A formal letter is a letter written to a
business, a college, or any professional that are not considered
friends or family.
An informal letter is a letter you
would write to a friend or family
FORMAL LETTER AT A GLANCE
•DATE OF WRITING
•SUBJECT OF LETTER
•SALUTATION( e.g. respected sir/mam)
•INTRODUCTION (DESCRIBES PURPOSE OF
AMLA PUBLIC SCHOOL
13 MAY 2017
THE MANAGER XYZ PUBLICATIONS
SUBJECT: CANCELLATION OF ORDER APS/33/12-13
KINDLY REFER TO OUR ABOVE ORDER DATED 7 MARCH 2017FOR
VARIOUS TEXT BOOKS FOR OUR SCHOOLS STUDDENTS IN WHICH
THE LAST DATE OF DELIVERY WAS 31 MARCH 2017.
WE REGRET THAT THE BOOKS WE ORDERED HAVE NOT ECEIVED BY
AS THE NEW TERM OF THE SCHOOL HAS STARTED WE ARE
CONSTRAINED TO CANCEL THE ABOVE ORDER AS YOU DID NOT
COMPLY WITH THE DELIVEERY DATE AND ALSO HAVE NOT
INFORMED US WHEN WE EXPECT THE BOOKS TO BE DELIVERED.
KINDLY ACKNOWLEDGE RECEIPT OF THIS LETTERR.
Formal letter example
oWould you please inform me……….
oI shall be obliged if you………..
oWe are interested in……and would like to……….
oWe regret to inform you
o expect This complain would not affect our earlier business relations
APPLICATION FOR JOB
o In response to your advertisement……
o I would like to apply for the post
o LETTERS TO EDITOR TO BRING TO THE REQUEST
o I wish to bring to the notice of the concerned Authorities……….
o In my opinion………….
o I am shocked……….
INFORMAL LETTER AT A GLANCE
oInclude receiver’s name
oBegan with normal chat
owritten in personal fashion(friendly tone).
oShare your new experience if any
orefer to earlier received letters
ogive best wishes, love regards
Is a piece of writing usually intended for publication in a
newspaper, magazine or journal.
Is written for a wide audience, so it is essential to attract
and retain the readers’ attention
May include amusing stories, reported speech and
May be formal or informal, depending on the target
Should be written in an interesting/entertaining manner.
Should give opinions and thoughts, as well as facts.
Is in a less formal style than a report.
An article can...
Describe an experience, event, person or place.
Present an opinion or balancedargument.
Compare and contrast
• An introduction which clearly defines the topic to
bé covered and keeps the reader’s attention.
• The main body of two to five parapgraphs in
which the topic is further developed in detail.
• The conclusion – summarising the topic or a final
opinion, recommendation or comment.
Before you begin - Remember to consider
WHERE is the article going to appear – newspaper or magazine?
WHO are the intended readers – a specific group of students/teenagers, or
adults in general?
WHAT is the aim of the article – to advise, suggest, inform, compare and
contrast, describe, etc.?
**These three points are the deciding factors in the layout of your article – its
style, language and level of formality.
Useful phrases for writing an article
Introducing your opinion:
In my opinion
Personally I believe that
In my view
If you ask me
To my mind
My personal opinion is
Use vocabulary and descriptive language
appropriate to the article.
Linking expressions and words, and a variety of
vocabulary will only improve your work and make
it more interesting.
DO NOT use over-personal or over-emotional
language or simplistic vocabulary.
Every story has a beginning, middle, and
end. But the secret to successfully getting a
short story published is to add something
special to your storytelling mix…something
that captures the attention of editors and
Craft A Strong Title.
This can be one of the most difficult—but one
of the most important—parts of writing your
story. How do you find inspiration for a great
An excerpts from your text just might hold the
perfect title. Try to stay away from one- or
two-word titles, which can seem to editors as
taking the easy way out.
