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BRAND MANAGEMENT
UNIT 1
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
BRAND
 A Brand is a name, term, sign, symbol or design or a combination
of them, which is intended to identify the goals or services of one
seller or another seller and differentiate them from other
manufacturers
 The American Marketing Association defines ‘brand’ as “a name,
term, design, symbol, or any other feature that identifies one
seller's good or service as distinct from those of other sellers…A
brand may identify one item, a family of items, or all items of that
seller.”
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
BRANDS..
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
ELEMENTS OF A BRAND
 Name
 Logo
 Tagline or
catchphrase
 Graphics
 Shapes
 Colors
 Sounds
 Scents
 Tastes
 Movement
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
FEATURES OF A BRAND
 A brand has physical qualities
 A brand has its own personality
 A brand has its own culture
 A brand is a relationship
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
FUNCTIONS OF A BRAND
 Identification
 Practicality
 Guarantee
 Optimization
 Continuity
 Characterization
 Ethics
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
BRAND MARK
 The brand mark is a
design element, such as
a symbol (e.g., Nike
swoosh ), logo (e.g.,
Yahoo! graphic), a
character (e.g., Keebler
elves) or even a sound
(e.g., Intel inside sound),
that provides visual or
auditory recognition for
Aspect or element (such as color,
design, picture, symbol, typeface) of a
brand that cannot be expressed in
words.
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
TRADE MARK
 It is a brand or a part of brand which is given legal protection
because it is capable of exclusive appropriation.
 The official definition of a trademark is “any word, name,
symbol or device including, but not limited to, a distinctive
package or container of any kind, or any combination of
these, used by a person to identify and distinguish the goods
of that person, including a unique product, from those
manufactured or sold by others, and to indicate the source of
the goods, even if that source is unknown.”
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
TRADE MARK EXAMPLES
 Company slogan or catchphrase
Examples:
“Built Ford Tough", (federal registration # 2202980)
“Just Do It”, (federal registration # 1875307)
 A Company or brand name
Example:
 Ford, federal registration # 0643185
 Product or service name
Example:
 Amazon’s Kindle, federal registration # 3694267
 Domain name
Example:
 Amazon.com, federal registration # 2078496
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
TRADE MARK EXAMPLES
 A device
 Shape. Example:
 Coca Cola bottle, federal registration # 1057884
 Color. Example:
 Canary yellow Post-Its, federal registration # 2390667
 Sound. Example:
 NBC chimes, federal registration # 0916522
 Smell. Example:
 Peppermint scent on file folders, federal registration # 3140700
 Touch. Example:
 Leather texture wrapping around wine bottle, federal registration #
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
TYPES OF BRANDS
TYPES
OF
BRAND
S
PERSONAL
BRAND
INDIVIDUAL
BRAND
FAMILY
BRAND
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
PERSONAL BRAND
 The personal brand attached with
individual personality
 It explains the character of the particular
popular celebrity
 For example: Abdul Kalam
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
INDIVIDUAL BRAND
 Individual branding, also
called individual product
branding or multi branding, is the
marketing strategy of giving
each product in a portfolio its own
unique brand name
 This facilitates the positioning of
each product, by allowing a firm to
position its brands differently.
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
FAMILY BRANDING
 Family branding is a marketing
strategy that involves selling
several related products under
one brand name. Family
branding is also known
as umbrella branding.
 It contrasts with individual
product branding, in which each
product in a portfolio is given a
unique brand name and identity.Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
SELECTING A BRAND NAME
 Initialism
 Descriptive
 Alliteration and
rhyme
 Evocative
 Foreign word
 Founders name
 Geography
 Personification
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
BRAND MANAGMEMENT PROCESS
Identifying and establishing
brand positioning
Plan and implementing
Brand marketing
Measure and interpret
brand
Grow and sustain brand
EQUITY
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
BRAND MANAGEMENT
UNIT II
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
VISION
 A Vision is a description of the business, as
you want it to be.
 It is, “a mental image produced by the
imagination.”
 It involves seeing the optimal future for your
business, and vividly describing this vision.
 The description might include HOW things will
be WHERE, WHOM with, WHAT you’ll be
doing and HOW you’ll feel.
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
BRAND VISION
 A vision paints a picture of what you are trying to achieve with your brand in a
simple sentence.
 This is the strategic goal of a brand.
 It indicates the direction into which a given brand should develop medium- or
long-term.
EXAMPLE:
"To be the Number 1 brand in the UK sun care market in penetration, sales and
likeability.“
“To provide innovative solutions to market needs.
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
BRAND AMBASSADOR
 One who represent the
product on behalf of the
entire company.
 A well-connected person
or a celebrity who is used
to promote and advertise a
product or service
 A brand ambassador can
also be called as an
marketing agent of a
company.
 Intention beyond is toVersatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
BRAND AMBASSADOR
 Brand ambassador is
a marketing term for
a celebrity employed by
a company to promote its
products or services within the
activity known as celebrity
branding. The brand
ambassador is meant to
embody the corporate
image in appearance,
demeanor, values and ethics.
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD
AMBASSADOR
Open
mindedness
Curiosity
Kindness
Understanding that no matter how much you
already know, there is still much more to
learn
A strong desire to really understand other
people
A must for a good ambassador
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD
AMBASSADOR
Pride
Humility
Realism
Honesty
Realizing you’re not superior to others, only
different
Knowing you represent something of real
value
Realizing what the real characteristics of your
group are
A strong wish to understand the truth about
yourself and others
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
BRAND PERSONALITY
 A set of human characteristics that are attributed to
a brand name
 This is the added-value that a brand gains, aside
from its functional benefits
 Personality is how the brand behaves
 Example: IBM is ‘older’ while Apple is ‘younger’
India Today is ‘old-fashioned’ while
Outlook is ‘trendier’
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
WHY USE BRAND PERSONALITY?
 Enriches understanding (For
ex., Microsoft, IBM etc.,)
 Contributes to a
differentiating identity (Clinic
Plus Vs Pantene)
• Guides the communication
effort (For ex., Is Nike shoes
or sports, performance and
attitude?) Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
PRODUCT-RELATED CHARACTERISTICS
 Product-related characteristics can be primary drivers of
a brand personality
 Even the product class can affect personality
 Banks, Insurance etc., tend to be Competent, Serious,
Masculine, Older and Upper-class
 Athletic shoes tend to be Young, Lively, Rugged,
Outdoorsy, Adventurous etc.,
 A high-priced brand will be considered wealthy, stylish
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
SPONSORSHIPS
 Activities such as events
sponsored by the brand will
influence its personality
 Pond’s sponsoring
Femina’s ‘Miss India’
contest
 Budweiser sponsoring the
blimp in American sporting
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
USER IMAGERY
 Can be powerful driver of personality
because user is already a person and so
conceptualizing the personality is reduced
 User Imagery can be people who use the
brand or those portrayed in advertisement
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
AGE
 How long a brand has been on the market
can affect its personality
 New entrants like Apple, Outlook etc., tend
to have younger brand personalities than
IBM, India Today etc.,
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
SYMBOL
 A symbol can be a
powerful influence on
brand personality since it
can be controlled and can
have extremely strong
associations
 Some examples…
 Apple’s bitten apple
 Nike’s swoosh Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
TO SUM UP…
 A brand personality can help a brand in several ways:
 It can provide a vehicle for customers to express their own
identity
 A brand personality metaphor helps suggests the kind of
relationship that customer has with brand
 Brand personalities serve to represent and cue functional
benefits and product attributes well
 Importantly, brand personality is often a sustainable point of
differentiation
 Sustainable because it is very difficult to copy a personality
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
BRAND EXTENSION
 Brand extension or brand stretching is
a marketing strategy in which a firm
marketing a product with a well-developed
image uses the same brand name in a
different product category.
