SlideShare ist ein Scribd-Unternehmen logo
1 von 33
Downloaden Sie, um offline zu lesen
This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND
WHATWE CONSUMEANDTHE ENVIRONMENT
Sena Crutchley
Piedmont AreaVegan Educators (PAVE)
Survey
List 3 food practices that you consider to be
sustainable and environmentally responsible.
1.
2.
3.
What you will come away with today:
How animal
agriculture impacts
the environment
How that impact
compares with that of
plant agriculture
How we can sustainably
feed our growing
population
How to eat, dress, and
furnish ones life in a way
that minimizes negative
environmental impact
Alliance of World Scientists
“THE #1THING INDIVIDUALS CAN DO
FORTHE ENVIRONMENT IS AVOID ALL
ANIMAL PRODUCTS.”
SOME OF
WHATWE
CONSUME
• ANIMAL FLESH (from a wide variety of animals)
• EGGS (from chickens and ducks)
• DAIRY PRODUCTS (from cows and goats)
• LEATHER (from cows/calves, goats/kids, dogs)
• WOOL (from sheep)
• FEATHERS (from ducks and geese)
• GELATIN (from hooves, beaks, etc.)
• ANGORA (from rabbits)
• CASHMERE (from goats)
• REPTILE SKIN (from alligators and snakes)
FOSSIL FUELS
• Average of 10x fossil fuels to produce 1
calorie of animal protein as compared
to 1 calorie of plant protein 4, 5
• IATP (Institute forAgriculture andTrade
Policy) and GRAIN found that the five
largest meat and dairy corporations
combined are responsible for more
annual greenhouse gas emissions than
ExxonMobil, Shell or BP. 4, 6, 7
WATER
“Animal agriculture
accounts for more
than half of all US
freshwater use.” 4, 10
WATER
Water Use by Animal Ag
• 2500 gallons of water to produce 1lb of
animal flesh5
• ½ of US freshwater used by animal ag10,
11
• 1/3 of global freshwater used by animal
ag10, 11
Water Use by Plant Ag
• 25 gallons of water to produce 1lb of
grain5
• Plant-based eaters consume 600
fewer gallons of water per day.2
Water and Poultry 13
Wastewater discharges from slaughterhouses are a serious problem. High water usage for hygiene leads to
high levels of wastewater generation 14. Poultry processing requires large amounts of high-quality water for
process cleaning and cooling.Typical water usage in poultry slaughterhouses is between 6 and 30 cubic
metres per ton of product.
Wastewater contains:
- High levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, and residues of chlorine used for washing and disinfection
- Pathogens including Salmonella and Campylobacter15 Up to 100 different species of micro-organisms in
contaminated feathers, feet and intestinal contents 16
Phosphorus and nitrogen in manure runoff causes algae blooms in fresh water. Leads to fish kills and ocean
dead zones. Heavy metals and pathogenic microbes in waste cause disease in land wildlife.17
Water and Fish
• Great Pacific Garbage Patch - Abandoned fishing crates, ropes,
nets, traps, and baskets make up most of the 79,000 metric tons
of plastic rather than bottles or packaging.1
• Farmed Fish
• Pollution –Waste and uneaten food
• Diseases and parasites
• Pesticides and antibiotics
• Biosecurity risk related to antibiotic resistant bacteria18
• Inefficient due to 4kg fishes to produce 1kg of fish meal. 20 kg
of feed to get 1 kg of tuna
• About 45% of fishmeal and fish oil produced for farmed
animals (mainly pigs and birds).19
LAND USE
• Animal ag provides 18% of calories but uses
83% of farmland2
• What about Free Range?8
• We would need 5 planet Earths if all animals
were raised “free range.”
• Impossible to feed 7 billion pe0ple with free
range agriculture
• New research shows that without meat and
dairy consumption, global farmland use could
be reduced by more than 75% – an area
equivalent to the US, China, European Union
and Australia combined – and still feed the
world.2
• “Currently, 260 million acres (and counting) of
U.S. forests have been clear-cut to create land
used to produce livestock feed, and 80 percent
of the deforestation in the Amazon rainforest is
attributed to beef production.”32
“Restored forests can
sequester all of the
greenhouse gasses
emitted during the fossil
fuel age.”33
OCEAN DEAD ZONES
• Caused by runoff from animal ag4
• Manure “lagoons,” like at the hog farms in eastern
NC, spill into the oceans.
• Animal waste (including ammonia, a toxic form of
nitrogen) runoff causes algal blooms.The blooms
use up oxygen in the water, resulting in dead
zones.
• GHG emissions, of which animal ag is a major
contributor, raise global ocean temperatures that
lead to coral bleaching and reef die-off. Ocean
acidification is the product of these emissions.
• Fishing Industry:
• Global bycatch may be at a rate of 40%, about 63 billion
pounds per year24
• Inefficient: Farmed and wild fishes are fed to land
animals19
GREENHOUSE GASSES
• ANIMAL AGRICULTURE
• Reports range from 18-51% of all GHG Emissions
• Methane is more potent than CO2. “Farmed animals currently account for 37% of human-
related methane production. Methane is especially significant because it is a much stronger
greenhouse gas; in technical terms, it has a higher global warming potential (GWP) than
other greenhouse gases. Using the commonly cited 100-year time-frame to measure the
harmful impacts of GHGs, methane’s warming potential is considered to be between 20-28x
stronger than carbon dioxide”20
• CO2 emissions produced by burning fossil fuels21
• During animal production and slaughter
• During transport of processed and refrigerated products
• Through land use and land-use change
• Through the use of inputs for the production of feed
• PLANT AGRICULTURE
• Numbers could not be found, but they would be confounded by the large number of plants
grown to feed farmed animals.
GREENHOUSE
GAS
EMISSIONS
BY DIET
Reduction in GHG emissions compared
to conventional animal ag 29
• Organic Animal Ag: 8% fewer
• Vegan: 87% fewer
• Vegan Organic: 94% fewer
GHG Emissions by
Diet contd.30
• The diets of 2,041 vegans, 15,751 vegetarians, 8,123
fish-eaters and 29,589 meat-eaters aged 20–79 were
assessed using a validated food frequency
questionnaire.
• GHG emissions in kilograms of carbon dioxide
equivalents per day (kgCO2e/day)
• 7.19 (7.16, 7.22) - high meat-eaters ( > = 100 g/d)
• 5.63 (5.61, 5.65) - medium meat-eaters (50-99 g/d)
• 4.67 (4.65, 4.70) - low meat-eaters ( < 50 g/d)
• 3.91 (3.88, 3.94) - fish-eaters
• 3.81 (3.79, 3.83) - vegetarians
• 2.89 (2.83, 2.94) - vegans
BIODIVERSITY
Sixth Mass Extinction
• Loss of wild areas to agriculture is the leading
cause of the current mass extinction of wildlife2
• Spread of disease from farmed to native animals 4
• Fences containing farmed animals4
• Wildlife culling4
• In the last 50 years alone, about half of Earth’s
animals have gone extinct.25
SUSTAINABILITY
MYTH
• “Really it is animal products that are responsible for
so much of this. Avoiding consumption of animal
products delivers far better environmental benefits
than trying to purchase sustainable meat and
dairy”2, 3 The lowest impact meat and dairy are
more environmentally damaging than the least
sustainable plant agriculture with grains and
vegetables.3
• Animal products require 4-40x the calories to
produce than what they provide in nutrition when
eaten4, 10
FoodWaste/Food Loss7
• Cereals are fed to animals who inefficiently convert them into “meat” and “dairy.”
• Only 17-30 calories from “meat” are generated for humans for every 100 calories
from cereals fed to animals.The conversion rate for “dairy” is similar.
• “The FAO warns that further use of cereals as animal feed could threaten food
security by reducing the grain available for human consumption.”
• Of 4260 kcal per day (kcal/p/d) directly edible by humans, 1738 kcal/p/d (41%) are
fed to farmed animals.26
What about Grass-Fed Animals?20, 27
• “Even “grass-fed” cows are often fed imported grain some portion
of the year when weather is not conducive to grazing…” 31
• Moving to Grass-Fed requires 30% more cows to keep up with
current demand.
• Average methane footprint would increase by 43% due to (1)
increased length of time to achieve slaughter size and (2) higher
methane conversion from grass-fed animals.Total methane
emissions would increase by 8%.
• Habitat loss for wildlife due to increased land use
• Overgrazing causes suppression of native vegetation
• Increased emissions of nitrous oxide. Produce about 4x more
methane.31
• Fresh water eutrophication
• Soil erosion
