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TECHNIQUES AND
PRINCIPLES IN LANGUAGE
TEACHING
Power point techniques and principles in language teaching
SKILLS
 Macroskills
o Listening
o Speaking
o Reading
o Writing
 Integrated skills
o To develop the skills in parallel.
 Focal skills
o Exploits certain skills as tools for developing others. is a language skill that a student is
currently working on.
 Supporting skills
o These are language skills that can be used to support work on a focal skill.
 Emergent skill
o They develop to some extent as a consequence of work focused on some other skill.
1. TEACHING LISTENING
 Used most frequently by students.
 Listeners actively involve themselves in the interpretation of what they
hear.
 Not all listening is the same that´s the reason why students need to
develop different sorts of listening capabilities .
 Listening involves a sender, a message, and a receiver.
 The complexity of the listening process is greater when the receiver has
lack of lexicon and grammar knowledge.
 Teachers should help their students become effective listeners by
modeling listening strategies and providing listening practice in
authentic situations.
GOALS AND TECHNIQUES FOR TEACHING
LISTENING
 Teachers and instructors should produce students who can use
listening strategies to maximize their comprehension, identify relevant
and non-relevant information, and tolerate less than word-by-word
comprehension.
 Focus on the Listening Process
 Integrate Metacognitive Strategies
 Before listening
 During listening
 After listening
 Use Authentic Materials and Situations
STRATEGIES FOR DEVELOPING LISTENING
SKILLS
 Top-down strategies
• listening for the main idea
• predicting
• drawing inferences
• summarizing
 Bottom-up strategies
• listening for specific details
• recognizing cognates
• recognizing word-order patterns
 Teach students to plan, monitor, and evaluate their listening
 Listening for Meaning
DEVELOPING LISTENING ACTIVITIES
 Construct the listening activity around a contextualized task.
 Define the activity's instructional goal and type of response.
 Check the level of difficulty of the listening text.
INTEGRATING LISTENING STRATEGIES WITH
TEXTBOOK AUDIO AND VIDEO
 1. Plan for listening/viewing
 2. Preview the tape/video
 3. Listen/view intensively section by section. For each section:
 4. Monitor your comprehension
 5. Evaluate your listening comprehension progress
ASSESSING LISTENING PROFICIENCY
 It must have a purpose
 It must require students to demonstrate their level of
listening comprehension by completing some task.
2. TEACHING SPEAKING
 Speaking involves three areas of knowledge:
 Mechanics (pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary)
 Functions (transaction and interaction)
 Social and cultural rules and norms
GOALS AND TECHNIQUES FOR TEACHING
SPEAKING
 The goal of teaching speaking skills is communicative efficiency.
 To help students develop communicative efficiency in speaking, instructors
can use a balanced activities approach that combines language input,
structured output, and communicative output.
 Language input comes in the form of teacher talk, listening activities, reading passages,
and the language heard and read outside of class.
Language input may be content oriented or form oriented.
 Content-oriented input focuses on information.
 Form-oriented input focuses on ways of using the language
 Structured output: Students may have options for responses.
 Communicative output, the learners' main purpose is to complete a task.
STRATEGIES FOR DEVELOPING SPEAKING
SKILLS
 1. Using minimal responses
 2. Recognizing scripts
 3. Using language to talk about language
STRUCTURED OUTPUT ACTIVITIES
 Two common kinds of structured output activities are information gap and
jigsaw activities.
 Information Gap Activities
o Filling the gaps in a schedule or timetable:
o Completing the picture
 Jigsaw Activities
o Jigsaw activities are more elaborate information gap activities that can
be done with several partners.
 Communicative Output Activities
o They allow students to practice using all of the language they know in
situations that resemble real situations.
Power point techniques and principles in language teaching
1. TEACHING READING
Reading Purpose and Reading Comprehension
Reading research shows that good readers:
•Read extensively
•Integrate information in the text with existing knowledge
•Have a flexible reading style, depending on what they are reading
•Are motivated
•Rely on different skills interacting: perceptual processing, phonemic processing, recall
•Read for a purpose; reading serves a function
READING AS A PROCESS
 Reading is an interactive process that goes on between the reader and the text,
resulting in comprehension.
 Reader knowledge, skills, and strategies include
 Linguistic competence
 Discourse competence
 Sociolinguistic competence
 Strategic competence
GOALS AND TECHNIQUES FOR TEACHING
READING
Teachers and instructors should produce students who can use reading strategies
to maximize their comprehension, identify relevant and non-relevant
information, and tolerate less than word-by-word comprehension.
INTEGRATING READING STRATEGIES
 Before reading: Plan for the reading task
 During and after reading: Monitor comprehension
 After reading: Evaluate comprehension and strategy use
USING AUTHENTIC MATERIALS AND
APPROACHES
 1. The reading material must be authentic
 2. The reading purpose must be authentic
 3. The reading approach must be authentic
USING READING STRATEGIES
Effective language teachers help students develop a set of reading
strategies and match appropriate strategies to each reading situation.
•Previewing: reviewing titles, section headings, and photo captions.
