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Geotechnical engineering 1

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Geotechnical engineering 1

  1. 1. P a g e | 89 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING – 1 UNIT – 1 1. Define porosity. Soils usually consist of particles, water and air. The porosity ‘n’ of a given soil sample is the ratio of the volume of voids to the total volume of the given soil mass. 𝑛 = 𝑉𝑣 𝑉 2. Define density index. It is defined as the ratio of the difference between the void ratio of the soil in its loosest state and its natural void ratio to the difference between the void ratios in the loosest and densest state. It is also called relative density or degree of density. 𝐼 𝐷 = 𝑒 𝑚𝑎𝑥 − 𝑒 𝑒 𝑚𝑎𝑥 − 𝑒 𝑚𝑖𝑛 Where, e = Natural void ratio of the deposit emax = Void ratio in the loosest state emin = Void ratio in the densest state 3. What are the various types of transported soil?  Aeolian deposit  Alluvial deposit  Glacial deposit  Lacustrine deposit
  2. 2. P a g e | 90 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry  Marine deposit 4. What is absolute specific gravity? All the internal voids of soil particles (permeable and impermeable) are excluded for determining the true volume of voids, the specific gravity obtained is called absolute or true specific gravity. 5. What is dry mass density? The dry mass density is the mass of solids per unit of total volume (prior to drying) of the soil mass. 𝜌 𝑑 = 𝑀 𝑑 𝑉 6. What is specific gravity? The specific gravity is defined as the ratio of the weight of a given volume of soil solids at a given temperature to the weight of an equal volume of distilled water at that same temperature. 𝐺 = 𝛾𝑠 𝛾 𝑤 7. How do you classify the soil?  Residual soil  Transported soil
  3. 3. P a g e | 91 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry 8. Distinguish between porosity and void ratio. S. No POROSITY VOID RATIO 1. 2. Soils usually consist of particles, water and air. The porosity ‘n’ of a given soil sample is the ratio of the volume of voids to the total volume of the given soil mass. 𝑛 = 𝑉𝑣 𝑉 It is defined as the ratio of volume of voids to the volume of soil solids in the given soil mass. 𝑒 = 𝑉𝑣 𝑉𝑠 9. Sketch the phase diagram for a soil and indicate the volume and weights of the phase on it. 10.What is saturated density of soil? When soil mass is saturated its bulk density is called saturated density. It is defined as the ratio of soil mass of saturated sample to its total volume. It is denoted by the symbol ρsat.
  4. 4. P a g e | 92 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry 𝜌𝑠𝑎𝑡 = 𝜌 𝑤 ( 𝐺 + 𝑒 ) 1 + 𝑒 11.Define soil mechanics. Soil mechanics is defined as the application of the laws and principles of mechanics and hydraulics to engineering problems dealing with soil as an engineering material. 12.Define the term residual soil. Residual soils are those which have remained over the parent rock from which they have been formed. They are relatively shallow in depth. They are characterized by a gradual transition from soil through partially weathered rocks, fractured and fissured rock to bedrock. 13.How do you distinguish between clay and silt? S. No CLAY SILT 1. 2. 3. 4. It is an aggregate of mineral particles of microscopic and sub- microscopic range. The soil may be organic or inorganic. Organic clays are more compressible because of the presence of finely divided organic matter. Inorganic clays are generally more plastic than the organic clays. Particles become dusty when dry and are easily brushed off hands. The soil may be inorganic. Potentially large expansion upon wetting. Difficult to compaction.
  5. 5. P a g e | 93 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry 14.What are the different types of soil structures? Following are the types of soil structures which have been recognized in various soil deposits.  Coarse grained skeleton structure  Cohesive matrix structure  Dispersed structure  Flocculent structure  Honeycomb structure  Single grained structure 15.What are the minerals present in clay soil?  Attapulgite  Calcium smectite  Chlorite  Illite  Kaolinite  Smectite  Sodium smectite  Vermiculite 16.Define submerged unit weight. Where the in-situ soil is saturated with water, the particles are subjected to an all-round thrust. The submerged unit weight is given by difference in the unit weight of a saturated soil and the unit weight of water. The submerged unit weight 𝛾′ is the submerged weight of soil solids ( 𝑊𝑑 ) 𝑠𝑢𝑏 per unit of total volume (V) of the soil mass. It is also called buoyant unit weight.