• Consume more water due to higher level of activity31
How Do Other Food Production Practices Hold Up Under Scrutiny?
Locavore:
Transportation only 11%
of total emissions
related to food. 83% of
emissions occur in the
production phase23.
“…the production of
animal foods is
inherently more
resource-intensive and
less efficient, regardless
of how far the animals'
flesh and secretions are
transported”4
Regenerative
(Rotational) Grazing:
No scientific evidence to
support its use.Takes a
lot of land. Cows often
stay in small area,
resulting in overgrazing,
trampling and pugging31.
Organic Farming (non-
veganic): Perpetuates
animal ag due to using
bone meal, blood, fish
emulsion, feathers,
etc.34
Veganic farming -
Existed as early as the
milpa system
(Mesoamerica).
Domesticated animals
weren’t used by
indigenous peoples in
North America until the
colonists came.22
What about eggs?
• “Opportunity Food Loss” (Weizmann
Institute of Science): Eggs involve a loss of
40% of protein due to the amount of plant
protein input needed to produce eggs. Note
that the Opportunity Food Loss of “dairy” is
75%.4
• Dozen eggs28
• 4 pounds of feed
• 636 gallons of water
• Antibiotics
• Salmonella and other diseases
“Reducing food’s environmental impacts through producers and
consumers” (Science, June, 2018)
“THE MOST COMPREHENSIVE
ANALYSISTO DATE OFTHE DAMAGE
FARMING DOESTOTHE PLANET
FOUNDTHAT GOINGVEGAN ISTHE
SINGLE BIGGEST WAYTO REDUCE
YOUR IMPACT ONTHE PLANET.”
RESOURCES
• WEBSITES
• Truth or Drought: https://www.truthordrought.com/
• The Elephant in the Room is a Cow:
https://www.facebook.com/groups/515390858491078/
• Climate Healers: http://www.climatehealers.org/
• Seed the Commons: https://seedthecommons.org/
• AWell-FedWorld: https://awfw.org/
• Earthsave: http://www.earthsave.org/pdf/ofof2006.pdf
• FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization)
• UN (United Nations)
RECOMMENDED MOVIES andVIDEOS
• MOVIES
• Cowspiracy: Available on Netflix
• Seaspiracy: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ESao1rvNAi0
• Racing Extinction: https://racingextinction.com/film/
• H.O.P.E. Project: https://www.hope-theproject.com/the-film/
• Meat theTruth
• VIDEOS
• PhillipWollen: https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=1&v=uQCe4qEexjc
RECOMMENDED BOOKS
• The Ultimate Betrayal: IsThere Happy Meat? (2013), by Hope Bohanec
• Farm to Fable:The Fictions of Our Animal Consuming Culture (2016), by Robert
Grillo
• Eat for the Planet: Saving the World One Bite at aTime (2018), by Nil Zacharias
• The Mad Cowboy: PlainTruth from the Cattle Rancher Who Won't Eat Meat (2001),
by Howard Lyman
• Food Choice and Sustainability (2013), Dr. Richard Oppenlander
• Comfortably Unaware (2012) , Dr. Richard Oppenlander
HOWTO MAKETHE SHIFT
•Vegankit.com
•Veganeasy.com
•Howdoigovegan.com
•21daykickstart
•PAVE Handout “How to BeVegan in a Grocery Store”
SUPPORT & SOLUTIONS FOR FARMERS
Organizations that will help farmers transition to plant farming:
• https://farmtransformers.org/
• https://www.vegansociety.com/take-action/campaigns/grow-green/farmers
• https://rowdygirlsanctuary.org/ranchers-advocacy-program/
QUESTIONS
References
• 1 - National Geographic, https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2018/03/great-pacific-garbage-patch-plastics-environment
• 2 - https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/may/31/avoiding-meat-and-dairy-is-single-biggest-way-to-reduce-your-impact-on-
earth?CMP=share_btn_fb
• 3 - Poore & Nemecek (2018). Reducing food’s environmental impacts through producers and consumers. Science.Vol. 360, Issue 6392, pp. 987-992
DOI: 10.1126/science.aaq0216.
• 4 –Truth or Drought. https://www.truthordrought.com/
• 5 – Pimentel, D. & Pimentel, M. (2003). Sustainability of meat-based and plant-based diets and the environment American Journal of Clinical
Nutrition, 78 (3), pp. 660S–663S, https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/78.3.660S https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/78/3/660S/4690010
• 6 – Institute forAgriculture andTrade Policy (IATP) (2018). Emissions Impossible. https://www.iatp.org/emissions-impossible
• 7 – GRAIN (2018). Emissions Impossible. https://www.iatp.org/emissions-impossible
• 8 - Bohanec, H. (2019). What is the Humane Hoax? The Humane Hoax Online Summit. https://humanehoax.org/speaker-videos/
• 9 - Rowland, M. (2017). Here’s HowWe Solve Our FoodWaste Problem. Forbes.
https://www.forbes.com/sites/michaelpellmanrowland/2017/08/28/food-waste-solution/#1961a26f4d17
• 10 - Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) https://cspinet.org/new/200608011.html
• 11 – Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) as reported byTruth or Drought
• 12 – National Geographic.Thirsty Food: FuelingAgriculture to Fuel Humans. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/freshwater/food/
• 13 – Gerber, P., Opio, C. ,&4 Steinfeld, H. Food andAgriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), (2007). Poultry production and the
environment – a review http://www.fao.org/Ag/Againfo/home/events/bangkok2007/docs/part2/2_2.pdf
• 14 – Institute for European Environmental Policy (IEEP). 2005.The environmental impacts of trade liberalization and potential flanking
measures. Stage 1 of a Report to DEFRA. London.
• 15 - World Bank. 2007. Environmental, health, and safety guidelines for poultry production.Washington DC.
• 16 - Arvanitoyannis and Ladas (2007). Meat waste treatment methods and potential uses. March 2008 International Journal of Food
Science &Technology 43(3):543 – 559. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2006.01492.x
• 17 – Blue, M. (April 25, 2017). Ecological Impact of Chicken Farming. https://sciencing.com/ecological-impact-chicken-farming-5005.html
References continued
• 18 - Monterey BayAquarium
• 19 – Stier, K. (2017). Fish Farming'sGrowing Danger.Time. http://content.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1663604,00.html
• 20 – Capps,A. (2018). Harvard Study Finds Shift to Grass-Fed Beef Would Require 30% More Cattle and Increase Beef’s Methane Emissions
43%https://awfw.org/issues/climate-issues/grass-fed-beef/
• 21 - Gerber, Opio, & Steinfeld, 2007) http://www.fao.org/Ag/Againfo/home/events/bangkok2007/docs/part2/2_2.pdf
• 22 – Nassim Nobari, Seed the Commons, reported inTruth or Drought https://www.truthordrought.com/small-local-animal-farm-myths/
• 23 - Geofoodeducate (2017) as reported inTOD https://foodsecurityfoodjustice.com/2017/01/25/sustainable-eating-dont-be-fooled-by-food-miles/e
• 24 – Oceana (2014) https://oceana.org/sites/default/files/reports/Bycatch_Report_FINAL.pdf
• 25 - https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/may/21/human-race-just-001-of-all-life-but-has-destroyed-over-80-of-wild-mammals-study
• 26 - Berners-Lee, M., Kennelly, C.,Watson, R., & Hewitt, C.N Current global food production is sufficient to meet human nutritional needs in 2050
provided there is radical societal adaptation. Elementa Science of the Anthropocene. https://www.elementascience.org/articles/10.1525/elementa.310/
https://doi.org/10.17635/lancaster/researchdata/222
• 27 – Hayek, M. & Garrett, R. (2018). Nationwide shift to grass-fed beef requires larger cattle population. https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-
9326/aad401
• 28 – Jacobsen, R. (2018). Is the egg toast? https://newfoodeconomy.org/death-of-the-industrial-egg-cage-free-law-just-plant-based-alternative/
• 29 – (2009) https://kirbymtn.blogspot.com/search?q=agriculture+as+climate+killer
• 30 - Scarborough, P., Appleby, P. N., Mizdrak, A., Briggs,A. D., Travis,R. C., Bradbury, K. E., Key,T. J., 2014, Dietary greenhouse gas emissions of meat-
eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans in the UK, ClimaticChange, DOI: 10.1007/s10584-014-1169-1 https://www.fcrn.org.uk/research-
library/dietary-greenhouse-gas-emissions-meat-eaters-fish-eaters-vegetarians-and-vegans-uk
• 31. Bonanec, H. (2013.The Ultimate Betrayal: IsThere Happy Meat. iUniverse LLC, Bloomington, IN.
• 32. Zacharias, N. & Stone, G. (2018). Eat for the Planet. p. 25.Abrams Image Bools, NY.
• 33. http://www.climatehealers.org/facts/
• 34. Nobari, N, Seed the Commons. (2019). When social movements collide.The Humane Hoax Online Summit. https://humanehoax.org/speaker-videos/

