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English as a native, second, foreing language and lingua franca
INTRODUCTION TO APPLIED LINGUISTICS Video Lesson 3ENGLISH as a NATIVE, SECOND, FOREINGlanguage and LINGUA FRANCAMgs. Nina Nesterenko
ENL / EFL / ESLEnglish as a native language is the languageof people born and raised in one of thecountries where English is historically thefirst language to be spoken ( mainly TheUK, the USA, Canada, Australia and NewZealand)
ESL refers to English language learning in countries where English is the main and / or official language, and the students own native language (first language) is not English.• English as a second language has special proposal in communities.• The term ESL is used frequently in the USA.
- the medium of instruction of the educational systems- It is used in regional or national administration, in radio,TV, press media.- it is the official language or plays very important role.( It is spoken in a large number ofcountries such as India, Nigeria , Bangladesh, Malaysia, which were once colonized by Britain)
Differences in teaching/learning of EFL and ESL. EFL ESL-Learning is like second -learner needs the languagelanguage learning: materialand methods are designed to for the use within his/hergive a practical command of own community.the language.- difference is in the - the second language is purpose of language usually taught at the primary acquisition level of education- EFL learner needs it to be ableto establish contacts with acommunity of speakers other - it is taught to adultthan his/her own. immigrants- EFL is usually taught in thesecondary school (older agegroup)
English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) is a way torefer to communication in English betweenspeakers who have different first languages.In other words, ELF is used to facilitatecommunication among speakers of differentlanguages.
Reasons for English becoming a Lingua Franca- Historical reasons• Internal political reasons• External / Internal economic reasons• Practical reasons• Intellectual reasons• Entertainment reasons
English as a Foreign English as a Lingua language FrancaPart of modern foreign Part of World EnglisheslanguagesCode-mixing and Code-mixing andswitching are seen as switching are seen asinterference errors bilingual resources
ELF speakers create innovations in English making use of their multilingual resources to produce their own preferred forms, for example :- the use of 3rd person singular zero marking, e.g. “she think”- extension of which to serve functions previously served only by who and vice versa ex. “the person which”, “ the book who”- shift in article use- shift in preposition use, ex. ” to discuss about “- countable use of „uncountable‟ nouns, ex. “informations”, “advices”, “staffs”• The new changes in languages, as a result of English influence, should be registered and described .