  6. 6. P a g e | 94 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry 𝛾′ = ( 𝑊𝑑 ) 𝑠𝑢𝑏 𝑉 = 𝛾𝑠𝑎𝑡 − 𝛾 𝑤 17.Define state of consistency. The term consistency refers to the relative ease with which a soil mass can be deformed and is used to describe the degree of firmness of fine- grained soils for which consistency relates to a large extent to water content. The four states of consistency suggested by Atterberg are indicated in this figure. 18.What is degree of saturation? In a given volume of voids of a sample, some space is occupied by water and the rest by air. In a fully saturated sample, the voids get completely filled with water. The degree of saturation ‘S’ is defined as the ratio of the volume of water present in a given soil mass to the total volume of voids in it. 𝑆 = 𝑉𝑤 𝑉𝑣 The degree of saturation is usually expressed as a percentage and is also known as percent saturation. S = 1 (for fully saturated sample)
  7. 7. P a g e | 95 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry S = 0 (for perfectly dry sample) 19.Define water content. The water content ‘w’, also called the moisture content, is defined as the ratio of weight of water 𝑊𝑤 to the weight of solids ( 𝑊𝑠 𝑜𝑟 𝑊𝑑) in a given mass of soil. 𝑤 = 𝑊𝑤 𝑊𝑑 × 100 20.Define plastic limit. It is defined as the minimum water content at which a soil will just begin to crumble when rolled into a thread approximately 3 mm in diameter. Plastic limit is the water content corresponding to an arbitrary limit between the plastic and the semi-solid states of consistency of a soil. It is denoted by the symbol 𝑤 𝑃. 21.Define liquid limit. It is defined as the minimum water content at which the soil starts to flow. Liquid limit is the water content corresponding to the arbitrary limit between liquid and plastic state of consistency of a soil. It is denoted by the symbol 𝑤 𝐿. 22.Define shrinkage limit. It is defined as the maximum water content at which a reduction in water content will not cause a decrease in the volume of a soil mass. It is lowest water content at which a soil can still be completely saturated. It is denoted by the symbol 𝑤𝑆.
  8. 8. P a g e | 96 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry 23.Define toughness index, consistency index, liquidity index, flow index and plasticity index. Toughness index is defined as the ratio of the plasticity index to the flow index. It is denoted by the symbol 𝐼 𝑇. 𝐼 𝑇 = 𝐼 𝑃 𝐼𝑓 Consistency index or the relative consistency is defined as the ratio of the difference between liquid limit and natural water content to the plasticity index. It is denoted by the symbol 𝐼 𝐶. 𝐼 𝐶 = 𝑤 𝐿 − 𝑤 𝐼 𝑃 Liquidity index or the water-plasticity ratio is the ratio expressed as a percentage, of the difference between the natural water content of a soil and its plastic limit, to its plasticity index. It is denoted by the symbol 𝐼𝐿. 𝐼𝐿 = 𝑤 – 𝑤 𝑃 𝐼 𝑃 Flow index is the slope of flow curve obtained by plotting water content as ordinate or natural scale against number of blows as abscissa on logarithmic scale. 𝐼𝑓 = 𝑤1 − 𝑤2 log10 𝑛2 𝑛1 Plasticity index is defined as the numerical difference between the liquid limit and the plastic limit of a soil. 𝐼 𝑃 = 𝑤 𝐿 − 𝑤 𝑃
  9. 9. P a g e | 97 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry 24.What is the use of consistency limits? The consistency limits and related indices are very useful for soil identification and classification. The limits are often in specification for soil compaction and in semi empirical methods of design. The liquid limit and plastic limit depend on both the type and amount of clay. 25.Define co-efficient of uniformity. It gives the range of grain sizes in a given sample. CU must be greater than 4 for gravels and 6 for sands. It is denoted by the symbol CU. 𝐶 𝑈 = 𝐷60 𝐷10 26.Define co-efficient of curvature. Coefficient of Curvature is a measure of the smoothness of the gradation curve. It is denoted by the symbol CC. For well graded soil, CC must be between 1 and 3. 𝐶𝑐 = ( 𝐷30 )2 𝐷10 × 𝐷60 UNIT – 2 1. What is quick sand condition? Sand is said to be quick sand condition when the flow is upward under a hydraulic gradient, which reduces the effective stress to zero.
