramics were also influenced by the work of Japan. Artists called for
a re-examination of vegetal and zoological
motifs, particularly as seen in Japanese
art. The development of high temperature
(grand feu) porcelain with crystallised and
matte glazes, with or without other
decoration, is typical of these works.