Weitere ähnliche Inhalte

Was ist angesagt?

Fish meal feed replacement for the aquaculture with insect meal
Fish meal feed replacement for the aquaculture with insect mealFish meal feed replacement for the aquaculture with insect meal
Fish meal feed replacement for the aquaculture with insect mealJuliet Abisha
 
Pandemic Punditry in conversation with Dr Sandhya Sriram, CEO, Shiok Meats
Pandemic Punditry in conversation with Dr Sandhya Sriram, CEO, Shiok MeatsPandemic Punditry in conversation with Dr Sandhya Sriram, CEO, Shiok Meats
Pandemic Punditry in conversation with Dr Sandhya Sriram, CEO, Shiok MeatsKarthiga Ratnam
 
Why vegan ? Important Facts from cowspiracy.com and Dr Neal Barnard's Diabete...
Why vegan ? Important Facts from cowspiracy.com and Dr Neal Barnard's Diabete...Why vegan ? Important Facts from cowspiracy.com and Dr Neal Barnard's Diabete...
Why vegan ? Important Facts from cowspiracy.com and Dr Neal Barnard's Diabete...Sandeep Jain
 
Animal agriculture impacts on biodiversity, climate change and birdlife birdl...
Animal agriculture impacts on biodiversity, climate change and birdlife birdl...Animal agriculture impacts on biodiversity, climate change and birdlife birdl...
Animal agriculture impacts on biodiversity, climate change and birdlife birdl...ollyhornung
 
Why veganism is not just an extreme diet? But a lifestyle which can save the ...
Why veganism is not just an extreme diet? But a lifestyle which can save the ...Why veganism is not just an extreme diet? But a lifestyle which can save the ...
Why veganism is not just an extreme diet? But a lifestyle which can save the ...VeganOrigo
 
Integrated fish and poultry farming
Integrated fish and poultry farmingIntegrated fish and poultry farming
Integrated fish and poultry farmingGhulamAbbas179
 
Nourishing the world with small fish
Nourishing the world with small fishNourishing the world with small fish
Nourishing the world with small fishWorldFish
 
Integrated fish farming system
Integrated fish farming systemIntegrated fish farming system
Integrated fish farming systemHarsh Dhimmar
 
Regenerative Agriculture as a Farming Solution
Regenerative Agriculture as a Farming SolutionRegenerative Agriculture as a Farming Solution
Regenerative Agriculture as a Farming SolutionNelCoetzee
 
Animal Agriculture
Animal AgricultureAnimal Agriculture
Animal Agricultureiaindunn98
 
The integration of fish and ducks farming
The integration of fish and ducks farmingThe integration of fish and ducks farming
The integration of fish and ducks farmingfrancis mlay
 
Overview of Horticultural Programs at the MU Bradford Research Center
Overview of Horticultural Programs at the MU Bradford Research CenterOverview of Horticultural Programs at the MU Bradford Research Center
Overview of Horticultural Programs at the MU Bradford Research CenterReinbottt
 
The way to sustainable aquaculture
The way to sustainable aquacultureThe way to sustainable aquaculture
The way to sustainable aquacultureJean Dhont
 
Insects as human food
Insects as human foodInsects as human food
Insects as human foodNick Sharratt
 
Tech-Transformed Agriculture - Happy Dancing Turtle
Tech-Transformed Agriculture - Happy Dancing TurtleTech-Transformed Agriculture - Happy Dancing Turtle
Tech-Transformed Agriculture - Happy Dancing TurtleAnn Treacy
 

Was ist angesagt? (20)

Fish meal feed replacement for the aquaculture with insect meal
Fish meal feed replacement for the aquaculture with insect mealFish meal feed replacement for the aquaculture with insect meal
Fish meal feed replacement for the aquaculture with insect meal
 
Pandemic Punditry in conversation with Dr Sandhya Sriram, CEO, Shiok Meats
Pandemic Punditry in conversation with Dr Sandhya Sriram, CEO, Shiok MeatsPandemic Punditry in conversation with Dr Sandhya Sriram, CEO, Shiok Meats
Pandemic Punditry in conversation with Dr Sandhya Sriram, CEO, Shiok Meats
 
Why vegan ? Important Facts from cowspiracy.com and Dr Neal Barnard's Diabete...
Why vegan ? Important Facts from cowspiracy.com and Dr Neal Barnard's Diabete...Why vegan ? Important Facts from cowspiracy.com and Dr Neal Barnard's Diabete...
Why vegan ? Important Facts from cowspiracy.com and Dr Neal Barnard's Diabete...
 
Animal agriculture impacts on biodiversity, climate change and birdlife birdl...
Animal agriculture impacts on biodiversity, climate change and birdlife birdl...Animal agriculture impacts on biodiversity, climate change and birdlife birdl...
Animal agriculture impacts on biodiversity, climate change and birdlife birdl...
 