 The existing brand is the parent brand and
the new brand is the sub-brand.
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
TYPES OF BRAND EXTENSION
LINE EXTENSION CATEGORY EXTENSION
 New product targeting new
market segment within the
product category the parent
brand serves.
Example: Head & Shoulder
Dry Scalp
Shampoo
 Marketers apply the
parent brand to enter a
different product
category from the one it
currently serves.
Example: Swiss Army
WatchesVersatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
EXAMPLES OF LINE EXTENSION
COCA COLA’S LINE EXTENSION
HEAD & SHOULDERS LINE EXTENS
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
EXAMPLES OF CATEGORY EXTENSION
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
BRAND POSITIONING
 Positioning has come to mean the process
by which marketers try to create an image or
identity in the minds of their target market
 “positioning is the act of designing the
company’s offers and image so that it
occupies a distinct and valuable place in the
target customers mind ”
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
BRAND POSITIONING
 Re-positioning involves changing the identity of
a product, relative to the identity of competing
products, in the collective minds of the target
market.
 De-positioning involves attempting to change
the identity of competing products, relative to the
identity of your own product, in the collective
minds of the target market.
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
APPROACHES TO POSITIONING:
1.Focusing on the consumer
2.Focusing on the competitors
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
PROCESS OF PRODUCT/ BRAND
POSITIONING
Maintain the position of the brand
Ways to promote brands
Know your competitors
Unique selling Propositions
Identify the product features
Know your target audience well
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
BRAND IMAGE
 Impression in the consumers' mind of a brand’s
total personality (real and
imaginary qualities and shortcomings).
 Brand image is developed over time through
advertising campaigns with a consistent theme,
and is authenticated through the consumer’s
direct experience.
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
BRAND IMAGE
 It can be defined as a unique bundle of
associations within the minds of target
customers.
 It signifies what the brand presently stands
for.
 It is a set of beliefs held about a specific
brand
 Brand image develops and conveys theVersatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
BRAND IMAGE
 The brand image includes products' appeal,
ease of use, functionality, fame, and overall
value
 Brand image is the objective and mental
feedback of the consumers when they
purchase a product
 Positive brand image enhances the goodwill
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
BENEFITS OF BRAND IMAGE
 Functional benefits
 Emotional benefits
 Rational
benefits/support
What do you do better
How do you make me
feel better
Why do I believe you
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
CASE - STUDY - VODAFONE
The Strategy :
 The Strategy Mumbai, September 19, 2007: Vodafone, the
world’s leading international mobile communications company,
has fully arrived in India. Vodafone Essar announced today that
the Vodafone brand will be launched in India from 21st
September onwards. At 9pm all the television set went Red, i.e.
the Hutch is now Vodafone commercial were aired across all the
channels of Star Network and also other Networks like Sony,
Ndtv. The Commercials were aired on Radio as well. All the
Hutch Costumer Care Stores were revamped overnight.
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
THE RESULT
 There was 82% Brand Recall amongst TV
viewing audience. There was 80% Brand
Recall amongst Non - TV viewing
audience. It led to a one day
transformation, which was successful
nationally.
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
BRAND MANAGEMENT
UNIT III
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
UNIT III
BRAND IMPACT: Branding impact on
buyers-competitors , Brand loyalty-loyalty
programmes-brand equity-role of brand
manager-Relationship with manufacturing-
marketing-finance -purchase and R & D-
brand audit.
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
BRAND LOYALITY
American Marketing
Association defines brand loyalty as:
“The situation in which a consumer generally
buys the same manufacturer-originated
product or service repeatedly over time rather
than buying from multiple suppliers within the
category"
"The degree to which a consumer consistently
purchases the same brand within a product
class" (consumer behavior definition).
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
BRAND LOYALITY
 It consists of a consumer's commitment to repurchase or
otherwise continue using the brand
 It can be demonstrated by repeated buying of a product
or service, or other positive behaviors such as word of
mouth advice
 Loyalty includes some degree of pre-dispositional
commitment toward a brand
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
FACTORS INFLUENCING CUSTOMER
LOYALTY
 Core offering
 Satisfaction
 The marketplace
 Demographics
 Share of wallet
 Customers' perceived value
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
BENEFITS OF BRAND LOYALTY
 Brand loyal consumers start building a relationship with the
brand
 They become advocates of the brand by their positive word of
mouth
 Brand loyal consumers become passionate about the brand and
form clubs which results in further strengthening the brand
 Loyal consumers may be prepared to try out the variants of the
brand
 They may be prepared to pay a premium
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
TYPES OF BRAND LOYALTY
Hard-core Loyal - who buy the brand
all the time.
Split Loyal - loyal to two or three
brands.
Shifting Loyal - moving from one brand
to another.
Switchers - with no loyalty (possibly
'deal-prone', constantly looking for
bargains or 'vanity prone', looking for
something different
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
ROLE OF BRAND MANAGERS
 Researching consumer markets and monitoring
market trends
 Looking at the pricing of products and analyzing
the potential profitability
 Exploring new ways to communicate with
customers
 Generating names for new and existing products
and services and coming up with packaging
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
ROLE OF BRAND MANAGERS
 Overseeing the production of TV, newspaper and
magazine adverts
 Liaising with art designers, copywriters, media buyers and
printers
 Ensuring the designs and messages in marketing literature
and campaigns meet the company brand and regulatory
guidelines
 Monitoring consumer reactions through focus groups and
market research
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
QUALITIES OF A BRAND MANAGER
 Have an instinctive feeling about future
product concepts
 Have strong marketing skills and knowledge
 Be creative, entrepreneurial thinkers
 Have excellent communication and listening
skills
 Enjoy working in a deadline-driven, creative
environment.
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
BRAND EQUITY
 Brand Equity is the value of a brand built up over a
period of time. It is composed of four components
namely Image, Perception, Awareness and Loyalty.
 David Aaker defines brand equity as: “A set of
assets and liabilities linked to a brand's name and
symbol that adds to or subtracts from the value
provided by a product or service to a firm and/or
that firm's customers”
 Brand Equity is an asset that can be sold or leasedVersatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
BRAND EQUITY
 Brand equity refers to the marketing effects and
outcomes that accrue to a product with its brand
name compared with those that would accrue if
the same product did not have the brand name.
 Brand equity is one of the factors which can
increase the financial value of a brand to the
brand owner
 BE is an important intangible assets that has
psychological and financial value to the firm.Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
FACTORS INFLUENCING BRAND EQUITY
 Changing market share
 Profit margins
 Consumer recognition of logos and other
visual elements
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
FACTORS INFLUENCING BRAND EQUITY
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
BRAND AWARENESS
 Brand Recognition: Consumer’s ability to
confirm prior exposure to the brand when
they go to the store
 Brand Recall: Ability to retrieve the brand
from the memory when given the product
category
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
POSITIVE BRAND EQUITY
 The positive effect of the brand on the
difference between the prices that the
consumer accepts to pay when the brand
known compared to the value of the
benefit received
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
NEGATIVE BRAND EQUITY
 If consumers are willing to pay more for a
generic product than for a branded one,
however, the brand is said to have
negative brand equity
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
MANAGING BRAND EQUITY
 Brand Reinforcement
 Consistently convey the meaning of the brand to
customers
 What the core brand represents, benefits supplied,
which needs it satisfies
 How brand makes those product/service superior and
which strong favorable unique brand association
should exist in the mind of customer
 Requires new product introduction
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
MANAGING BRAND EQUITY
 Requires consistency of marketing support (new
offerings, new promotions)
 Example- Nivea from skin crème to skin care and
personal care products.