Always try to make the opening of a story interesting
or exciting for the reader(Don't start with One day -
There are three different ways to start a story:
Dialogue: "Sharks!" shouted the ship's look out,
"hundreds of them!"
Action: An ear splitting whistle made all the pirates
leap to attention. At once they ran in different
directions, bumping into one another, scrambling over
untidy piles of ropes and tarpaulin, sliding
down rickety ladders, all trying to be the first
in the queue for lunch
Description: The sea glistened like a sparkling,
silver mirror. Waves lapped gently at the sides of
the Saucy Sue as she sailed silently along in the
cool, refreshing breeze, her Jolly Roger flag
fluttering limply. Seagulls circled overhead, calling
to each other. No-one would guess what terrible
adventure lay ahead for Captain Peg-Leg and his
crew of daring pirates.
Two or three characters are usually enough for a short story.
Here's how to make the characters sound real:
(#) Give them suitable names.
Pirates: Captain Peg-Leg, Scar-faced Bill, Sly Sam, One-eyed
Astronauts: Commander Ben Lewis, Assistant Commander Buzz
Owens, Captain Tilly Jones
(#)Try to show their personalities in the things
(#) Try to show how they feel using adjectives and
(#)Write what they say and what they think
Imagine you are taking a video of everything you can see
happening in the scene. Write detailed descriptive
sentences Expand sentences to
explain who, what, how,where, when, and why something
happened, like this:
The tiny bird hopped quickly across the garden, picked
up the bread, andimmediately flew off to a safe place to
An interesting story will contain several events.
A strong exciting plot centres on an unexpected event, a
crisis, or a problem, which needs to be sorted out by the
end of a story. Stories can contain more than one problem.
Plans could go wrong:
•There could be an accident.
•Someone or something could get lost.
•A machine could break down.
•Something important could get stolen.
Explain the result of the events or show how the problem was solved. (But
don't end with everyone going home for tea or someone waking up to find it
was all a dream - that's boring!)
Endings usually bring the story round 'full circle'. For example,
Start: Three scruffy pirates sat gloomily around a table in the Lord Nelson
pub, staring down in to their empty beer glasses. One by one they emptied
out their pockets. It seemed they had all run out of money.
The final sentence is as important as the opening sentence. It usually sums
up the story's theme or message
An e-mail, short for electronic mail is a store and forward
method of composing, sending, storing and receiving
messages over electronic communication systems.
It is the quickest way to communicate in writing.
E-mail messages consist of two major sections:
1. Header consisting of - subject, sender, receiver, date and
2. Body which contains the message. It can be a formal /
Tips on composing e-mails:
It should be brief
It should give a clue to the content of the message
It need not be a complete sentence
Dear Sir / first name of the person
Begin with a pleasantry or greeting
When replying to a message - Thank you for your message / I received your message
Clarity and tone
When you expect a reply - 'Please let me know'
When you want help - 'Please' or 'Kindly'
Each main idea should be in a separate paragraph, making it easy for the reader to understand the message.
Use complete sentences (no SMS language)
Regards / love
How to Make an Effective E-mail
• Selecting Your Audience Correctly
• Using Distribution Lists
• Composing Your Messages
• Make the heading meaningful
• Keep each message short and clear.
• Start each message by stating its purpose/context
Biographical sketch is a smaller version of the
general biography paper. It describes the basic
information which gives the ability to
understand who is the person you’re writing
Biographical sketch means an account of the life and activities of an
individual or family.
It would include information about the person's name, place of residence,
education, occupation, life and activities and other important details.
A biographical sketch is always written by someone else except the person
on whom it is written.
A bio-sketch presents the facts about the person's life including what the
person did and how he/she influenced the world. It should describe the
person's personality and provide an explanation for why he or she acted in
Most bio-sketches not only present the facts but also tell what those facts
Writing a Biographical sketch:
Name : Subash Chandra Bose ; Netaji
Contribution : immense, Freedom Fighter
Born : January 23, 1897 in Cuttack, Orissa.