•Predicting: using knowledge of the subject matter to make predictions
about content and vocabulary and check comprehension.
•Skimming and scanning: using a quick survey of the text to get the main
idea, identify text structure, confirm or question predictions
•Guessing from context
•Paraphrasing
READING TO LEARN
Reading is an essential part of language instruction at every level because it
supports learning in multiple ways.
• Reading to learn the language
• Reading for content information
• Reading for cultural knowledge and awareness
 Students need to follow four basic steps:
• Figure out the purpose for reading.
• Attend to the parts of the text that are relevant to the identified purpose and ignore
the rest.
• Select strategies that are appropriate to the reading task
• Check comprehension while reading and when the reading task is completed.
DEVELOPING READING ACTIVITIES
 Construct the reading activity around a purpose that has significance for the
students.
 Define the activity's instructional goal and the appropriate type of response
 Check the level of difficulty of the text.
 Use pre-reading activities to prepare Students need to follow four basic steps:
 Figure out the purpose for reading.
 Attend to the parts of the text that are relevant to the identified purpose and
ignore the rest.
 Select strategies that are appropriate to the reading task.
 Check comprehension while reading and when the reading task is completed.
 students for reading.
 Match while-reading activities to the purpose for reading.
AUTHENTIC ASSESSMENT
 It must have a purpose
 It must require students to demonstrate their level of reading comprehension by
completing some task
2. TEACHING WRITING
 When writing, students have to learn to use the following:
 the Roman script representing the language in print
 the spelling conventions of words
 the sentence level grammar (including punctuation)
 the selection and structuring of information for different purposes/text types.
 the use of a range of different language expressions to convey appropriate
levels of formality, politeness, directness etc. for the purposes at hand.
REMEMBER THAT:
 Written English differs from speech in a number of ways; some of them
are related to vocabulary and grammatical choices and others are related
to information structuring and whole-text organization.
 “This way of thinking about writing, and learning to write within the
curriculum, suggests that knowing the basics such as spelling patterns of
words and aspects of grammar is important and necessary, but it
represents only a part of a complex development. In order to develop
pupils’ writing ability it would be helpful to take a ‘message first’
approach. In other words, we should consider grammatical accuracy and
other formal features of English with reference to what the pupil is being
asked to do in writing. Practically this means asking a number of
questions when thinking about pupils’ writing. ”
Some Questions to take into account
when our students write:
 Does the content of a piece of writing match with what is expected?
 Does the pupil’s writing meet the requirements of the appropriate
norms/standards?
 Is the information structured appropriately?
 Is the writing presented in the expected form?
 Does the text provide a continuous flow of clear and connected
information?
 Does the language used create the ‘right’ tone?

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Power point techniques and principles in language teaching

  • 1. TECHNIQUES AND PRINCIPLES IN LANGUAGE TEACHING
  • 3. SKILLS  Macroskills o Listening o Speaking o Reading o Writing  Integrated skills o To develop the skills in parallel.  Focal skills o Exploits certain skills as tools for developing others. is a language skill that a student is currently working on.  Supporting skills o These are language skills that can be used to support work on a focal skill.  Emergent skill o They develop to some extent as a consequence of work focused on some other skill.
  • 4. 1. TEACHING LISTENING  Used most frequently by students.  Listeners actively involve themselves in the interpretation of what they hear.  Not all listening is the same that´s the reason why students need to develop different sorts of listening capabilities .  Listening involves a sender, a message, and a receiver.  The complexity of the listening process is greater when the receiver has lack of lexicon and grammar knowledge.  Teachers should help their students become effective listeners by modeling listening strategies and providing listening practice in authentic situations.
  • 5. GOALS AND TECHNIQUES FOR TEACHING LISTENING  Teachers and instructors should produce students who can use listening strategies to maximize their comprehension, identify relevant and non-relevant information, and tolerate less than word-by-word comprehension.  Focus on the Listening Process  Integrate Metacognitive Strategies  Before listening  During listening  After listening  Use Authentic Materials and Situations
  • 6. STRATEGIES FOR DEVELOPING LISTENING SKILLS  Top-down strategies • listening for the main idea • predicting • drawing inferences • summarizing  Bottom-up strategies • listening for specific details • recognizing cognates • recognizing word-order patterns  Teach students to plan, monitor, and evaluate their listening  Listening for Meaning
  • 7. DEVELOPING LISTENING ACTIVITIES  Construct the listening activity around a contextualized task.  Define the activity's instructional goal and type of response.  Check the level of difficulty of the listening text.
  • 8. INTEGRATING LISTENING STRATEGIES WITH TEXTBOOK AUDIO AND VIDEO  1. Plan for listening/viewing  2. Preview the tape/video  3. Listen/view intensively section by section. For each section:  4. Monitor your comprehension  5. Evaluate your listening comprehension progress
  • 9. ASSESSING LISTENING PROFICIENCY  It must have a purpose  It must require students to demonstrate their level of listening comprehension by completing some task.