 Early 70s brand still a leader-coke kodak,
hienz,wrigleys
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
BRAND AUDIT
 It is a consumer focused exercise that involves
a series of procedures to assess the health of a
brand, uncover sources of brand equity, suggest
ways to leverage that equity.
 Is current brand equity satisfactory
 What brand associations needs to be
strengthened
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
BRANDAUDIT
 What potential challenges exist from the brand
equity.
 As a result strategic analysis to develop a new
marketing program to maximize long term brand
equity
 Externally, consumer-focused assessment
 A comprehensive examination to assess the health
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
BRAND AUDIT
It includes
 Brand vision
 Mission
 Promise
 Values
 Position
 Personality
 Performance
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
IMPORTANCE OF BRAND AUDITS
 Understand sources of brand equity
 Firm perspective
 Consumer perspective
 Set strategic direction for the brand
 Recommend marketing programs to
maximize long-term brand equity
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
STEPS IN BRAND AUDIT
 Brand inventory ( supply side)
 Brand exploratory (demand side)
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
BRAND AUDIT STEPS
 Brand audit objectives , scope, and approach
 Background about the brand(self-analysis)
 Background about the industries
 Consumer analysis (trends, motivation, perceptions,
needs, segmentation, behavior)
 Brand inventory
 Elements, current marketing programs, POPs, PODs
 Branding strategies(extensions, sub-brands etc.)Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
BRAND AUDIT STEPS
 Brand portfolio analysis
 Competitors ’brand inventory
 Strengths and weaknesses
 Brand exploratory
 Brand associations
 Brand positioning analysis
 Consumer perceptions analysis
 Summary of competitor analysis
 SWOT analysis
 Brand equity evaluation
 Strategic brand management recommendations
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
STEPS IN BRAND AUDIT
BRAND INVENTORY BRAND EXPLORATORY
 Brand elements
 Supporting marketing
programs
 Profile of competitive
brands
 POPs and PODs
 Brand mantra
 Awareness
 Favorability
 Uniqueness of
associations
 Customer based equity
model
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
BRAND AUDIT STEPS
BRAND INVENTORY BRAND EXPLORATORY
 Suggests the bases for
positioning the brand
 Offers insights to how brand
equity may be better managed
 Assesses consistency in
message among activities,
brand extensions, and sub
brands in order to avoid
redundancies, overlaps and
consumer confusion
 Uncovers knowledge
structures for the core
brand as well as its
competitors
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
BRAND MANAGEMENT
UNIT IV
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
UNIT IV
BRAND REJUVENATION: Brand rejuvenation
and re-launch, brand development through
acquisition, take over and merger-Monitoring
brand performance over the product life cycle.
Co-branding
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
BRAND REJUVINATION
 Brand rejuvenation involves adding value
to an existing brand by improving product
attributes and enhancing its overall appeal
 It is intended to re-focus the attention of
consumers on an existing brand
 Brand rejuvenation helps overcome the
consumer’s boredom in seeing the same
product on the shelves year after year
 ’new’, ‘super’, ‘special’ ‘premium,’ deluxe,
‘extra strong’ and ‘fresh’,
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
EXAMPLES OF REJUVENATED BRANDS
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
EXAMPLES OF REJUVENATED BRANDS
 New Burnol:
Burnol became ‘New’
and appeared in a
new pack.
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
EXAMPLES OF REJUVENATED BRANDS
 New Horlicks : its New
Horlicks the New
Horlicks claimed more
nourishment through
additional protein and
calcium, eight essential
vitamins and iron.
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
EXAMPLES OF REJUVENATED BRANDS
 New Nescafe:
New Nescafe was made
using the new
agglomeration coffee
process, instead of the
fine powder form and the
coffee now came in small
round goblets
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
OBJECTIVES
 Rejuvenation aims at revival of brand. The
intention is to breathe some new life into a
brand that may be showing signs of decline
 Even healthy, successful brands may need
occasional rejuvenation because of competition.
The brand has to be updated. It ensures the
steady success of the growing brand
 It helps keep the brand live and in focus
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
RE-LAUNCH
 Re-launching a brand means thinking
beyond a new design or a new name. It
means, "going deeper.“
 A successful example, they point out, is
Lifebuoy.
 From being an economic and normal bathing
soap it was repositioned in the health and
wellness groupVersatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
OBJECTIVES OF BRAND RE LAUNCH
 To bring it to a better level in terms of sales,
market share and profit than what its current
position reflects.
 To re launch the brand and reposition it for
faster growth and market share
 To re launch a brand that has failed due to
an inappropriate marketing mix
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
BRAND RE LAUNCH: METHOD 1
 Keep all elements of the mix the same but reposition the brand in the minds
and hearts of customers.
 Nothing is done to the product, the pricing or the distribution but the
communication and the entire repositioning exercise changes the perceived
value of the brand.
 The elements used would be in the area of the communication mix including
the packaging.
 This approach is usually followed when consumers have accepted the product,
found it affordable and available but do not want to use it because they feel it
does not match their needs or aspirations, keeping the psychographics in mind.
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
BRAND RE LAUNCH: METHOD 2
 Change the channel and distribution strategy.
 Other elements may be working but the distribution
channel may be ineffective due to the choice of in-
appropriate outlets or even ineffective trade margins
and marketing strategy.
 This can be linked with the sales effort, sales organization
and structure.
 This happens in cases where the product is accepted, its
awareness is high but it is not available. There is,
therefore, wastage of advertising money.
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
BRAND RE LAUNCH:METHOD 3
 Revamp every element of the marketing
mix including the brand name, the product
ingredients and pricing, and bring it out with
a new price and bring it out as a new avatar.
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
MONITORING THE BRAND
FIRM LEVEL
PRODUCT
LEVEL
CONSUMER
LEVEL
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
FIRM LEVELAPPROACH
 Firm level approaches measure the brand
as a financial asset
 A calculation is made regarding how
much the brand is worth as an intangible
asset
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
PRODUCT LEVELAPPROACH
 The classic product level brand
measurement example is to compare the
price of a no-name or private label product to
an "equivalent" branded product.
 The difference in price, assuming all things
equal, is due to the brand.
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
CONSUMER LEVELAPPROACH
 This approach seeks to map the mind of the
consumer to find out what associations with the
brand the consumer has.
 This approach seeks to measure the awareness
(recall and recognition) and brand image
 Brands with high levels of awareness and
strong, favorable and unique associations are
high equity brands
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
MEASURING BRAND PERFORMANCE
 Comparative method
 Brand based comparative method
 Market based comparative method
 Holistic approach
 Residual approach
 Value added approach
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
COMPARATIVE METHOD
BRAND BASED COMPARATIVE
METHOD
MARKET BASED COMPARATIVE
METHOD
 One set of consumers
respond to the marketing
program of the target brand
and another set of
consumers react to the
program of a competitive
brand or fictitious brand.
 Example: Case of T Mobile
and Virgin Mobile.