Farming insects as food and feed - Arnold van Huis, Wageningen University
Farming insects as food and feed - Arnold van Huis, Wageningen UniversityFarming insects as food and feed - Arnold van Huis, Wageningen University
Farming insects as food and feed - Arnold van Huis, Wageningen University
 
Why veganism is not just an extreme diet? But a lifestyle which can save the ...
Why veganism is not just an extreme diet? But a lifestyle which can save the ...Why veganism is not just an extreme diet? But a lifestyle which can save the ...
Why veganism is not just an extreme diet? But a lifestyle which can save the ...
 
Black soldier fly meal in feed for Atlantic salmon - Erik-Jan Lock, Havforskn...
Black soldier fly meal in feed for Atlantic salmon - Erik-Jan Lock, Havforskn...Black soldier fly meal in feed for Atlantic salmon - Erik-Jan Lock, Havforskn...
Black soldier fly meal in feed for Atlantic salmon - Erik-Jan Lock, Havforskn...
 
Diet Of Disaster Report
Diet Of Disaster ReportDiet Of Disaster Report
Diet Of Disaster Report
 
Integrated fish and poultry farming
Integrated fish and poultry farmingIntegrated fish and poultry farming
Integrated fish and poultry farming
 
Nourishing the world with small fish
Nourishing the world with small fishNourishing the world with small fish
Nourishing the world with small fish
 
Integrated fish farming system
Integrated fish farming systemIntegrated fish farming system
Integrated fish farming system
 
Regenerative Agriculture as a Farming Solution
Regenerative Agriculture as a Farming SolutionRegenerative Agriculture as a Farming Solution
Regenerative Agriculture as a Farming Solution
 
Animal Agriculture
Animal AgricultureAnimal Agriculture
Animal Agriculture
 
The integration of fish and ducks farming
The integration of fish and ducks farmingThe integration of fish and ducks farming
The integration of fish and ducks farming
 
Overview of Horticultural Programs at the MU Bradford Research Center
Overview of Horticultural Programs at the MU Bradford Research CenterOverview of Horticultural Programs at the MU Bradford Research Center
Overview of Horticultural Programs at the MU Bradford Research Center
 
The way to sustainable aquaculture
The way to sustainable aquacultureThe way to sustainable aquaculture
The way to sustainable aquaculture
 
Insect as food
Insect as foodInsect as food
Insect as food
 
Insects as human food
Insects as human foodInsects as human food
Insects as human food
 
Entolab njf / Insects – a potential protein source for feed and food
Entolab njf / Insects – a potential protein source for feed and foodEntolab njf / Insects – a potential protein source for feed and food
Entolab njf / Insects – a potential protein source for feed and food
 
Tech-Transformed Agriculture - Happy Dancing Turtle
Tech-Transformed Agriculture - Happy Dancing TurtleTech-Transformed Agriculture - Happy Dancing Turtle
Tech-Transformed Agriculture - Happy Dancing Turtle
 

Ähnlich wie Plant Power vs Power Plant by Sena Crutchley (PAVE)

Diet for a changing climate
Diet for a changing climateDiet for a changing climate
Diet for a changing climateCoacharya
 
Dietary Choices That Impact The Environment
Dietary Choices That Impact The EnvironmentDietary Choices That Impact The Environment
Dietary Choices That Impact The EnvironmentmsMathTeacher
 
Factory farming in the usa
Factory farming in the usaFactory farming in the usa
Factory farming in the usaOral Johnson
 
Conventional vs organic agriculture: Cornelia Harris, Cary Institute of Ecosy...
Conventional vs organic agriculture: Cornelia Harris, Cary Institute of Ecosy...Conventional vs organic agriculture: Cornelia Harris, Cary Institute of Ecosy...
Conventional vs organic agriculture: Cornelia Harris, Cary Institute of Ecosy...Teaching the Hudson Valley
 
GMOs and the Next Dust Bowl
GMOs and the Next Dust BowlGMOs and the Next Dust Bowl
GMOs and the Next Dust BowlJohn Bergman
 
Environmental concers associated with poultry manure and it's management .
Environmental concers associated with poultry manure and it's management .Environmental concers associated with poultry manure and it's management .
Environmental concers associated with poultry manure and it's management .Dr. Pooja Farswan
 
Spilt milk worth crying over - Mark Eisler
Spilt milk worth crying over - Mark EislerSpilt milk worth crying over - Mark Eisler
Spilt milk worth crying over - Mark EislerSustainable Food Trust
 
The Market for Sustainable Meat Alternatives and the $38 Billion Subsidy of ...
The Market for Sustainable Meat Alternatives  and the $38 Billion Subsidy of ...The Market for Sustainable Meat Alternatives  and the $38 Billion Subsidy of ...
The Market for Sustainable Meat Alternatives and the $38 Billion Subsidy of ...New Food Innovation Ltd
 
Eating animals addendum public service announcement
Eating animals addendum public service announcementEating animals addendum public service announcement
Eating animals addendum public service announcementGinia25
 
Eating animals addendum public service announcement
Eating animals addendum public service announcementEating animals addendum public service announcement
Eating animals addendum public service announcementGinia25
 
Eating animals addendum public service announcement
Eating animals addendum public service announcementEating animals addendum public service announcement
Eating animals addendum public service announcementGinia25
 
food resources1.pptx
food resources1.pptxfood resources1.pptx
food resources1.pptxMuthuSanjay2
 
IMPORTANCE OF PLANT BASED DITE
IMPORTANCE OF PLANT BASED DITEIMPORTANCE OF PLANT BASED DITE
IMPORTANCE OF PLANT BASED DITEtulasi27
 
12.Mrunali Botle.EVS.pptx
12.Mrunali Botle.EVS.pptx12.Mrunali Botle.EVS.pptx
12.Mrunali Botle.EVS.pptxGauriBhatt7
 
101 reasons to go vegetarian
101 reasons to go vegetarian101 reasons to go vegetarian
101 reasons to go vegetarianp3rcycool
 
! !! AGD_Limpopo offer and Introduction1 05102015 _8_ in LINKEDIN
! !! AGD_Limpopo offer and Introduction1 05102015 _8_ in LINKEDIN! !! AGD_Limpopo offer and Introduction1 05102015 _8_ in LINKEDIN
! !! AGD_Limpopo offer and Introduction1 05102015 _8_ in LINKEDINLeon-Valeri Eremin
 
Food Production, Nutrition and Environmental Effects
Food Production, Nutrition and Environmental EffectsFood Production, Nutrition and Environmental Effects
Food Production, Nutrition and Environmental EffectsMichael Newbold
 
The future of food production
The future of food productionThe future of food production
The future of food productionRachel Owens
 

Ähnlich wie Plant Power vs Power Plant by Sena Crutchley (PAVE) (20)

Diet for a changing climate
Diet for a changing climateDiet for a changing climate
Diet for a changing climate
 
Dietary Choices That Impact The Environment
Dietary Choices That Impact The EnvironmentDietary Choices That Impact The Environment
Dietary Choices That Impact The Environment
 
Factory farming in the usa
Factory farming in the usaFactory farming in the usa
Factory farming in the usa
 
Conventional vs organic agriculture: Cornelia Harris, Cary Institute of Ecosy...
Conventional vs organic agriculture: Cornelia Harris, Cary Institute of Ecosy...Conventional vs organic agriculture: Cornelia Harris, Cary Institute of Ecosy...
Conventional vs organic agriculture: Cornelia Harris, Cary Institute of Ecosy...
 
GMOs and the Next Dust Bowl
GMOs and the Next Dust BowlGMOs and the Next Dust Bowl
GMOs and the Next Dust Bowl
 
Environmental concers associated with poultry manure and it's management .
Environmental concers associated with poultry manure and it's management .Environmental concers associated with poultry manure and it's management .
Environmental concers associated with poultry manure and it's management .
 