  • 10. 2. TEACHING SPEAKING  Speaking involves three areas of knowledge:  Mechanics (pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary)  Functions (transaction and interaction)  Social and cultural rules and norms
  • 11. GOALS AND TECHNIQUES FOR TEACHING SPEAKING  The goal of teaching speaking skills is communicative efficiency.  To help students develop communicative efficiency in speaking, instructors can use a balanced activities approach that combines language input, structured output, and communicative output.  Language input comes in the form of teacher talk, listening activities, reading passages, and the language heard and read outside of class. Language input may be content oriented or form oriented.  Content-oriented input focuses on information.  Form-oriented input focuses on ways of using the language  Structured output: Students may have options for responses.  Communicative output, the learners' main purpose is to complete a task.
  • 12. STRATEGIES FOR DEVELOPING SPEAKING SKILLS  1. Using minimal responses  2. Recognizing scripts  3. Using language to talk about language
  • 13. STRUCTURED OUTPUT ACTIVITIES  Two common kinds of structured output activities are information gap and jigsaw activities.  Information Gap Activities o Filling the gaps in a schedule or timetable: o Completing the picture  Jigsaw Activities o Jigsaw activities are more elaborate information gap activities that can be done with several partners.  Communicative Output Activities o They allow students to practice using all of the language they know in situations that resemble real situations.
  • 15. 1. TEACHING READING Reading Purpose and Reading Comprehension Reading research shows that good readers: •Read extensively •Integrate information in the text with existing knowledge •Have a flexible reading style, depending on what they are reading •Are motivated •Rely on different skills interacting: perceptual processing, phonemic processing, recall •Read for a purpose; reading serves a function
  • 16. READING AS A PROCESS  Reading is an interactive process that goes on between the reader and the text, resulting in comprehension.  Reader knowledge, skills, and strategies include  Linguistic competence  Discourse competence  Sociolinguistic competence  Strategic competence
  • 17. GOALS AND TECHNIQUES FOR TEACHING READING Teachers and instructors should produce students who can use reading strategies to maximize their comprehension, identify relevant and non-relevant information, and tolerate less than word-by-word comprehension.
  • 18. INTEGRATING READING STRATEGIES  Before reading: Plan for the reading task  During and after reading: Monitor comprehension  After reading: Evaluate comprehension and strategy use
  • 19. USING AUTHENTIC MATERIALS AND APPROACHES  1. The reading material must be authentic  2. The reading purpose must be authentic  3. The reading approach must be authentic
  • 20. USING READING STRATEGIES Effective language teachers help students develop a set of reading strategies and match appropriate strategies to each reading situation. •Previewing: reviewing titles, section headings, and photo captions. •Predicting: using knowledge of the subject matter to make predictions about content and vocabulary and check comprehension. •Skimming and scanning: using a quick survey of the text to get the main idea, identify text structure, confirm or question predictions •Guessing from context •Paraphrasing
  • 21. READING TO LEARN Reading is an essential part of language instruction at every level because it supports learning in multiple ways. • Reading to learn the language • Reading for content information • Reading for cultural knowledge and awareness  Students need to follow four basic steps: • Figure out the purpose for reading. • Attend to the parts of the text that are relevant to the identified purpose and ignore the rest. • Select strategies that are appropriate to the reading task • Check comprehension while reading and when the reading task is completed.
  • 22. DEVELOPING READING ACTIVITIES  Construct the reading activity around a purpose that has significance for the students.  Define the activity's instructional goal and the appropriate type of response  Check the level of difficulty of the text.  Use pre-reading activities to prepare Students need to follow four basic steps:  Figure out the purpose for reading.  Attend to the parts of the text that are relevant to the identified purpose and ignore the rest.  Select strategies that are appropriate to the reading task.  Check comprehension while reading and when the reading task is completed.  students for reading.  Match while-reading activities to the purpose for reading.
  • 23. AUTHENTIC ASSESSMENT  It must have a purpose  It must require students to demonstrate their level of reading comprehension by completing some task
  • 24. 2. TEACHING WRITING  When writing, students have to learn to use the following:  the Roman script representing the language in print  the spelling conventions of words  the sentence level grammar (including punctuation)  the selection and structuring of information for different purposes/text types.  the use of a range of different language expressions to convey appropriate levels of formality, politeness, directness etc. for the purposes at hand.
  • 25. REMEMBER THAT:  Written English differs from speech in a number of ways; some of them are related to vocabulary and grammatical choices and others are related to information structuring and whole-text organization.
  • 26.  “This way of thinking about writing, and learning to write within the curriculum, suggests that knowing the basics such as spelling patterns of words and aspects of grammar is important and necessary, but it represents only a part of a complex development. In order to develop pupils’ writing ability it would be helpful to take a ‘message first’ approach. In other words, we should consider grammatical accuracy and other formal features of English with reference to what the pupil is being asked to do in writing. Practically this means asking a number of questions when thinking about pupils’ writing. ”
  • 27. Some Questions to take into account when our students write:  Does the content of a piece of writing match with what is expected?  Does the pupil’s writing meet the requirements of the appropriate norms/standards?  Is the information structured appropriately?  Is the writing presented in the expected form?  Does the text provide a continuous flow of clear and connected information?  Does the language used create the ‘right’ tone?