 Consumers respond to
changes in elements of
the marketing program or
marketing activity for the
target brand or
competitive brand.
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
HOLISTICAPPROACH
 Attempt to place an overall value on the
brand in either abstract utility terms or
concrete financial terms
 Net out various considerations to
determine the unique contribution of the
brand
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
HOLISTICAPPROACH
RESIDUAL APPROACH VALUE ADDED APPROACH
 Examine the value of the
brand by subtracting
consumers’ preferences
based on physical
product attributes alone
from their overall brand
preferences
 Attempt to place a financial
value on brand equity for
accounting purposes
 Useful in cases of mergers
and acquisitions, brand
licensing, fund raising, and
brand management
decisions
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE
 It gives a list of stages a product undergoes
during its life time It contains the following
stages
 Initial
 Growth
 Maturity or saturation
 Decline
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
MONITORING BRAND PERFORMANCE OVER
THE PLC
Relevant issues in PLC analysis include:
 Determining the length and rate of change of
the PLC
 Identifying the current PLC stage and selecting
the product strategy that corresponds to that
stage
 Anticipating threats and finding opportunities
for altering and extending the PLC
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
BRAND DEVELOPMENT
It can be achieved with the help of
following methods
 Mergers
 Acquisitions
 Take over
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
CO-BRANDING
 Co-branding, also called brand partnership, is
when two companies form an alliance to work
together, creating marketing synergy.
 Co-branding is an arrangement that associates
a single product or service with more than one
brand name
 Associates a product with someone other than
the principal producer.
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
OBJECTIVES OF CO-BRANDING
 The object for this is to combine the
strength of two brands
 To maximize their brand extension
success rates
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
Global
Branding
Brand extension
Market share
LEVELS OF CO BRANDING
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
LEVELS OF CO BRANDING
 Level 1
Includes joining with another company to penetrate the
market
 Level 2
Working to extend the brand based on the company's
current market share
 Level 3
Tries to achieve a global strategy by combining the two
brands
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
FORMS OF CO BRANDING
 Ingredient co-branding
 Same-company co-branding
 Joint venture co-branding
 Multiple sponsor co-branding
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
INGREDIENT CO-BRANDING
 This involves creating brand equity for materials,
components or parts that are contained within other
products
Examples:
 Betty Crocker’s brownie mix includes Hershey’s chocolate
syrup
 Pillsbury Brownies with Nestle Chocolate
 Dell Computers with Intel Processors
 Kellogg Pop-tarts with Smucker’s fruit
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
SAME-COMPANY CO-BRANDING
 This is when a company with more than one
product promotes their own brands together
simultaneously
 Examples
 Kraft Lunchables and Oscar Mayer meats
 Other examples include the marketing of Gillette M3
Power shaving equipment (which require batteries)
with Duracell batteries (both brands owned
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
JOINT VENTURE CO-BRANDING
 Joint venture co-branding is another form of co-
branding defined as two or more companies going for a
strategic alliance to present a product to the target
audience.
 Example:
British Airways and Citibank formed a partnership
offering a credit card where the card owner will
automatically become a member of the British Airways
Executive club
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
MULTIPLE SPONSOR CO-BRANDING
 This form of co-branding involves two or
more companies working together to form a
strategic alliance in technology, promotions,
sales, etc.
 Example
Citibank/American Airlines/Visa credit card
partnership
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
APPLICATIONS
 Co-branding may help usage extension
 Co-branding appears in sales promotions too
 Loyalty programmes, increasingly, include co-
branding arrangements. Corporations are
sharing the cost of loyalty programmes between
their own brands
 Co-branding may signal a trade marketing
operation
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
BRAND MANAGEMENT
UNIT V
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
SYLLABUS
 BRAND STRATEGIES: Designing and
implementing branding strategies-Case
studies
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
BRAND STRATEGY
 Branding strategy or brand architecture : It
gives the framework which tells which
logo, design and brand captions to be
used for a new and existing product in
order to attract and retain customers
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
BRAND STRATEGY
 A plan for the systematic development of a brand
to enable it to meet its agreed objectives.
 The strategy should be rooted in the brand's
vision and driven by the principles of
differentiation and sustained consumer appeal.
 The true brand is the sum total of the
perceptions of all the constituencies which
contribute to revenues and profits.
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
ROLE OF BRANDING STRATEGY
 Clarify-Brand awareness-improve
consumer understanding and
communicate similarity and differences
between two products
 Motivate-Brand Image-transfer of equity
from brand to individual product to
increase trial and repeat purchaseVersatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
THE BRAND – PRODUCT MATRIX
 Matrix representation of all the products
and brands sold by the firm
 Rows -brands of the firms
 Columns -products of the firm
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
BREADTH OF BRANDING STRATEGY
 It describes the number of products linked
to a brand
 Number of product lines
 Variants in each product lines
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
BREADTH OF THE BRAND
 Number and nature of different product
linked to the brand
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
FACTORSAFFECTING BREADTH OF BRAND
 Aggressive market factors
 Category factors
 Environmental factors
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
BRAND HIERARCHY
 Displaying the nature and number of
brands of common and distinctive brand
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
DESIGNING BRAND STRATEGY
 Number of levels of the brand hierarchy
 The desired brand awareness and image at
each level
 Combinations of brand elements from
different levels of hierarchy
 Linking brand elements to multiple products
 Adjustment to marketing program
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
GUIDELINES FOR GOOD BRAND
ARCHITECTURE
 Adopt a strong customer focus
 Avoid over branding
 Create broad, robust brand platform
 Selectively employ sub brands
 Do brand extensions to establish new
brand equity
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
IMPLEMENTATION
 Building awareness of the company and
nature of the business
 Building company trustworthiness and
credibility
 Creating corporate image association that
can be leveraged by product specific
marketing Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
TYPES OF BRANDING STRATEGY
Normally, a company can opt for one or
more of the following strategies:
 Product branding
 Product-line branding
 Product-range branding
 Corporate branding
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
PRODUCT BRANDING
• This type of brand give each individual product an
exclusive brand name and the company name being
ignored
• It allows the brand to have unique values, personality,
identity and positioning.
• By doing so, it implies that every new product the
company brings on to the market is a new brand and
can be positioned precisely for a specific market
segment
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
PRODUCT BRANDING
• It has the advantage of making it easier for the
company to evaluate brand performance and
worth and allows better resource-allocation
decisions.
• The major drawbacks are product
cannibalization if consumers cannot differentiate
clearly among product brands and involves
higher advertising and promotion budget and is
totally self-supporting with little or not brand
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
PRODUCT-LINE BRANDING STRATEGY
 Here, the products appear under the same brand
name and possess the same basic identity but
with slightly different competencies.
 For example, Follow Me line of hair shampoos.
Here the brand line comes under the hair-care
category but the different line extensions cover
complementary applications of essentially the
same product
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
PRODUCT-LINE BRANDING STRATEGY
 Advantages therefore are economies of scale in
advertising and promotion and each new line
extension strengthens the position of the brand and
therefore its image.
 The line helps defend the category from predatory
attack.
 Individual product brands can move across to line
brands as companies find ways of extending the
brand to different consumer groups or segments.
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
PRODUCT- RANGE BRANDING STRATEGY
• A number of products or services in a broad category are
grouped together under one brand name and promoted with one
basic identity.