Spilt milk worth crying over - Mark Eisler
Spilt milk worth crying over - Mark EislerSpilt milk worth crying over - Mark Eisler
Spilt milk worth crying over - Mark Eisler
 
The Market for Sustainable Meat Alternatives and the $38 Billion Subsidy of ...
The Market for Sustainable Meat Alternatives  and the $38 Billion Subsidy of ...The Market for Sustainable Meat Alternatives  and the $38 Billion Subsidy of ...
The Market for Sustainable Meat Alternatives and the $38 Billion Subsidy of ...
 
Eating animals addendum public service announcement
Eating animals addendum public service announcementEating animals addendum public service announcement
Eating animals addendum public service announcement
 
Eating animals addendum public service announcement
Eating animals addendum public service announcementEating animals addendum public service announcement
Eating animals addendum public service announcement
 
Eating animals addendum public service announcement
Eating animals addendum public service announcementEating animals addendum public service announcement
Eating animals addendum public service announcement
 
food resources1.pptx
food resources1.pptxfood resources1.pptx
food resources1.pptx
 
IMPORTANCE OF PLANT BASED DITE
IMPORTANCE OF PLANT BASED DITEIMPORTANCE OF PLANT BASED DITE
IMPORTANCE OF PLANT BASED DITE
 
12.Mrunali Botle.EVS.pptx
12.Mrunali Botle.EVS.pptx12.Mrunali Botle.EVS.pptx
12.Mrunali Botle.EVS.pptx
 
Vegan
VeganVegan
Vegan
 
101 reasons to go vegetarian
101 reasons to go vegetarian101 reasons to go vegetarian
101 reasons to go vegetarian
 
! !! AGD_Limpopo offer and Introduction1 05102015 _8_ in LINKEDIN
! !! AGD_Limpopo offer and Introduction1 05102015 _8_ in LINKEDIN! !! AGD_Limpopo offer and Introduction1 05102015 _8_ in LINKEDIN
! !! AGD_Limpopo offer and Introduction1 05102015 _8_ in LINKEDIN
 
Food Production, Nutrition and Environmental Effects
Food Production, Nutrition and Environmental EffectsFood Production, Nutrition and Environmental Effects
Food Production, Nutrition and Environmental Effects
 
The future of food production
The future of food productionThe future of food production
The future of food production
 
Water
WaterWater
Water
 

Mehr von VegFund

How Health Professionals Can Promote Plant-Based Living
How Health Professionals Can Promote Plant-Based LivingHow Health Professionals Can Promote Plant-Based Living
How Health Professionals Can Promote Plant-Based LivingVegFund
 
Photography Tips for Impactful Vegan Activism - VegFund Webinar
Photography Tips for Impactful Vegan Activism - VegFund WebinarPhotography Tips for Impactful Vegan Activism - VegFund Webinar
Photography Tips for Impactful Vegan Activism - VegFund WebinarVegFund
 
Social Media Strategy to Maximize Impact for Animals – VegFund Webinar
Social Media Strategy to Maximize Impact for Animals – VegFund WebinarSocial Media Strategy to Maximize Impact for Animals – VegFund Webinar
Social Media Strategy to Maximize Impact for Animals – VegFund WebinarVegFund
 
Fundraising on a Budget (VegFund webinar)
Fundraising on a Budget (VegFund webinar)Fundraising on a Budget (VegFund webinar)
Fundraising on a Budget (VegFund webinar)VegFund
 
Turning "Vystopia" into Powerful Action for Change
Turning "Vystopia" into Powerful Action for ChangeTurning "Vystopia" into Powerful Action for Change
Turning "Vystopia" into Powerful Action for ChangeVegFund
 
The Basics of Project Evaluation for Effective Outreach
The Basics of Project Evaluation for Effective OutreachThe Basics of Project Evaluation for Effective Outreach
The Basics of Project Evaluation for Effective OutreachVegFund
 

Mehr von VegFund (6)

How Health Professionals Can Promote Plant-Based Living
How Health Professionals Can Promote Plant-Based LivingHow Health Professionals Can Promote Plant-Based Living
How Health Professionals Can Promote Plant-Based Living
 
Photography Tips for Impactful Vegan Activism - VegFund Webinar
Photography Tips for Impactful Vegan Activism - VegFund WebinarPhotography Tips for Impactful Vegan Activism - VegFund Webinar
Photography Tips for Impactful Vegan Activism - VegFund Webinar
 
Social Media Strategy to Maximize Impact for Animals – VegFund Webinar
Social Media Strategy to Maximize Impact for Animals – VegFund WebinarSocial Media Strategy to Maximize Impact for Animals – VegFund Webinar
Social Media Strategy to Maximize Impact for Animals – VegFund Webinar
 
Fundraising on a Budget (VegFund webinar)
Fundraising on a Budget (VegFund webinar)Fundraising on a Budget (VegFund webinar)
Fundraising on a Budget (VegFund webinar)
 
Turning "Vystopia" into Powerful Action for Change
Turning "Vystopia" into Powerful Action for ChangeTurning "Vystopia" into Powerful Action for Change
Turning "Vystopia" into Powerful Action for Change
 
The Basics of Project Evaluation for Effective Outreach
The Basics of Project Evaluation for Effective OutreachThe Basics of Project Evaluation for Effective Outreach
The Basics of Project Evaluation for Effective Outreach
 

Kürzlich hochgeladen

human computer interaction of movie booking system project
human computer interaction of movie booking system projecthuman computer interaction of movie booking system project
human computer interaction of movie booking system project201roopikha
 
Planning and Designing Green buildings-.issues, options and strategies
Planning and Designing Green buildings-.issues, options and strategiesPlanning and Designing Green buildings-.issues, options and strategies
Planning and Designing Green buildings-.issues, options and strategiesJIT KUMAR GUPTA
 
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Chiara Falduto
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Chiara FaldutoCCXG global forum, April 2024, Chiara Falduto
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Chiara FaldutoOECD Environment
 
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Jolien Noels
CCXG global forum, April 2024,  Jolien NoelsCCXG global forum, April 2024,  Jolien Noels
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Jolien NoelsOECD Environment
 
XO2 high quality carbon offsets and Bamboo as a Climate Solution
XO2 high quality carbon offsets and Bamboo as a Climate SolutionXO2 high quality carbon offsets and Bamboo as a Climate Solution
XO2 high quality carbon offsets and Bamboo as a Climate SolutionAlexanderPlace
 
Title-Role of forestry in restoration of degraded lands.pptx
Title-Role of forestry in restoration of degraded lands.pptxTitle-Role of forestry in restoration of degraded lands.pptx
Title-Role of forestry in restoration of degraded lands.pptxSagar Chaudhary
 
Slide deck for the IPCC Briefing to Latvian Parliamentarians
Slide deck for the IPCC Briefing to Latvian ParliamentariansSlide deck for the IPCC Briefing to Latvian Parliamentarians
Slide deck for the IPCC Briefing to Latvian Parliamentariansipcc-media
 
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Delio Rincon
CCXG global forum, April 2024,  Delio RinconCCXG global forum, April 2024,  Delio Rincon
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Delio RinconOECD Environment
 
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Siddharth Singh
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Siddharth SinghCCXG global forum, April 2024, Siddharth Singh
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Siddharth SinghOECD Environment
 
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Davi Bonavides
CCXG global forum, April 2024,  Davi BonavidesCCXG global forum, April 2024,  Davi Bonavides
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Davi BonavidesOECD Environment
 
