o To develop the skills in parallel.
o Exploits certain skills as tools for developing others. is a language skill that a student is
currently working on.
o These are language skills that can be used to support work on a focal skill.
o They develop to some extent as a consequence of work focused on some other skill.
4. 1. TEACHING LISTENING
Used most frequently by students.
Listeners actively involve themselves in the interpretation of what they
Not all listening is the same that´s the reason why students need to
develop different sorts of listening capabilities .
Listening involves a sender, a message, and a receiver.
The complexity of the listening process is greater when the receiver has
lack of lexicon and grammar knowledge.
Teachers should help their students become effective listeners by
modeling listening strategies and providing listening practice in
5. GOALS AND TECHNIQUES FOR TEACHING
Teachers and instructors should produce students who can use
listening strategies to maximize their comprehension, identify relevant
and non-relevant information, and tolerate less than word-by-word
Focus on the Listening Process
Integrate Metacognitive Strategies
Use Authentic Materials and Situations
6. STRATEGIES FOR DEVELOPING LISTENING
• listening for the main idea
• drawing inferences
• listening for specific details
• recognizing cognates
• recognizing word-order patterns
Teach students to plan, monitor, and evaluate their listening
Listening for Meaning
7. DEVELOPING LISTENING ACTIVITIES
Construct the listening activity around a contextualized task.
Define the activity's instructional goal and type of response.
Check the level of difficulty of the listening text.
8. INTEGRATING LISTENING STRATEGIES WITH
TEXTBOOK AUDIO AND VIDEO
1. Plan for listening/viewing
2. Preview the tape/video
3. Listen/view intensively section by section. For each section:
4. Monitor your comprehension
5. Evaluate your listening comprehension progress
10. 2. TEACHING SPEAKING
Speaking involves three areas of knowledge:
Mechanics (pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary)
Functions (transaction and interaction)
Social and cultural rules and norms
11. GOALS AND TECHNIQUES FOR TEACHING
The goal of teaching speaking skills is communicative efficiency.
To help students develop communicative efficiency in speaking, instructors
can use a balanced activities approach that combines language input,
structured output, and communicative output.
Language input comes in the form of teacher talk, listening activities, reading passages,
and the language heard and read outside of class.
Language input may be content oriented or form oriented.
Content-oriented input focuses on information.
Form-oriented input focuses on ways of using the language
Structured output: Students may have options for responses.
Communicative output, the learners' main purpose is to complete a task.
12. STRATEGIES FOR DEVELOPING SPEAKING
1. Using minimal responses
2. Recognizing scripts
3. Using language to talk about language
13. STRUCTURED OUTPUT ACTIVITIES
Two common kinds of structured output activities are information gap and
Information Gap Activities
o Filling the gaps in a schedule or timetable:
o Completing the picture
o Jigsaw activities are more elaborate information gap activities that can
be done with several partners.
Communicative Output Activities
o They allow students to practice using all of the language they know in
situations that resemble real situations.
15. 1. TEACHING READING
Reading Purpose and Reading Comprehension
Reading research shows that good readers:
•Integrate information in the text with existing knowledge
•Have a flexible reading style, depending on what they are reading
•Rely on different skills interacting: perceptual processing, phonemic processing, recall
•Read for a purpose; reading serves a function
16. READING AS A PROCESS
Reading is an interactive process that goes on between the reader and the text,
resulting in comprehension.
Reader knowledge, skills, and strategies include
17. GOALS AND TECHNIQUES FOR TEACHING
Teachers and instructors should produce students who can use reading strategies
to maximize their comprehension, identify relevant and non-relevant
information, and tolerate less than word-by-word comprehension.
18. INTEGRATING READING STRATEGIES
Before reading: Plan for the reading task
During and after reading: Monitor comprehension
After reading: Evaluate comprehension and strategy use
19. USING AUTHENTIC MATERIALS AND
1. The reading material must be authentic
2. The reading purpose must be authentic
3. The reading approach must be authentic
20. USING READING STRATEGIES
Effective language teachers help students develop a set of reading
strategies and match appropriate strategies to each reading situation.
•Previewing: reviewing titles, section headings, and photo captions.
•Predicting: using knowledge of the subject matter to make predictions
about content and vocabulary and check comprehension.
•Skimming and scanning: using a quick survey of the text to get the main
idea, identify text structure, confirm or question predictions
•Guessing from context
21. READING TO LEARN
Reading is an essential part of language instruction at every level because it
supports learning in multiple ways.
• Reading to learn the language
• Reading for content information
• Reading for cultural knowledge and awareness
Students need to follow four basic steps:
• Figure out the purpose for reading.
• Attend to the parts of the text that are relevant to the identified purpose and ignore
• Select strategies that are appropriate to the reading task
• Check comprehension while reading and when the reading task is completed.
22. DEVELOPING READING ACTIVITIES
Construct the reading activity around a purpose that has significance for the
Define the activity's instructional goal and the appropriate type of response
Check the level of difficulty of the text.
Use pre-reading activities to prepare Students need to follow four basic steps:
Figure out the purpose for reading.
Attend to the parts of the text that are relevant to the identified purpose and
ignore the rest.
Select strategies that are appropriate to the reading task.
Check comprehension while reading and when the reading task is completed.
students for reading.
Match while-reading activities to the purpose for reading.
23. AUTHENTIC ASSESSMENT
It must have a purpose
It must require students to demonstrate their level of reading comprehension by
completing some task
24. 2. TEACHING WRITING
When writing, students have to learn to use the following:
the Roman script representing the language in print
the spelling conventions of words
the sentence level grammar (including punctuation)
the selection and structuring of information for different purposes/text types.
the use of a range of different language expressions to convey appropriate
levels of formality, politeness, directness etc. for the purposes at hand.
25. REMEMBER THAT:
Written English differs from speech in a number of ways; some of them
are related to vocabulary and grammatical choices and others are related
to information structuring and whole-text organization.
26. “This way of thinking about writing, and learning to write within the
curriculum, suggests that knowing the basics such as spelling patterns of
words and aspects of grammar is important and necessary, but it
represents only a part of a complex development. In order to develop
pupils’ writing ability it would be helpful to take a ‘message first’
approach. In other words, we should consider grammatical accuracy and
other formal features of English with reference to what the pupil is being
asked to do in writing. Practically this means asking a number of
questions when thinking about pupils’ writing. ”
27. Some Questions to take into account
when our students write:
Does the content of a piece of writing match with what is expected?
Does the pupil’s writing meet the requirements of the appropriate
Is the information structured appropriately?
Is the writing presented in the expected form?
Does the text provide a continuous flow of clear and connected
Does the language used create the ‘right’ tone?