Career : Civil Services
Achievements : Joined struggle; established Indian National Army
Motto : Give me blood and I will give you freedom
Setback : Retreat after the defeat of Japan and Germany.
Death : Air crash over Taipei, Taiwan (Formosa) on August 18, 1945.
Subhash Chandra Bose, affectionately called Netaji, was
born on January 23, 1897 in Cuttack, Orissa. He was one
of the most prominent leaders of Indian freedom
struggle. Deeply moved by the Jallianwala Bagh
massacre, he gave up a promising career in the Civil
Service to join the Freedom Movement. He founded the
Indian National Army to overthrow British Empire from
India. His famous motto was "Give me blood and will give
you freedom". However, defeat of Japan and Germany in
the Second World War forced INA to retreat and it could
not achieve its objective. Subhash Chandra Bose was
reportedly killed in an air crash over Taipei, Taiwan
(Formosa) on August 18, 1945.
A notice is information regarding an important event that
is about to happen or that has happened.
It is publicly displayed -- a kind of information for others to
know and follow.
The notice must contain complete information
The message with essential details includes :
an eye-catching caption - preferably a phrase and not a
the name of the body / organisation organising the
A notice must have:
The word ‘Notice’
Date on which the notice was issued
Body of notice with details:
Name and designation of person
issuing the notice
In Passive Voice
Presented within a box
Word limit: 40–50 (only words in body counted)
Information given must be clear
Should not cause any misunderstanding or confusion
Catchy, appealing – Attract attention at once
Bold letters, catchy slogans, striking words/ phrases
No Personal Pronouns
Short but grammatically accurate sentences
JAWAHAR NAVODYA VIDYALAYA, VADODRA
21 July, 2014
CAREER COUNSELING WORKSHOP
The Students' Council of the school is organizing a Career Counseling Workshop for students of Classes IX and X on Saturday,
23rd of July, 2014 between 9 am and 1 pm in the School Auditorium. Renowned counselors from MS University will address
the students. Students interested in participating should be seated in the Auditorium by 8.45 am.
A report is a description of an even that has already taken place. It is a factual account of some
event or happening that may have occurred somewhere but is of interest to the general masses
or the readers for whom it is meant.
A newspaper report must be comprehensive but brief; factual yet interesting.
Factual reporting is the accurate and truthful coverage of an event.
It is a brief review of a situation or a process that includes only the relevant points and
IMPORTANT POINT TO REMEMBER
• It is usually written in third person and indirect speech.
• Passive voice is used.
• The language used is neutral and figurative. Ornamental language is
• The content should include when, where, why and how of the topic
to be written about.
HOW TO WRITE A NEWSPAPER REPORT
Headline -every news article has a headline to attract the attention of the reader.
The Headline must be:
brief - leave out articles, prepositions, etc where possible, use
abbreviations/shortened word-forms wherever possible.
Byline-since this is your news article you need to let the reader know who wrote
it. The line with your name on it is called "by" line because it tells by whom the
article has been written. Write the word "By" followed by your first and last
On the next line, write your School and City.
EXAMPLE OF REPORT
(Q)Aastha/ Anshul is the Secreatary of Green Fingers, the Environment Club of Gurukul School, Delhi. The school
celebrated Van Mahotsava on August 24. She/he wrote a report of the programme for the school newsletter. As
Aastha/Anshul write the report.
Vana Mahotsava Celebrated
Aastha/Anshul, Secretary Green Fingers
Delhi August 25 Vanamahotsava was celebrated by Green Fingers, the Environment Club of the school,
with great enthusiasm on the 24th August.
The District Forest Officer, Mr. S.D. Bhambri was the chief guest. He inaugurated the Bio-diversity
Park in the school. The Principal, Ms Rajni Patel planted a sapling in the Park.
Speaking on the occasion, Mr. Bhambri urged the students to plant more trees and to launch a campaign
to save the environment. Students of the Primary Wing of the school presented a cultural programme.