  10. 10. P a g e | 98 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry 2. State the properties of flow nets.  The flow lines and equipotential potential lines meet at right angles to one another.  Moving parallel is not possible.  The quantity of water flowing through each flow channel is the same. Similarly, the same potential drop occurs between two successive equipotential lines.  Smaller the dimensions of the field, greater will be hydraulic gradient and velocity of flow through it.  In a homogeneous soil, every transition in the shape of the curves is smooth, being either elliptical or parabolic in shape. 3. State Darcy’s law. The law of flow of water through soil was first studied by Darcy (1856) who demonstrated experimentally that for laminar flow conditions in a saturated soil, the rate of flow or the discharge per unit time is proportional to the hydraulic gradient. 𝑣 = 𝑞 𝐴 = 𝑘 𝑖 Where, q = discharge per unit time A = total cross-sectional area of soil mass, perpendicular to the direction of flow i = hydraulic gradient k = Darcy’s co-efficient of permeability v = velocity of flow or average discharge velocity
  11. 11. P a g e | 99 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry 4. What are the various uses of flow nets? A flow net can be utilized for the following purposes:  Determination of seepage  Determination of hydrostatic pressure  Determination of seepage pressure  Determination of exit gradient 5. Define the term Geostatic stresses. The vertical stress in a soil to its self-weight is termed as Geostatic stress. 6. Define effective stress. Effective stress equals the total stress minus the pore water pressure, or the total force in the soil grains divided by the gross cross-sectional area over which the force acts. 7. What is permeability? It is defined as the property of a porous material which permits the passage or seepage of water (or other fluids) through its interconnecting voids. A material having continuous voids is called permeable. 8. What are the methods for measurement of permeability? The co-efficient of permeability can be determined by the following methods:  Laboratory methods  Constant head permeability test  Falling head permeability test
  12. 12. P a g e | 100 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry  Field methods  Pumping – out tests  Pumping – in tests  Indirect methods  Computation from grain size or specific surface  Consolidation test data  Horizontal capillarity test 9. Define seepage velocity. The actual or true velocity of water flowing through the voids is termed as seepage velocity. 10.Define discharge velocity. Quantity of water flowing in unit time through a unit gross cross sectional area of soil at right angles to the direction of flow. It does not account for flow through soil voids. 11.What is ground water table? Ground water is that water which fills the voids in the soil up to the ground water table and Translocate through them. It tries to fill completely all the voids. 12.Define the term capillary tension. The tensile stress caused in water is called the capillary tension or the capillary potential. It is the pressure deficiency, pressure reduction or
  13. 13. P a g e | 101 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry negative pressure in the pore water (or the pressure below atmospheric) by which water is retained in a soil mass. 13.Define the term coefficient of permeability. The co-efficient of permeability or simply permeability, is defined as the average velocity of flow that will occur through the total cross-sectional area of soil under unit hydraulic gradient. The dimensions of the co-efficient of permeability ‘k’ are the same as those of velocity. It is usually expressed as cm/sec. Water can flow through the pore spaces in the soil and the soil is considered to be a permeable. Thus the property of porous medium such as soil, water or other fluids can flow through it. It is named as permeability or co-efficient of permeability. The percolating power of the soil mass is named as permeability. 14.What are the factors affecting permeability of soil? Some of the factors, which affect permeability, are,  Adsorbed water  Degree of saturation  Grain / particle size  Impurities in water  Properties of water  Shape of particles  Structure of soil mass  Temperature  Viscosity  Void ratio
  14. 14. P a g e | 102 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry 15.List the assumptions made in the Laplace’s equation. The following assumptions are made in the derivation of the Laplace equation.  The flow is laminar  Water and soil are incompressible  Soil is isotropic and homogeneous  The soil is fully saturated  The flow is steady (i.e.) flow condition does not change with time  Darcy’s law is valid 16.What is laminar flow? Flow of fluids is described as laminar, if a fluid particles flow follows a definite path and does not cross the path of other particles. UNIT – 3 1. What is meant by contact pressure? Contact pressure is defined as the vertical pressure acting at the surface of contact between the base of a footing and the underlying soil mass. The actual contact pressure distribution, however, depends upon the flexural rigidity of the footing and the elastic properties of the sub-grade. 2. What are the approximate methods of determination of vertical stress under loaded areas?  Equivalent point load method  Sixty degree distribution  Two to one load distribution method