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Marta Torres-Gunfaus
CCXG global forum, April 2024,  Marta Torres-GunfausCCXG global forum, April 2024,  Marta Torres-Gunfaus
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Marta Torres-GunfausOECD Environment
 
LCCXG global forum, April 2024, Lydie-Line Paroz
LCCXG global forum, April 2024,  Lydie-Line ParozLCCXG global forum, April 2024,  Lydie-Line Paroz
LCCXG global forum, April 2024, Lydie-Line ParozOECD Environment
 
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Adriana Bonilla
CCXG global forum, April 2024,  Adriana BonillaCCXG global forum, April 2024,  Adriana Bonilla
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Adriana BonillaOECD Environment
 
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Raphaël Jachnik
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Raphaël JachnikCCXG global forum, April 2024, Raphaël Jachnik
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Raphaël JachnikOECD Environment
 
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Mia Ryan
CCXG global forum, April 2024,  Mia RyanCCXG global forum, April 2024,  Mia Ryan
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Mia RyanOECD Environment
 
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Nino Tkhilava
CCXG global forum, April 2024,  Nino TkhilavaCCXG global forum, April 2024,  Nino Tkhilava
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Nino TkhilavaOECD Environment
 
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Brian Motherway and Paolo Frankl
CCXG global forum, April 2024,  Brian Motherway and Paolo FranklCCXG global forum, April 2024,  Brian Motherway and Paolo Frankl
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Brian Motherway and Paolo FranklOECD Environment
 
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Surabi Menon
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Surabi MenonCCXG global forum, April 2024, Surabi Menon
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Surabi MenonOECD Environment
 
_International World Heritage Day by Slidesgo.pptx
_International World Heritage Day by Slidesgo.pptx_International World Heritage Day by Slidesgo.pptx
_International World Heritage Day by Slidesgo.pptxsnehalshah72
 

Kürzlich hochgeladen (20)

human computer interaction of movie booking system project
human computer interaction of movie booking system projecthuman computer interaction of movie booking system project
human computer interaction of movie booking system project
 
Planning and Designing Green buildings-.issues, options and strategies
Planning and Designing Green buildings-.issues, options and strategiesPlanning and Designing Green buildings-.issues, options and strategies
Planning and Designing Green buildings-.issues, options and strategies
 
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Chiara Falduto
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Chiara FaldutoCCXG global forum, April 2024, Chiara Falduto
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Chiara Falduto
 
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Jolien Noels
CCXG global forum, April 2024,  Jolien NoelsCCXG global forum, April 2024,  Jolien Noels
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Jolien Noels
 
XO2 high quality carbon offsets and Bamboo as a Climate Solution
XO2 high quality carbon offsets and Bamboo as a Climate SolutionXO2 high quality carbon offsets and Bamboo as a Climate Solution
XO2 high quality carbon offsets and Bamboo as a Climate Solution
 
Title-Role of forestry in restoration of degraded lands.pptx
Title-Role of forestry in restoration of degraded lands.pptxTitle-Role of forestry in restoration of degraded lands.pptx
Title-Role of forestry in restoration of degraded lands.pptx
 
Biopesticide. pptx.
Biopesticide. pptx.Biopesticide. pptx.
Biopesticide. pptx.
 
Slide deck for the IPCC Briefing to Latvian Parliamentarians
Slide deck for the IPCC Briefing to Latvian ParliamentariansSlide deck for the IPCC Briefing to Latvian Parliamentarians
Slide deck for the IPCC Briefing to Latvian Parliamentarians
 
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Delio Rincon
CCXG global forum, April 2024,  Delio RinconCCXG global forum, April 2024,  Delio Rincon
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Delio Rincon
 
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Siddharth Singh
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Siddharth SinghCCXG global forum, April 2024, Siddharth Singh
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Siddharth Singh
 
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Davi Bonavides
CCXG global forum, April 2024,  Davi BonavidesCCXG global forum, April 2024,  Davi Bonavides
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Davi Bonavides
 
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Marta Torres-Gunfaus
CCXG global forum, April 2024,  Marta Torres-GunfausCCXG global forum, April 2024,  Marta Torres-Gunfaus
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Marta Torres-Gunfaus
 
LCCXG global forum, April 2024, Lydie-Line Paroz
LCCXG global forum, April 2024,  Lydie-Line ParozLCCXG global forum, April 2024,  Lydie-Line Paroz
LCCXG global forum, April 2024, Lydie-Line Paroz
 
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Adriana Bonilla
CCXG global forum, April 2024,  Adriana BonillaCCXG global forum, April 2024,  Adriana Bonilla
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Adriana Bonilla
 
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Raphaël Jachnik
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Raphaël JachnikCCXG global forum, April 2024, Raphaël Jachnik
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Raphaël Jachnik
 
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Mia Ryan
CCXG global forum, April 2024,  Mia RyanCCXG global forum, April 2024,  Mia Ryan
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Mia Ryan
 
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Nino Tkhilava
CCXG global forum, April 2024,  Nino TkhilavaCCXG global forum, April 2024,  Nino Tkhilava
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Nino Tkhilava
 
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Brian Motherway and Paolo Frankl
CCXG global forum, April 2024,  Brian Motherway and Paolo FranklCCXG global forum, April 2024,  Brian Motherway and Paolo Frankl
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Brian Motherway and Paolo Frankl
 
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Surabi Menon
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Surabi MenonCCXG global forum, April 2024, Surabi Menon
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Surabi Menon
 
_International World Heritage Day by Slidesgo.pptx
_International World Heritage Day by Slidesgo.pptx_International World Heritage Day by Slidesgo.pptx
_International World Heritage Day by Slidesgo.pptx
 

Plant Power vs Power Plant by Sena Crutchley (PAVE)