The senior students staged a play on saving the environment.
The Principal announced a cash award of ` 5000 each and a merit certificate for two students for
creating the best environmental projects. She also outlined the plan for a 'Green Campaign' to
be launched soon to create awareness among the public.
A message is a short, informal piece of writing conveying the information to a
person for whom the information was intended but who was not at hand to
receive the information.
How to write a message
Since a message is received at a particular time and conveys
Information that the receiver must act upon, a message must
have a date and time.
The name of person for whom message is intended must be
The message must convey all relevant details like the name
of the person who left the message, the reason for leaving the
message and follow-up action required.
27th January 20xx
Dr. Geena Trehan rang to say that she had gone through your
reports and she could find no serious problem. Other tests
will be conducted if there is no improvement. You must
continue with the medicine. She has fixed an appointment
at X Hospital with Heart Specialist. You have to be there at
two o'clock tomorrow with your reports.
A diary entry is a purely personal
piece of writing. The writer
expresses his/her thoughts and
feelings. Reactions to incidents are
generally poured out in a diary.
Hence expressions that are
emotionally charged are used.
POINTS TO REMEMBER:
• Creativity, imagination and expression in diary writing are
• You should write as if you have really been a part of the
• It is written in the first person.
• One does not write about things experienced on a daily basis.
Only matters of some significance are recorded.
• It is a secret record of one’s life, so one can be very honest
about one’s feelings and emotions.
Salutation ‘Dear Diary’ (optional)
Heading of the entry (optional)
Contents of the diary entry
20th May 20xx, Wednesday 8
Today I am very happy as.
Here are some tips that will help your diary look real…
1.Write in a chronological order.
Start with events that happened early in the day, and end with events that
took place in the evening.
2. Write in the first person
Use pronouns suchas I,We, Us, We´re, I´m. This will make you feel part ofthe story!
3. Detailed description
Give detailed information about places, objects, people and events.
Avoid describing what isnot needed! Your diary has toinclude yourpersonal touch,so you
are not going to write about something youare not interested in.
4. Familiar events
talking about events that involved you, or your family, or close friends.
Avoid talking about strangers, and events you were not involved in.
5. Explain why…
If you are sad, remember to explain why (Don´t write “I´m sad today…”)
If you are happy, tell your diary why you are happy!
6. And last but not least…
Don´t be afraid to write about your feelings and emotions. Áfter all, it´s a
personal diary and you share everything with it!
An essay is a piece of writing that usually has five or more
paragraphs. An essay is written about one topic that has
several main points. The main points are introduced in an
introductory paragraph and supported in body
paragraphs. The conclusion is the last paragraph.
Body Paragraph 1
Body Paragraph 2
Body Paragraph 3
What is an essay ?
Every essay has three parts: a beginning, a middle, and an end. The
beginning is also called the introduction. The introduction has two main
purposes: to draw the reader in and make him/her want to read more and
to prepare the reader for the direction that the essay is going to take.
The introduction usually has three parts:
1. The hook (or dramatic opener) consists of several sentences
that pull the reader into the essay.
2. The transitional sentence connects the hook to the thesis
3. The thesis statement is one or two sentences that states the
idea of the essay.
Going to a new school can be exciting, but for an international
student, the years of education in a different country can be
difficult and tumultuous. When I first arrived in the U.S. to attend a
university, I was overwhelmed and confused by everything new.
Fortunately, I met three very special friends who made a positive
impact on my life during those years and helped me survive the
trials of being a foreigner in a completely different educational
BODY OF ESSAY
The body consists of one or more paragraphs following the
introduction. Each paragraph supports the main idea of
your essay by breaking it down into smaller ideas or sub-
topics. Each body paragraph consists of a topic sentence
and several supporting sentences. A conclusion sentence
draws the paragraph together.