  15. 15. P a g e | 103 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry 3. State any two assumptions made in Westergaard’s analysis. Westergaard’s (1938) analysis is used to solve the problems on the pressure distribution in soil under point load, assuming the soil to be an elastic medium of semi-infinite extent but containing numerous, closely spaced, horizontal sheets of negligible thickness of an infinite rigid material which permits only downward deformation on the mass as a whole without allowing it to undergo any lateral strain. 4. Write down Boussinesq’s equation for stresses due to a point load. 𝜎𝑧 = 3𝑄 2𝜋𝑧2 [ 1 1 + ( 𝑟 𝑧 ) 2 ] 5 2 5. Define the term pressure bulb or pressure bulb concept in soils. The zone in a loaded soil mass bounded by an isobar of given vertical pressure intensity is called a pressure bulb. 6. Define Influence diagram. The vertical stress distribution diagram, due to a concentrated load, at a depth z if such a diagram is plotted for unit load (Q = 1), it is called the influence diagram. 7. What is an Isobar or stress isobar or isobar diagram? An isobar is a curve or contour connecting all points below the ground surface of equal vertical pressure. An isobar is a spatial, curved surface of the shape of a bulb, because the vertical pressure on a given horizontal plane
  16. 16. P a g e | 104 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry is the same in all directions at points located at equal radial distances around the axis of loading. 8. Write the assumptions involved in Boussinesq’s equation. The following assumptions are made in the solutions by the theory of elasticity.  The soil mass is an elastic medium, for which the modulus of elasticity ‘E’ is constant.  The soil mass is homogeneous (i.e.) all its constituent parts or elements are similar and it has identical properties at every point in it in identical directions.  The soil mass is isotropic (i.e.) it has identical elastic properties in all directions through any point of it.  The soil mass is semi-infinite (i.e.) it extends infinitely in all directions below a level surface. 9. What is the use of Newmarks Influence chart? A more accurate method of determining the vertical stress at any point under a uniform loaded area of any shape is with the help of influence chart or influence diagram originally suggested by Newmarks (1942). 10.What are the factors affecting the contact pressure distribution?  Elastic properties of the sub-grade  Flexural rigidity of the footing  Type of soil
  17. 17. P a g e | 105 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry 11.What are the pressure distribution diagrams? The following pressure distribution diagrams can be adopted.  Stress isobar or isobar diagram  Vertical pressure distribution on a horizontal plane  Vertical pressure distribution on a vertical plane UNIT – 4 1. State the assumptions in the derivation of Terzaghi’s consolidation equation.  The soil mass is homogeneous.  The void spaces are completely filled with water.  The soil solids and water are incompressible.  Darcy’s law is valid.  The seepage flow and deformation are in one-dimensional direction.  Strains are small.  The permeability is constant over the range of effective stresses.  There is a unique pressure void ratio relationship (i.e.) the co-efficient of compressibility is constant.  The time lap in consolidation is entirely due to low permeability of soil. 2. Define compressibility. When a compressive load is applied to soil mass, a decrease in its volume takes place. The decrease in the volume of soil mass under stress is known as compression and the property of soil mass pertaining to its
  18. 18. P a g e | 106 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry susceptibility to decrease in volume under pressure is known as compressibility. 3. Define coefficient of compressibility. The co-efficient of compressibility is defined as the decrease in void ratio per unit increase of pressure. 4. What do you mean by optimum moisture content? The dry density goes on increasing as the water content is increased, till maximum density is reached. The water content corresponding to the maximum density is called the optimum moisture content w0. 5. Define hydrodynamic lag. The delay caused in consolidation by the slow drainage of water out of a saturated soil mass is called hydrodynamic lag. 6. What is Frost heave? Water migrates upward from the water table to the capillary fringe. When the atmospheric temperature falls to the freezing point and the ice is formed. This results in an increase in the volume of the soil. This is known as frost heave. 7. List the various factors influencing compaction of soil. The various factors which affect the compacted density are as follows:  Addition of admixtures  Amount and type of compaction  Method of compaction
  19. 19. P a g e | 107 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry  Type of soil  Water content 8. What is consolidation? In a saturated soil mass having its voids filled with incompressible water, decrease in volume or compression can take place when water is expelled out from the voids. Such a compression resulting from a long term static load and the consequent escape of pore water is termed as consolidation. 9. Define the term relative compaction. Degree of compaction is also sometimes expressed in terms of an index called relative compaction (Rc) defined as the ratio of dry density to the maximum dry density from compaction test. 𝑅 𝑐 = 𝛾 𝑑 𝛾 𝑑 𝑚𝑎𝑥 10.State any two assumptions made in Terzaghi’s theory of one dimensional consolidation.  Compression and flow are one-dimensional  Darcy’s law is valid  The soil grains and water are both incompressible  The soil is completely saturated  The soil is homogeneous 11.What is the use of consolidation data? The consolidation test data are then used to determine the following:
  20. 20. P a g e | 108 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry  Co-efficient of consolidation  Co-efficient of permeability  Void ratio and co-efficient of volume change 12.Differentiate compaction and consolidation. S. No COMPACTION CONSOLIDATION 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Compaction is the process by which soil particles are packed more closely together by mechanical means. It is achieved through reduction of air voids. It is a rapid process. It is an artificial process. Proper compaction of soil is achieved at optimum moisture content. Consolidation is the process by which soil particles are packed more closely together under the application of static loading. It is achieved through gradual drainage of water from soil pores. It is a gradual process. In some soils it takes many years. It is a natural process. Consolidation is strictly applicable for saturated or nearly saturated clays or soils with low permeability. 13.What do you mean by Initial consolidation? When a load is applied to a partially saturated soil, a decrease in volume occurs due to expulsion and compression of air in the voids. A small decrease in volume occurs due to compression of solid particles. The reduction in volume of the soil just after the application of the load is known
  21. 21. P a g e | 109 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry as initial consolidation or initial compression. For saturated soils, the initial consolidation is mainly due to compression of solid particles. 14.What are the factors influenced by the compressibility of the clay? The compressibility of clays may also be caused by three factors are,  The expulsion of double layer water from between the grains  Slipping of the particles to new positions of greater density  Bending of the particles as elastic sheets 15.Define hydrodynamic pressure. The pressure that builds up in pore water due to load increment on the soil is termed as excess pore pressure or excess hydrostatic pressure or hydrodynamic pressure. 16.Define primary consolidation. The reduction in volume of soil which is due principally to a squeezing out of water from the voids is termed as primary consolidation or primary compression or primary time effect. 17.Define secondary consolidation. Even after the reduction of all excess hydrostatic pressure to zero, some compression of soil takes place at a very slow rate. This is known as secondary consolidation or secondary compression or secondary time effect. 18.What is immediate settlement? The settlement which is caused by the elastic deformation of dry, moist and saturated soils without any change in moisture content.
  22. 22. P a g e | 110 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry UNIT – 5 1. Define the term stress path. A stress path is a curve or a straight line which is the locus of a series of stress points depicting the changes in stress in a test specimen or in a soil element in-situ, during loading or unloading. 2. What are the shear parameters of a soil? c and 𝛷 are the shear parameters of a soil Where, c is known as apparent cohesion 𝛷 is known as angle of internal friction. 3. Write down the Skempton’s equation for increase in pore pressure due to increase in principal stresses. ∆𝑢 = 𝐵 [ ∆𝜎3 + 𝐴 ( ∆𝜎1 − ∆𝜎3 ) ] 4. Under what circumstances is vane shear test used? Vane shear test is a quick test, used either in the laboratory or in the field, to determine the undrained shear strength of cohesive soil. The vane shear test consists of four thin steel plates, called vanes, welded orthogonally to a steel rod. 5. Mention the advantages of Tri-axial shear test as compared to direct shear test.  The shear tests under all the three drainage conditions can be performed with complete control.
  23. 23. P a g e | 111 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry  Precise measurements of the pore pressure and volume change during the test are possible.  The stress distribution on the failure plane is uniform.  The state of stress within the specimen during any stage of the test, as well as at failure is completely determinate. 6. What are the advantages of direct shear test?  It is easy and quick test for sands and gravels.  Large deformations can be achieved by reversing shear direction. This is useful for determining the residual strength of a soil.  Large samples may be tested in large shear boxes. Small samples may give misleading results due to imperfections (fractures and fissures) or the lack of them.  Samples may be sheared along predetermined planes. This is useful when the shear strengths along fissures or other selected planes are required. 7. What are the disadvantages of direct shear test?  Uniform deformations and stresses in the specimen.  The stress-strain behavior cannot be determined.  The estimated stresses may not be those acting on the shear plane.  There is no means of estimating pore pressures so effective stresses cannot be determined from undrained tests.  Undrained strengths are unreliable because it is impossible to prevent localized drainage without high shearing rates.  In practice shear box tests are used to get quick and crude estimates of failure parameters.