  • 1. This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND WHATWE CONSUMEANDTHE ENVIRONMENT Sena Crutchley Piedmont AreaVegan Educators (PAVE)
  • 2. Survey List 3 food practices that you consider to be sustainable and environmentally responsible. 1. 2. 3.
  • 3. What you will come away with today: How animal agriculture impacts the environment How that impact compares with that of plant agriculture How we can sustainably feed our growing population How to eat, dress, and furnish ones life in a way that minimizes negative environmental impact
  • 4. Alliance of World Scientists “THE #1THING INDIVIDUALS CAN DO FORTHE ENVIRONMENT IS AVOID ALL ANIMAL PRODUCTS.”
  • 5. SOME OF WHATWE CONSUME • ANIMAL FLESH (from a wide variety of animals) • EGGS (from chickens and ducks) • DAIRY PRODUCTS (from cows and goats) • LEATHER (from cows/calves, goats/kids, dogs) • WOOL (from sheep) • FEATHERS (from ducks and geese) • GELATIN (from hooves, beaks, etc.) • ANGORA (from rabbits) • CASHMERE (from goats) • REPTILE SKIN (from alligators and snakes)
  • 6. FOSSIL FUELS • Average of 10x fossil fuels to produce 1 calorie of animal protein as compared to 1 calorie of plant protein 4, 5 • IATP (Institute forAgriculture andTrade Policy) and GRAIN found that the five largest meat and dairy corporations combined are responsible for more annual greenhouse gas emissions than ExxonMobil, Shell or BP. 4, 6, 7
  • 7. WATER “Animal agriculture accounts for more than half of all US freshwater use.” 4, 10
  • 8. WATER Water Use by Animal Ag • 2500 gallons of water to produce 1lb of animal flesh5 • ½ of US freshwater used by animal ag10, 11 • 1/3 of global freshwater used by animal ag10, 11 Water Use by Plant Ag • 25 gallons of water to produce 1lb of grain5 • Plant-based eaters consume 600 fewer gallons of water per day.2
  • 9.
  • 10. Water and Poultry 13 Wastewater discharges from slaughterhouses are a serious problem. High water usage for hygiene leads to high levels of wastewater generation 14. Poultry processing requires large amounts of high-quality water for process cleaning and cooling.Typical water usage in poultry slaughterhouses is between 6 and 30 cubic metres per ton of product. Wastewater contains: - High levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, and residues of chlorine used for washing and disinfection - Pathogens including Salmonella and Campylobacter15 Up to 100 different species of micro-organisms in contaminated feathers, feet and intestinal contents 16 Phosphorus and nitrogen in manure runoff causes algae blooms in fresh water. Leads to fish kills and ocean dead zones. Heavy metals and pathogenic microbes in waste cause disease in land wildlife.17
  • 11. Water and Fish • Great Pacific Garbage Patch - Abandoned fishing crates, ropes, nets, traps, and baskets make up most of the 79,000 metric tons of plastic rather than bottles or packaging.1 • Farmed Fish • Pollution –Waste and uneaten food • Diseases and parasites • Pesticides and antibiotics • Biosecurity risk related to antibiotic resistant bacteria18 • Inefficient due to 4kg fishes to produce 1kg of fish meal. 20 kg of feed to get 1 kg of tuna • About 45% of fishmeal and fish oil produced for farmed animals (mainly pigs and birds).19
  • 12.
  • 13. LAND USE • Animal ag provides 18% of calories but uses 83% of farmland2 • What about Free Range?8 • We would need 5 planet Earths if all animals were raised “free range.” • Impossible to feed 7 billion pe0ple with free range agriculture • New research shows that without meat and dairy consumption, global farmland use could be reduced by more than 75% – an area equivalent to the US, China, European Union and Australia combined – and still feed the world.2 • “Currently, 260 million acres (and counting) of U.S. forests have been clear-cut to create land used to produce livestock feed, and 80 percent of the deforestation in the Amazon rainforest is attributed to beef production.”32
  • 14. “Restored forests can sequester all of the greenhouse gasses emitted during the fossil fuel age.”33
  • 15. OCEAN DEAD ZONES • Caused by runoff from animal ag4 • Manure “lagoons,” like at the hog farms in eastern NC, spill into the oceans. • Animal waste (including ammonia, a toxic form of nitrogen) runoff causes algal blooms.The blooms use up oxygen in the water, resulting in dead zones. • GHG emissions, of which animal ag is a major contributor, raise global ocean temperatures that lead to coral bleaching and reef die-off. Ocean acidification is the product of these emissions. • Fishing Industry: • Global bycatch may be at a rate of 40%, about 63 billion pounds per year24 • Inefficient: Farmed and wild fishes are fed to land animals19
  • 16. GREENHOUSE GASSES • ANIMAL AGRICULTURE • Reports range from 18-51% of all GHG Emissions • Methane is more potent than CO2. “Farmed animals currently account for 37% of human- related methane production. Methane is especially significant because it is a much stronger greenhouse gas; in technical terms, it has a higher global warming potential (GWP) than other greenhouse gases. Using the commonly cited 100-year time-frame to measure the harmful impacts of GHGs, methane’s warming potential is considered to be between 20-28x stronger than carbon dioxide”20 • CO2 emissions produced by burning fossil fuels21 • During animal production and slaughter • During transport of processed and refrigerated products • Through land use and land-use change • Through the use of inputs for the production of feed • PLANT AGRICULTURE • Numbers could not be found, but they would be confounded by the large number of plants grown to feed farmed animals.
  • 17. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS BY DIET Reduction in GHG emissions compared to conventional animal ag 29 • Organic Animal Ag: 8% fewer • Vegan: 87% fewer • Vegan Organic: 94% fewer
  • 18. GHG Emissions by Diet contd.30 • The diets of 2,041 vegans, 15,751 vegetarians, 8,123 fish-eaters and 29,589 meat-eaters aged 20–79 were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. • GHG emissions in kilograms of carbon dioxide equivalents per day (kgCO2e/day) • 7.19 (7.16, 7.22) - high meat-eaters ( > = 100 g/d) • 5.63 (5.61, 5.65) - medium meat-eaters (50-99 g/d) • 4.67 (4.65, 4.70) - low meat-eaters ( < 50 g/d) • 3.91 (3.88, 3.94) - fish-eaters • 3.81 (3.79, 3.83) - vegetarians • 2.89 (2.83, 2.94) - vegans
  • 19. BIODIVERSITY Sixth Mass Extinction • Loss of wild areas to agriculture is the leading cause of the current mass extinction of wildlife2 • Spread of disease from farmed to native animals 4 • Fences containing farmed animals4 • Wildlife culling4 • In the last 50 years alone, about half of Earth’s animals have gone extinct.25
  • 20. SUSTAINABILITY MYTH • “Really it is animal products that are responsible for so much of this. Avoiding consumption of animal products delivers far better environmental benefits than trying to purchase sustainable meat and dairy”2, 3 The lowest impact meat and dairy are more environmentally damaging than the least sustainable plant agriculture with grains and vegetables.3 • Animal products require 4-40x the calories to produce than what they provide in nutrition when eaten4, 10
  • 21. FoodWaste/Food Loss7 • Cereals are fed to animals who inefficiently convert them into “meat” and “dairy.” • Only 17-30 calories from “meat” are generated for humans for every 100 calories from cereals fed to animals.The conversion rate for “dairy” is similar. • “The FAO warns that further use of cereals as animal feed could threaten food security by reducing the grain available for human consumption.” • Of 4260 kcal per day (kcal/p/d) directly edible by humans, 1738 kcal/p/d (41%) are fed to farmed animals.26
  • 22. What about Grass-Fed Animals?20, 27 • “Even “grass-fed” cows are often fed imported grain some portion of the year when weather is not conducive to grazing…” 31 • Moving to Grass-Fed requires 30% more cows to keep up with current demand. • Average methane footprint would increase by 43% due to (1) increased length of time to achieve slaughter size and (2) higher methane conversion from grass-fed animals.Total methane emissions would increase by 8%. • Habitat loss for wildlife due to increased land use • Overgrazing causes suppression of native vegetation • Increased emissions of nitrous oxide. Produce about 4x more methane.31 • Fresh water eutrophication • Soil erosion • Consume more water due to higher level of activity31