• Compared to product-line branding, product-range branded
products carry out the basically the same functions but at
different performance levels like various cars in the Mercedes S,
E, C and A class and Intel’s Pentium and Celeron ranges of
microprocessors.
• Therefore the advantage here is that a single brand name allows
some economies of scale in advertising and promotion as theVersatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
CORPORATE BRANDING STRATEGY
• There are two approaches in the Corporate brand
exercises
• First is to promote its name as the main brand name
sometimes referred to as monolithic or umbrella
branding.
• Here the product is not branded individually or as
strongly as the corporate brand. Companies using this
approach – IBM, Virgin, Sony.
• The basic principle is that the companies believed that
the company name is the life of an enterprise.
Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
CORPORATE BRANDING STRATEGY
• The second approach which is becoming popular whereby
the product brand name has a high profile but is endorsed by
the parent company which gives the product a stamp of
quality and credibility.
• Here the product brand is self supporting in practically every
respect but retains the assurance of the corporate brand
endorsement.
• It also called house or endorsement branding. Nestle uses
this to protect and guarantee the performance of theirVersatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008

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Brand Management Guide

  • 1. BRAND MANAGEMENT UNIT 1 Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 2. BRAND  A Brand is a name, term, sign, symbol or design or a combination of them, which is intended to identify the goals or services of one seller or another seller and differentiate them from other manufacturers  The American Marketing Association defines ‘brand’ as “a name, term, design, symbol, or any other feature that identifies one seller's good or service as distinct from those of other sellers…A brand may identify one item, a family of items, or all items of that seller.” Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 3. BRANDS.. Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 4. ELEMENTS OF A BRAND  Name  Logo  Tagline or catchphrase  Graphics  Shapes  Colors  Sounds  Scents  Tastes  Movement Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 5. FEATURES OF A BRAND  A brand has physical qualities  A brand has its own personality  A brand has its own culture  A brand is a relationship Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 6. FUNCTIONS OF A BRAND  Identification  Practicality  Guarantee  Optimization  Continuity  Characterization  Ethics Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 7. BRAND MARK  The brand mark is a design element, such as a symbol (e.g., Nike swoosh ), logo (e.g., Yahoo! graphic), a character (e.g., Keebler elves) or even a sound (e.g., Intel inside sound), that provides visual or auditory recognition for Aspect or element (such as color, design, picture, symbol, typeface) of a brand that cannot be expressed in words. Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 8. TRADE MARK  It is a brand or a part of brand which is given legal protection because it is capable of exclusive appropriation.  The official definition of a trademark is “any word, name, symbol or device including, but not limited to, a distinctive package or container of any kind, or any combination of these, used by a person to identify and distinguish the goods of that person, including a unique product, from those manufactured or sold by others, and to indicate the source of the goods, even if that source is unknown.” Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 9. TRADE MARK EXAMPLES  Company slogan or catchphrase Examples: “Built Ford Tough", (federal registration # 2202980) “Just Do It”, (federal registration # 1875307)  A Company or brand name Example:  Ford, federal registration # 0643185  Product or service name Example:  Amazon’s Kindle, federal registration # 3694267  Domain name Example:  Amazon.com, federal registration # 2078496 Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 10. TRADE MARK EXAMPLES  A device  Shape. Example:  Coca Cola bottle, federal registration # 1057884  Color. Example:  Canary yellow Post-Its, federal registration # 2390667  Sound. Example:  NBC chimes, federal registration # 0916522  Smell. Example:  Peppermint scent on file folders, federal registration # 3140700  Touch. Example:  Leather texture wrapping around wine bottle, federal registration # Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 12. PERSONAL BRAND  The personal brand attached with individual personality  It explains the character of the particular popular celebrity  For example: Abdul Kalam Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 13. INDIVIDUAL BRAND  Individual branding, also called individual product branding or multi branding, is the marketing strategy of giving each product in a portfolio its own unique brand name  This facilitates the positioning of each product, by allowing a firm to position its brands differently. Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 14. FAMILY BRANDING  Family branding is a marketing strategy that involves selling several related products under one brand name. Family branding is also known as umbrella branding.  It contrasts with individual product branding, in which each product in a portfolio is given a unique brand name and identity.Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 15. SELECTING A BRAND NAME  Initialism  Descriptive  Alliteration and rhyme  Evocative  Foreign word  Founders name  Geography  Personification Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 16. BRAND MANAGMEMENT PROCESS Identifying and establishing brand positioning Plan and implementing Brand marketing Measure and interpret brand Grow and sustain brand EQUITY Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 17. BRAND MANAGEMENT UNIT II Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 18. VISION  A Vision is a description of the business, as you want it to be.  It is, “a mental image produced by the imagination.”  It involves seeing the optimal future for your business, and vividly describing this vision.  The description might include HOW things will be WHERE, WHOM with, WHAT you’ll be doing and HOW you’ll feel. Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 19. BRAND VISION  A vision paints a picture of what you are trying to achieve with your brand in a simple sentence.  This is the strategic goal of a brand.  It indicates the direction into which a given brand should develop medium- or long-term. EXAMPLE: "To be the Number 1 brand in the UK sun care market in penetration, sales and likeability.“ “To provide innovative solutions to market needs. Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 20. BRAND AMBASSADOR  One who represent the product on behalf of the entire company.  A well-connected person or a celebrity who is used to promote and advertise a product or service  A brand ambassador can also be called as an marketing agent of a company.  Intention beyond is toVersatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 21. BRAND AMBASSADOR  Brand ambassador is a marketing term for a celebrity employed by a company to promote its products or services within the activity known as celebrity branding. The brand ambassador is meant to embody the corporate image in appearance, demeanor, values and ethics. Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 22. CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD AMBASSADOR Open mindedness Curiosity Kindness Understanding that no matter how much you already know, there is still much more to learn A strong desire to really understand other people A must for a good ambassador Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 23. CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD AMBASSADOR Pride Humility Realism Honesty Realizing you’re not superior to others, only different Knowing you represent something of real value Realizing what the real characteristics of your group are A strong wish to understand the truth about yourself and others Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 24. BRAND PERSONALITY  A set of human characteristics that are attributed to a brand name  This is the added-value that a brand gains, aside from its functional benefits  Personality is how the brand behaves  Example: IBM is ‘older’ while Apple is ‘younger’ India Today is ‘old-fashioned’ while Outlook is ‘trendier’ Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 25. WHY USE BRAND PERSONALITY?  Enriches understanding (For ex., Microsoft, IBM etc.,)  Contributes to a differentiating identity (Clinic Plus Vs Pantene) • Guides the communication effort (For ex., Is Nike shoes or sports, performance and attitude?) Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 26. PRODUCT-RELATED CHARACTERISTICS  Product-related characteristics can be primary drivers of a brand personality  Even the product class can affect personality  Banks, Insurance etc., tend to be Competent, Serious, Masculine, Older and Upper-class  Athletic shoes tend to be Young, Lively, Rugged, Outdoorsy, Adventurous etc.,  A high-priced brand will be considered wealthy, stylish Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 27. SPONSORSHIPS  Activities such as events sponsored by the brand will influence its personality  Pond’s sponsoring Femina’s ‘Miss India’ contest  Budweiser sponsoring the blimp in American sporting Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 28. USER IMAGERY  Can be powerful driver of personality because user is already a person and so conceptualizing the personality is reduced  User Imagery can be people who use the brand or those portrayed in advertisement Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 29. AGE  How long a brand has been on the market can affect its personality  New entrants like Apple, Outlook etc., tend to have younger brand personalities than IBM, India Today etc., Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 30. SYMBOL  A symbol can be a powerful influence on brand personality since it can be controlled and can have extremely strong associations  Some examples…  Apple’s bitten apple  Nike’s swoosh Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 31. TO SUM UP…  A brand personality can help a brand in several ways:  It can provide a vehicle for customers to express their own identity  A brand personality metaphor helps suggests the kind of relationship that customer has with brand  Brand personalities serve to represent and cue functional benefits and product attributes well  Importantly, brand personality is often a sustainable point of differentiation  Sustainable because it is very difficult to copy a personality Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 32. BRAND EXTENSION  Brand extension or brand stretching is a marketing strategy in which a firm marketing a product with a well-developed image uses the same brand name in a different product category.  