  24. 24. P a g e | 112 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry 8. Name the test used to determine shear strength of soil in the field.  Cone Penetration test  Dynamic cone penetration test  Static cone penetration test  Vane shear test 9. What is shear strength equation? The shear strength of a soil is a basic geotechnical engineering parameter and is required for the analysis of foundations, earthwork, and slope stability problems. This is because of the nature of soil, which is composed of individual soil particles that slide (i.e., shear past each other) when the soil is loaded. The Coulomb’s shear strength equation is given by, 𝑆 = 𝑐 + 𝜎 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝛷 10.Define the term principle planes. A principal plane is defined as the plane on which the stress is wholly normal on one. This does not carry shearing stress. From mechanics it is known that there exist three principal planes at any point in a stressed material. The normal stress acting on the principal plane is known as principal stresses. 11.State Mohr’s coulomb theory. The Mohr’s coulomb theory of securing strength of a soil, first propounded by coulomb (1976) and later generalized by Mohr’s, is the most commonly used concept. The functional relationship between the normal stress on any plane and the shearing strength available on that plane was
  25. 25. P a g e | 113 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry assumed to be linear by coulomb. Thus the following is usually known as coulomb’s law. 𝑆 = 𝐶 + 𝜎𝑡 𝐶 = 𝑎𝑝𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑐𝑜ℎ𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝛷 = 𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 12.Write the four laboratory methods of determining the shearing resistance. The shear resistance can be determined in the laboratory by the following four methods:  Direct shear test  Tri-axial shear test  Unconfined compression test  Vane shear test 13.What are the methods to determine shear strength?  Direct shear test  Tri-axial shear test  Unconfined compression test  Vane shear test  Consolidated undrained test  Drained test  Undrained test or quick test 14.What are the factors affecting shear strength?  Resistance due to interlocking of particle.
  26. 26. P a g e | 114 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry  Frictional resistance between the individual soil grains which may be sliding friction, rolling friction.  Adhesion between soil particle and cohesion. 15.Classify soils based on shear strength. On the basis of shear strength, soil can be classified as:  Cohesion less soils  Purely cohesive soils  Cohesive-frictional soils  Cohesion less soils: These soils derive the shear strength from inter granular friction. It has no cohesion i.e. c′ = 0. These soils are also called frictional soil. Example: sand and gravels.  Purely cohesive soils: These are the soils which exhibit cohesion but the angle of shearing resistance φ = 0. These soils are also called φu = 0 soil. Example: saturated clays and silts under undrained conditions.  Cohesive – frictional soils: These are composite soils having both c′ and φ′. These are also called C – φ soil. Example: clayey sand, silty sand, sandy clay etc. 16.What do you mean by C – 𝛷 soil? These are composite soils having both c′ and φ′. These are also called cohesive - frictional soil. Example: clayey sand, silty sand, sandy clay etc.
  27. 27. P a g e | 115 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry 17.What are the factors that affect shear strength of cohesion less soils? Shape of particles, gradation, confining pressure, deviator stress, vibration, repeated loading and type of minerals are the factors that affect shear strength of cohesion less soils. 18.What are the factors that affect shear strength of cohesive soils? Structure of clay, clay content, drainage condition, rate of strain, repeated loading, confining pressure, plasticity index, disturbance are the factors that affect shear strength of cohesive soils. 19.What are the different types of failure of a tri-axial compression test specimen?  Brittle failure  Plastic failure  Semi plastic failure 20.What is Mohr’s circle? What are the characteristics of Mohr’s circle? The co-ordinates of points on the circle represent the normal and shearing stress on inclined planes at a given point. This circle is known as Mohr’s circle of stress (Mohr, 1870). The graphical method for the determination of stresses on a plane inclined to the principal stress is called Mohr’s wide. The characteristics are,  The maximum angle of obliquity β max is obtained by drawing a tangent to the circle from the origin O.
  28. 28. P a g e | 116 Prepared by R.Vijayakumar, B.Tech (CIVIL), CCET, Puducherry  Shear stresses plane at right angle to each other are numerically equal but are of opposite signs. 21.What do you know about undrained and drained test? In the undrained test, no drainage of water is permitted. Hence there is no dissipation of pore pressure during the entire test. In the drained test, drainage is permitted throughout the test during the application of both normal and shear stress. 22.Define shear strength of soil. The shear strength of soil is the resistance to deformation by continuous shear displacement of soil particles or on masses upon the action of a shear stress. The failure conditions for a soil may be expressed in terms of limiting shear stress, called shear strength or as a function of the principal stresses. 23.What are the limitations of coulomb’s theory?  It neglects the effect of the intermediate principal stress.  It approximates the curved failure envelope by a straight line which may not give correct results. 24.What is the main cause of slope failure? Slope failures occur when the rupturing force exceeds resisting force.

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