  • 23. How Do Other Food Production Practices Hold Up Under Scrutiny? Locavore: Transportation only 11% of total emissions related to food. 83% of emissions occur in the production phase23. “…the production of animal foods is inherently more resource-intensive and less efficient, regardless of how far the animals' flesh and secretions are transported”4 Regenerative (Rotational) Grazing: No scientific evidence to support its use.Takes a lot of land. Cows often stay in small area, resulting in overgrazing, trampling and pugging31. Organic Farming (non- veganic): Perpetuates animal ag due to using bone meal, blood, fish emulsion, feathers, etc.34 Veganic farming - Existed as early as the milpa system (Mesoamerica). Domesticated animals weren’t used by indigenous peoples in North America until the colonists came.22
  • 24. What about eggs? • “Opportunity Food Loss” (Weizmann Institute of Science): Eggs involve a loss of 40% of protein due to the amount of plant protein input needed to produce eggs. Note that the Opportunity Food Loss of “dairy” is 75%.4 • Dozen eggs28 • 4 pounds of feed • 636 gallons of water • Antibiotics • Salmonella and other diseases
  • 25. “Reducing food’s environmental impacts through producers and consumers” (Science, June, 2018) “THE MOST COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSISTO DATE OFTHE DAMAGE FARMING DOESTOTHE PLANET FOUNDTHAT GOINGVEGAN ISTHE SINGLE BIGGEST WAYTO REDUCE YOUR IMPACT ONTHE PLANET.”
  • 26. RESOURCES • WEBSITES • Truth or Drought: https://www.truthordrought.com/ • The Elephant in the Room is a Cow: https://www.facebook.com/groups/515390858491078/ • Climate Healers: http://www.climatehealers.org/ • Seed the Commons: https://seedthecommons.org/ • AWell-FedWorld: https://awfw.org/ • Earthsave: http://www.earthsave.org/pdf/ofof2006.pdf • FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) • UN (United Nations)
  • 27. RECOMMENDED MOVIES andVIDEOS • MOVIES • Cowspiracy: Available on Netflix • Seaspiracy: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ESao1rvNAi0 • Racing Extinction: https://racingextinction.com/film/ • H.O.P.E. Project: https://www.hope-theproject.com/the-film/ • Meat theTruth • VIDEOS • PhillipWollen: https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=1&v=uQCe4qEexjc
  • 28. RECOMMENDED BOOKS • The Ultimate Betrayal: IsThere Happy Meat? (2013), by Hope Bohanec • Farm to Fable:The Fictions of Our Animal Consuming Culture (2016), by Robert Grillo • Eat for the Planet: Saving the World One Bite at aTime (2018), by Nil Zacharias • The Mad Cowboy: PlainTruth from the Cattle Rancher Who Won't Eat Meat (2001), by Howard Lyman • Food Choice and Sustainability (2013), Dr. Richard Oppenlander • Comfortably Unaware (2012) , Dr. Richard Oppenlander
  • 30. SUPPORT & SOLUTIONS FOR FARMERS Organizations that will help farmers transition to plant farming: • https://farmtransformers.org/ • https://www.vegansociety.com/take-action/campaigns/grow-green/farmers • https://rowdygirlsanctuary.org/ranchers-advocacy-program/
  • 32. References • 1 - National Geographic, https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2018/03/great-pacific-garbage-patch-plastics-environment • 2 - https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/may/31/avoiding-meat-and-dairy-is-single-biggest-way-to-reduce-your-impact-on- earth?CMP=share_btn_fb • 3 - Poore & Nemecek (2018). Reducing food’s environmental impacts through producers and consumers. Science.Vol. 360, Issue 6392, pp. 987-992 DOI: 10.1126/science.aaq0216. • 4 –Truth or Drought. https://www.truthordrought.com/ • 5 – Pimentel, D. & Pimentel, M. (2003). Sustainability of meat-based and plant-based diets and the environment American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 78 (3), pp. 660S–663S, https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/78.3.660S https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/78/3/660S/4690010 • 6 – Institute forAgriculture andTrade Policy (IATP) (2018). Emissions Impossible. https://www.iatp.org/emissions-impossible • 7 – GRAIN (2018). Emissions Impossible. https://www.iatp.org/emissions-impossible • 8 - Bohanec, H. (2019). What is the Humane Hoax? The Humane Hoax Online Summit. https://humanehoax.org/speaker-videos/ • 9 - Rowland, M. (2017). Here’s HowWe Solve Our FoodWaste Problem. Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/michaelpellmanrowland/2017/08/28/food-waste-solution/#1961a26f4d17 • 10 - Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) https://cspinet.org/new/200608011.html • 11 – Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) as reported byTruth or Drought • 12 – National Geographic.Thirsty Food: FuelingAgriculture to Fuel Humans. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/freshwater/food/ • 13 – Gerber, P., Opio, C. ,&4 Steinfeld, H. Food andAgriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), (2007). Poultry production and the environment – a review http://www.fao.org/Ag/Againfo/home/events/bangkok2007/docs/part2/2_2.pdf • 14 – Institute for European Environmental Policy (IEEP). 2005.The environmental impacts of trade liberalization and potential flanking measures. Stage 1 of a Report to DEFRA. London. • 15 - World Bank. 2007. Environmental, health, and safety guidelines for poultry production.Washington DC. • 16 - Arvanitoyannis and Ladas (2007). Meat waste treatment methods and potential uses. March 2008 International Journal of Food Science &Technology 43(3):543 – 559. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2006.01492.x • 17 – Blue, M. (April 25, 2017). Ecological Impact of Chicken Farming. https://sciencing.com/ecological-impact-chicken-farming-5005.html
  • 33. References continued • 18 - Monterey BayAquarium • 19 – Stier, K. (2017). Fish Farming'sGrowing Danger.Time. http://content.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1663604,00.html • 20 – Capps,A. (2018). Harvard Study Finds Shift to Grass-Fed Beef Would Require 30% More Cattle and Increase Beef’s Methane Emissions 43%https://awfw.org/issues/climate-issues/grass-fed-beef/ • 21 - Gerber, Opio, & Steinfeld, 2007) http://www.fao.org/Ag/Againfo/home/events/bangkok2007/docs/part2/2_2.pdf • 22 – Nassim Nobari, Seed the Commons, reported inTruth or Drought https://www.truthordrought.com/small-local-animal-farm-myths/ • 23 - Geofoodeducate (2017) as reported inTOD https://foodsecurityfoodjustice.com/2017/01/25/sustainable-eating-dont-be-fooled-by-food-miles/e • 24 – Oceana (2014) https://oceana.org/sites/default/files/reports/Bycatch_Report_FINAL.pdf • 25 - https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/may/21/human-race-just-001-of-all-life-but-has-destroyed-over-80-of-wild-mammals-study • 26 - Berners-Lee, M., Kennelly, C.,Watson, R., & Hewitt, C.N Current global food production is sufficient to meet human nutritional needs in 2050 provided there is radical societal adaptation. Elementa Science of the Anthropocene. https://www.elementascience.org/articles/10.1525/elementa.310/ https://doi.org/10.17635/lancaster/researchdata/222 • 27 – Hayek, M. & Garrett, R. (2018). Nationwide shift to grass-fed beef requires larger cattle population. https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748- 9326/aad401 • 28 – Jacobsen, R. (2018). Is the egg toast? https://newfoodeconomy.org/death-of-the-industrial-egg-cage-free-law-just-plant-based-alternative/ • 29 – (2009) https://kirbymtn.blogspot.com/search?q=agriculture+as+climate+killer • 30 - Scarborough, P., Appleby, P. N., Mizdrak, A., Briggs,A. D., Travis,R. C., Bradbury, K. E., Key,T. J., 2014, Dietary greenhouse gas emissions of meat- eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans in the UK, ClimaticChange, DOI: 10.1007/s10584-014-1169-1 https://www.fcrn.org.uk/research- library/dietary-greenhouse-gas-emissions-meat-eaters-fish-eaters-vegetarians-and-vegans-uk • 31. Bonanec, H. (2013.The Ultimate Betrayal: IsThere Happy Meat. iUniverse LLC, Bloomington, IN. • 32. Zacharias, N. & Stone, G. (2018). Eat for the Planet. p. 25.Abrams Image Bools, NY. • 33. http://www.climatehealers.org/facts/ • 34. Nobari, N, Seed the Commons. (2019). When social movements collide.The Humane Hoax Online Summit. https://humanehoax.org/speaker-videos/