Supporting SentencesConcluding Sentence
One of the first people I met was Joe Frieda. I first met Joe standing in a
line at the bookstore. I was having a difficult time finding the books for the
English classes I was taking my first semester here. He not only helped me
find my books, but he also gave me some good advice on where to get
tutorial help on campus and where I could find some good restaurants.
We’ve become better friends since then and he has been so helpful in
answering any questions I have about going to school in the U.S. and about
American culture. If I hadn’t met Joe that day, I might still be looking for the
right books for my classes!
The conclusion paragraph is the last paragraph in the essay. It
completes the essay by summarizing or repeating the most
important ideas. The conclusion can also include an opinion, a
prediction, or a solution to a problem.
Body Paragraph 1
Body Paragraph 2
Body Paragraph 3
“The significance of the kindness that these three people showed me and
the impact that it has made on my life during my experience as an
international student at State University cannot be underestimated. I will
never forget their friendship and will remember their examples of kindness to
me whenever I encounter other foreigners in my own country.
Summary of Main Ideas
Promise or Resolution
There are THREE important things to consider as you write your essay:
subject, audience and purpose.
Throughout your educational career, teachers will be giving you writing
assignments. They want to see if you understand material covered in class, they
want to know your opinion on a particular topic, and they want to determine if
you can express ideas clearly.
There will be occasions when you will want to write an essay in other situations
as well. Maybe you want to write a letter to the editor of a newspaper, or
perhaps the boss at a job you're applying for wants you to write why you think
you're qualified for the position.
In any case, most of the time, the subject of the essay will be given to you. Even
if it's not, the primary thing you want to remember is to write about what you
Many times your audience will be your teacher. Sometimes, even though your
teacher will be the primary reader and grader of your essay, he or she will ask
you write to a different audience. Other times your audience will be your peers,
parents, employers, newspaper editors, or the community.
Your audience should determine how you will write and what you will say in your
essay. Before you start writing you should do the following.
1. Understand your audience's interests and perspectives.
2. Evaluate your topic in relation to your audience.
3. Adapt your topic, examples, and language so that they are
appropriate for your audience.
• The purpose of your essay will determine what type of essay you write. Each type
has certain uses and styles. Below are five types of essays you will write in 4th
Narrative - recalls an event or series of events
Expository - explains, clarifies, or illustrates
Response to Literature – shows that you understand a literary work (poem,
book, story) and can make judgments about the text with evidence to support it.
Summaries - write summaries that contain the main ideas of the reading
selection and the most significant details
Information Reports – a report where you do research, and you cite facts from
different sources (books, magazines, on-line articles).
The Indian Independence Day :
The 15th of August is a very important day in the history of our country - India.
It was on this day in 1947 that India became independent. We won freedom after a hard struggle. On this day our first
Prime Minister Pundit Jawaharlal Nehru unfurled The National Flag at The Red Fort for the first time.
All the people irrespective of their caste, look and creed celebrate this day every year amidst great rejoicing. It is declared
a public holiday. On this day we take a pledge to defend our freedom with all our might.
The Independence Day is celebrated all over India with great joy. People hold meetings. Fly the tricolor and sing the
national anthem. There are great enthusiasms among them.
In Delhi, the capital of India, this day is celebrated with great pomp and show. People gather in large numbers into the
parade ground in front the red fort. There is a great hustle and bustle everywhere. They line up the roads all leading to the
fort and eagerly wait for the arrival of the Prime Minter.
The foreign ambassadors and dignitaries also partipcate in the celebrations. The prime minster unfurls the national flag. A
guard of honor is given by the local police and armed forces personnel. A salute of 21 guns is fired. The military band plays
the national anthem. The Prime Minister greets the ambassadors seated at the parapet and delivers a speech.
Homage is paid to those who sacrificed their lives for the freedom of our country. After the Prime Minister’s speech, the
functions come to an end with the recital of our national anthem, ‘Jan Gina Manna’ and the crowd begins to melt away.
The Independence Day reminds us of those patriots who fought and suffered to win freedom for us.