The existing brand is the parent brand and the new brand is the sub-brand. Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 33. TYPES OF BRAND EXTENSION LINE EXTENSION CATEGORY EXTENSION  New product targeting new market segment within the product category the parent brand serves. Example: Head & Shoulder Dry Scalp Shampoo  Marketers apply the parent brand to enter a different product category from the one it currently serves. Example: Swiss Army WatchesVersatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 34. EXAMPLES OF LINE EXTENSION COCA COLA’S LINE EXTENSION HEAD & SHOULDERS LINE EXTENS Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 35. EXAMPLES OF CATEGORY EXTENSION Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 36. BRAND POSITIONING  Positioning has come to mean the process by which marketers try to create an image or identity in the minds of their target market  “positioning is the act of designing the company’s offers and image so that it occupies a distinct and valuable place in the target customers mind ” Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 37. BRAND POSITIONING  Re-positioning involves changing the identity of a product, relative to the identity of competing products, in the collective minds of the target market.  De-positioning involves attempting to change the identity of competing products, relative to the identity of your own product, in the collective minds of the target market. Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 38. APPROACHES TO POSITIONING: 1.Focusing on the consumer 2.Focusing on the competitors Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 39. PROCESS OF PRODUCT/ BRAND POSITIONING Maintain the position of the brand Ways to promote brands Know your competitors Unique selling Propositions Identify the product features Know your target audience well Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 40. Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 41. BRAND IMAGE  Impression in the consumers' mind of a brand’s total personality (real and imaginary qualities and shortcomings).  Brand image is developed over time through advertising campaigns with a consistent theme, and is authenticated through the consumer’s direct experience. Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 42. BRAND IMAGE  It can be defined as a unique bundle of associations within the minds of target customers.  It signifies what the brand presently stands for.  It is a set of beliefs held about a specific brand  Brand image develops and conveys theVersatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 43. BRAND IMAGE  The brand image includes products' appeal, ease of use, functionality, fame, and overall value  Brand image is the objective and mental feedback of the consumers when they purchase a product  Positive brand image enhances the goodwill Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 44. BENEFITS OF BRAND IMAGE  Functional benefits  Emotional benefits  Rational benefits/support What do you do better How do you make me feel better Why do I believe you Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 45. CASE - STUDY - VODAFONE The Strategy :  The Strategy Mumbai, September 19, 2007: Vodafone, the world’s leading international mobile communications company, has fully arrived in India. Vodafone Essar announced today that the Vodafone brand will be launched in India from 21st September onwards. At 9pm all the television set went Red, i.e. the Hutch is now Vodafone commercial were aired across all the channels of Star Network and also other Networks like Sony, Ndtv. The Commercials were aired on Radio as well. All the Hutch Costumer Care Stores were revamped overnight. Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 46. THE RESULT  There was 82% Brand Recall amongst TV viewing audience. There was 80% Brand Recall amongst Non - TV viewing audience. It led to a one day transformation, which was successful nationally. Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 47. BRAND MANAGEMENT UNIT III Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 48. UNIT III BRAND IMPACT: Branding impact on buyers-competitors , Brand loyalty-loyalty programmes-brand equity-role of brand manager-Relationship with manufacturing- marketing-finance -purchase and R & D- brand audit. Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 49. BRAND LOYALITY American Marketing Association defines brand loyalty as: “The situation in which a consumer generally buys the same manufacturer-originated product or service repeatedly over time rather than buying from multiple suppliers within the category" "The degree to which a consumer consistently purchases the same brand within a product class" (consumer behavior definition). Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 50. BRAND LOYALITY  It consists of a consumer's commitment to repurchase or otherwise continue using the brand  It can be demonstrated by repeated buying of a product or service, or other positive behaviors such as word of mouth advice  Loyalty includes some degree of pre-dispositional commitment toward a brand Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 51. FACTORS INFLUENCING CUSTOMER LOYALTY  Core offering  Satisfaction  The marketplace  Demographics  Share of wallet  Customers' perceived value Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 52. BENEFITS OF BRAND LOYALTY  Brand loyal consumers start building a relationship with the brand  They become advocates of the brand by their positive word of mouth  Brand loyal consumers become passionate about the brand and form clubs which results in further strengthening the brand  Loyal consumers may be prepared to try out the variants of the brand  They may be prepared to pay a premium Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 53. TYPES OF BRAND LOYALTY Hard-core Loyal - who buy the brand all the time. Split Loyal - loyal to two or three brands. Shifting Loyal - moving from one brand to another. Switchers - with no loyalty (possibly 'deal-prone', constantly looking for bargains or 'vanity prone', looking for something different Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 54. ROLE OF BRAND MANAGERS  Researching consumer markets and monitoring market trends  Looking at the pricing of products and analyzing the potential profitability  Exploring new ways to communicate with customers  Generating names for new and existing products and services and coming up with packaging Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 55. ROLE OF BRAND MANAGERS  Overseeing the production of TV, newspaper and magazine adverts  Liaising with art designers, copywriters, media buyers and printers  Ensuring the designs and messages in marketing literature and campaigns meet the company brand and regulatory guidelines  Monitoring consumer reactions through focus groups and market research Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 56. QUALITIES OF A BRAND MANAGER  Have an instinctive feeling about future product concepts  Have strong marketing skills and knowledge  Be creative, entrepreneurial thinkers  Have excellent communication and listening skills  Enjoy working in a deadline-driven, creative environment. Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 57. BRAND EQUITY  Brand Equity is the value of a brand built up over a period of time. It is composed of four components namely Image, Perception, Awareness and Loyalty.  David Aaker defines brand equity as: “A set of assets and liabilities linked to a brand's name and symbol that adds to or subtracts from the value provided by a product or service to a firm and/or that firm's customers”  Brand Equity is an asset that can be sold or leasedVersatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 58. BRAND EQUITY  Brand equity refers to the marketing effects and outcomes that accrue to a product with its brand name compared with those that would accrue if the same product did not have the brand name.  Brand equity is one of the factors which can increase the financial value of a brand to the brand owner  BE is an important intangible assets that has psychological and financial value to the firm.Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 59. FACTORS INFLUENCING BRAND EQUITY  Changing market share  Profit margins  Consumer recognition of logos and other visual elements Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 60. FACTORS INFLUENCING BRAND EQUITY Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 61. BRAND AWARENESS  Brand Recognition: Consumer’s ability to confirm prior exposure to the brand when they go to the store  Brand Recall: Ability to retrieve the brand from the memory when given the product category Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 62. POSITIVE BRAND EQUITY  The positive effect of the brand on the difference between the prices that the consumer accepts to pay when the brand known compared to the value of the benefit received Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 63. NEGATIVE BRAND EQUITY  If consumers are willing to pay more for a generic product than for a branded one, however, the brand is said to have negative brand equity Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 64. MANAGING BRAND EQUITY  Brand Reinforcement  Consistently convey the meaning of the brand to customers  What the core brand represents, benefits supplied, which needs it satisfies  How brand makes those product/service superior and which strong favorable unique brand association should exist in the mind of customer  Requires new product introduction Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 65. MANAGING BRAND EQUITY  Requires consistency of marketing support (new offerings, new promotions)  Example- Nivea from skin crème to skin care and personal care products.  Early 70s brand still a leader-coke kodak, hienz,wrigleys Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 66. BRAND AUDIT  It is a consumer focused exercise that involves a series of procedures to assess the health of a brand, uncover sources of brand equity, suggest ways to leverage that equity.  Is current brand equity satisfactory  What brand associations needs to be strengthened Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 67. BRANDAUDIT  What potential challenges exist from the brand equity.  As a result strategic analysis to develop a new marketing program to maximize long term brand equity  Externally, consumer-focused assessment  A comprehensive examination to assess the health Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 68. BRAND AUDIT It includes  Brand vision  Mission  Promise  Values  Position  Personality  Performance Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 69. IMPORTANCE OF BRAND AUDITS  Understand sources of brand equity  Firm perspective  Consumer perspective  Set strategic direction for the brand  Recommend marketing programs to maximize long-term brand equity Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 70. STEPS IN BRAND AUDIT  Brand inventory ( supply side)  Brand exploratory (demand side) Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 71. BRAND AUDIT STEPS  Brand audit objectives , scope, and approach  Background about the brand(self-analysis)  Background about the industries  Consumer analysis (trends, motivation, perceptions, needs, segmentation, behavior)  Brand inventory  Elements, current marketing programs, POPs, PODs  Branding strategies(extensions, sub-brands etc.)Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 72. BRAND AUDIT STEPS  Brand portfolio analysis  Competitors ’brand inventory  Strengths and weaknesses  Brand exploratory  Brand associations  Brand positioning analysis  Consumer perceptions analysis  Summary of competitor analysis  SWOT analysis  Brand equity evaluation  Strategic brand management recommendations Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 73. STEPS IN BRAND AUDIT BRAND INVENTORY BRAND EXPLORATORY  Brand elements  Supporting marketing programs  Profile of competitive brands  POPs and PODs  Brand mantra  Awareness  Favorability  Uniqueness of associations  Customer based equity model Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 74. BRAND AUDIT STEPS BRAND INVENTORY BRAND EXPLORATORY  Suggests the bases for positioning the brand  Offers insights to how brand equity may be better managed  Assesses consistency in message among activities, brand extensions, and sub brands in order to avoid redundancies, overlaps and consumer confusion  Uncovers knowledge structures for the core brand as well as its competitors Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 75. BRAND MANAGEMENT UNIT IV Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 76. UNIT IV BRAND REJUVENATION: Brand rejuvenation and re-launch, brand development through acquisition, take over and merger-Monitoring brand performance over the product life cycle. Co-branding Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 77. BRAND REJUVINATION  Brand rejuvenation involves adding value to an existing brand by improving product attributes and enhancing its overall appeal  It is intended to re-focus the attention of consumers on an existing brand  Brand rejuvenation helps overcome the consumer’s boredom in seeing the same product on the shelves year after year  ’new’, ‘super’, ‘special’ ‘premium,’ deluxe, ‘extra strong’ and ‘fresh’, Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 78. EXAMPLES OF REJUVENATED BRANDS Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 79. EXAMPLES OF REJUVENATED BRANDS  New Burnol: Burnol became ‘New’ and appeared in a new pack. Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 80. EXAMPLES OF REJUVENATED BRANDS  New Horlicks : its New Horlicks the New Horlicks claimed more nourishment through additional protein and calcium, eight essential vitamins and iron. Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 81. EXAMPLES OF REJUVENATED BRANDS  New Nescafe: New Nescafe was made using the new agglomeration coffee process, instead of the fine powder form and the coffee now came in small round goblets Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 82. OBJECTIVES  Rejuvenation aims at revival of brand. The intention is to breathe some new life into a brand that may be showing signs of decline  Even healthy, successful brands may need occasional rejuvenation because of competition. The brand has to be updated. It ensures the steady success of the growing brand  It helps keep the brand live and in focus Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 83. RE-LAUNCH  Re-launching a brand means thinking beyond a new design or a new name. It means, "going deeper.“  A successful example, they point out, is Lifebuoy.  From being an economic and normal bathing soap it was repositioned in the health and wellness groupVersatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 84. OBJECTIVES OF BRAND RE LAUNCH  To bring it to a better level in terms of sales, market share and profit than what its current position reflects.  To re launch the brand and reposition it for faster growth and market share  To re launch a brand that has failed due to an inappropriate marketing mix Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 85. BRAND RE LAUNCH: METHOD 1  Keep all elements of the mix the same but reposition the brand in the minds and hearts of customers.  Nothing is done to the product, the pricing or the distribution but the communication and the entire repositioning exercise changes the perceived value of the brand.  The elements used would be in the area of the communication mix including the packaging.  This approach is usually followed when consumers have accepted the product, found it affordable and available but do not want to use it because they feel it does not match their needs or aspirations, keeping the psychographics in mind. Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 86. BRAND RE LAUNCH: METHOD 2  Change the channel and distribution strategy.  Other elements may be working but the distribution channel may be ineffective due to the choice of in- appropriate outlets or even ineffective trade margins and marketing strategy.  This can be linked with the sales effort, sales organization and structure.  This happens in cases where the product is accepted, its awareness is high but it is not available. There is, therefore, wastage of advertising money. Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 87. BRAND RE LAUNCH:METHOD 3  Revamp every element of the marketing mix including the brand name, the product ingredients and pricing, and bring it out with a new price and bring it out as a new avatar. Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 88. MONITORING THE BRAND FIRM LEVEL PRODUCT LEVEL CONSUMER LEVEL Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 89. FIRM LEVELAPPROACH  Firm level approaches measure the brand as a financial asset  A calculation is made regarding how much the brand is worth as an intangible asset Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 90. PRODUCT LEVELAPPROACH  The classic product level brand measurement example is to compare the price of a no-name or private label product to an "equivalent" branded product.  The difference in price, assuming all things equal, is due to the brand. Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 91. CONSUMER LEVELAPPROACH  This approach seeks to map the mind of the consumer to find out what associations with the brand the consumer has.  This approach seeks to measure the awareness (recall and recognition) and brand image  Brands with high levels of awareness and strong, favorable and unique associations are high equity brands Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 92. MEASURING BRAND PERFORMANCE  Comparative method  Brand based comparative method  Market based comparative method  Holistic approach  Residual approach  Value added approach Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 93. COMPARATIVE METHOD BRAND BASED COMPARATIVE METHOD MARKET BASED COMPARATIVE METHOD  One set of consumers respond to the marketing program of the target brand and another set of consumers react to the program of a competitive brand or fictitious brand.  Example: Case of T Mobile and Virgin Mobile.  Consumers respond to changes in elements of the marketing program or marketing activity for the target brand or competitive brand. Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 94. HOLISTICAPPROACH  Attempt to place an overall value on the brand in either abstract utility terms or concrete financial terms  Net out various considerations to determine the unique contribution of the brand Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 95. HOLISTICAPPROACH RESIDUAL APPROACH VALUE ADDED APPROACH  Examine the value of the brand by subtracting consumers’ preferences based on physical product attributes alone from their overall brand preferences  Attempt to place a financial value on brand equity for accounting purposes  Useful in cases of mergers and acquisitions, brand licensing, fund raising, and brand management decisions Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 96. PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE  It gives a list of stages a product undergoes during its life time It contains the following stages  Initial  Growth  Maturity or saturation  Decline Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 97. Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 98. MONITORING BRAND PERFORMANCE OVER THE PLC Relevant issues in PLC analysis include:  Determining the length and rate of change of the PLC  Identifying the current PLC stage and selecting the product strategy that corresponds to that stage  Anticipating threats and finding opportunities for altering and extending the PLC Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 99. BRAND DEVELOPMENT It can be achieved with the help of following methods  Mergers  Acquisitions  Take over Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 100. CO-BRANDING  Co-branding, also called brand partnership, is when two companies form an alliance to work together, creating marketing synergy.  Co-branding is an arrangement that associates a single product or service with more than one brand name  Associates a product with someone other than the principal producer. Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 101. OBJECTIVES OF CO-BRANDING  The object for this is to combine the strength of two brands  To maximize their brand extension success rates Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 102. Global Branding Brand extension Market share LEVELS OF CO BRANDING Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 103. LEVELS OF CO BRANDING  Level 1 Includes joining with another company to penetrate the market  Level 2 Working to extend the brand based on the company's current market share  Level 3 Tries to achieve a global strategy by combining the two brands Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 104. FORMS OF CO BRANDING  Ingredient co-branding  Same-company co-branding  Joint venture co-branding  Multiple sponsor co-branding Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 105. INGREDIENT CO-BRANDING  This involves creating brand equity for materials, components or parts that are contained within other products Examples:  Betty Crocker’s brownie mix includes Hershey’s chocolate syrup  Pillsbury Brownies with Nestle Chocolate  Dell Computers with Intel Processors  Kellogg Pop-tarts with Smucker’s fruit Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 106. SAME-COMPANY CO-BRANDING  This is when a company with more than one product promotes their own brands together simultaneously  Examples  Kraft Lunchables and Oscar Mayer meats  Other examples include the marketing of Gillette M3 Power shaving equipment (which require batteries) with Duracell batteries (both brands owned Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 107. JOINT VENTURE CO-BRANDING  Joint venture co-branding is another form of co- branding defined as two or more companies going for a strategic alliance to present a product to the target audience.  Example: British Airways and Citibank formed a partnership offering a credit card where the card owner will automatically become a member of the British Airways Executive club Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 108. MULTIPLE SPONSOR CO-BRANDING  This form of co-branding involves two or more companies working together to form a strategic alliance in technology, promotions, sales, etc.  Example Citibank/American Airlines/Visa credit card partnership Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 109. APPLICATIONS  Co-branding may help usage extension  Co-branding appears in sales promotions too  Loyalty programmes, increasingly, include co- branding arrangements. Corporations are sharing the cost of loyalty programmes between their own brands  Co-branding may signal a trade marketing operation Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 110. BRAND MANAGEMENT UNIT V Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 111. SYLLABUS  BRAND STRATEGIES: Designing and implementing branding strategies-Case studies Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 112. BRAND STRATEGY  Branding strategy or brand architecture : It gives the framework which tells which logo, design and brand captions to be used for a new and existing product in order to attract and retain customers Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 113. BRAND STRATEGY  A plan for the systematic development of a brand to enable it to meet its agreed objectives.  The strategy should be rooted in the brand's vision and driven by the principles of differentiation and sustained consumer appeal.  The true brand is the sum total of the perceptions of all the constituencies which contribute to revenues and profits. Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 114. ROLE OF BRANDING STRATEGY  Clarify-Brand awareness-improve consumer understanding and communicate similarity and differences between two products  Motivate-Brand Image-transfer of equity from brand to individual product to increase trial and repeat purchaseVersatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 115. THE BRAND – PRODUCT MATRIX  Matrix representation of all the products and brands sold by the firm  Rows -brands of the firms  Columns -products of the firm Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 116. BREADTH OF BRANDING STRATEGY  It describes the number of products linked to a brand  Number of product lines  Variants in each product lines Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 117. BREADTH OF THE BRAND  Number and nature of different product linked to the brand Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 118. FACTORSAFFECTING BREADTH OF BRAND  Aggressive market factors  Category factors  Environmental factors Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 119. BRAND HIERARCHY  Displaying the nature and number of brands of common and distinctive brand Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 120. DESIGNING BRAND STRATEGY  Number of levels of the brand hierarchy  The desired brand awareness and image at each level  Combinations of brand elements from different levels of hierarchy  Linking brand elements to multiple products  Adjustment to marketing program Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 121. GUIDELINES FOR GOOD BRAND ARCHITECTURE  Adopt a strong customer focus  Avoid over branding  Create broad, robust brand platform  Selectively employ sub brands  Do brand extensions to establish new brand equity Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 122. IMPLEMENTATION  Building awareness of the company and nature of the business  Building company trustworthiness and credibility  Creating corporate image association that can be leveraged by product specific marketing Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 123. TYPES OF BRANDING STRATEGY Normally, a company can opt for one or more of the following strategies:  Product branding  Product-line branding  Product-range branding  Corporate branding Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 124. PRODUCT BRANDING • This type of brand give each individual product an exclusive brand name and the company name being ignored • It allows the brand to have unique values, personality, identity and positioning. • By doing so, it implies that every new product the company brings on to the market is a new brand and can be positioned precisely for a specific market segment Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 125. PRODUCT BRANDING • It has the advantage of making it easier for the company to evaluate brand performance and worth and allows better resource-allocation decisions. • The major drawbacks are product cannibalization if consumers cannot differentiate clearly among product brands and involves higher advertising and promotion budget and is totally self-supporting with little or not brand Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 126. PRODUCT-LINE BRANDING STRATEGY  Here, the products appear under the same brand name and possess the same basic identity but with slightly different competencies.  For example, Follow Me line of hair shampoos. Here the brand line comes under the hair-care category but the different line extensions cover complementary applications of essentially the same product Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 127. PRODUCT-LINE BRANDING STRATEGY  Advantages therefore are economies of scale in advertising and promotion and each new line extension strengthens the position of the brand and therefore its image.  The line helps defend the category from predatory attack.  Individual product brands can move across to line brands as companies find ways of extending the brand to different consumer groups or segments. Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 128. PRODUCT- RANGE BRANDING STRATEGY • A number of products or services in a broad category are grouped together under one brand name and promoted with one basic identity. • Compared to product-line branding, product-range branded products carry out the basically the same functions but at different performance levels like various cars in the Mercedes S, E, C and A class and Intel’s Pentium and Celeron ranges of microprocessors. • Therefore the advantage here is that a single brand name allows some economies of scale in advertising and promotion as theVersatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 129. CORPORATE BRANDING STRATEGY • There are two approaches in the Corporate brand exercises • First is to promote its name as the main brand name sometimes referred to as monolithic or umbrella branding. • Here the product is not branded individually or as strongly as the corporate brand. Companies using this approach – IBM, Virgin, Sony. • The basic principle is that the companies believed that the company name is the life of an enterprise. Versatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008
  • 130. CORPORATE BRANDING STRATEGY • The second approach which is becoming popular whereby the product brand name has a high profile but is endorsed by the parent company which gives the product a stamp of quality and credibility. • Here the product brand is self supporting in practically every respect but retains the assurance of the corporate brand endorsement. • It also called house or endorsement branding. Nestle uses this to protect and guarantee the performance of theirVersatile Business School, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008