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TACTICS



   Tactical Periodization: Mourinho’s best-kept secret?
    By Juan Luis Delgado-Bordonau, Football Coach with ASPIRE Academy for Sports Excellence, Doha, Qatar
    and Alberto Mendez-Villanueva, Sport Scientist and Football Fitness Coach with ASPIRE Academy for Sports Excellence, Doha, Qatar




   Tactical Periodization: a new soccer training approach
   “We can differentiate among traditional analytical training where the different factors are trained in isolation, the
   integrated training, which uses the ball but where the fundamental concerns are not very different from the traditional one;
   and there is my way of training, which is called Tactical Periodization. It has nothing to do with the previous two even though
   many people could think so.” (Mourinho, J. in Gaiteiro, 2006)

   In recent years, we have seen a trend toward a change in soccer training concepts and methodologies. Perhaps the biggest rupture with
   the traditional training methods in soccer has taken place in Portugal and Spain. One of the most contemporary training approaches in
   soccer is the so-called “Tactical Periodization.” The Tactical Periodization method was developed by Vitór Frade, lecturer at the Sports
   University of Porto (Portugal), and it is being applied by Jose Mourinho and Andre Vilas Boas among other coaches. Explained simplisti-
   cally, the main methodological and pedagogical principle behind Tactical Periodization is that the soccer game has to be “trained/learned”
   respecting its logical structure. For Tactical Periodization, the “logical structure” of the game revolves around the four moments of the
   game (see Figure 1). Accordingly, at least one of these four moments of the game is always present in every training exercise following
   the called principle of Specificity.


                                                         Every game action, regardless of the four moments of the game in which it might happen, involves a
                                                         decision (tactical dimension), an action or motor skill (technical dimension) that required a particular
                                                         movement (physiological dimension) and is directed by volitional and emotional states (psychological
                                                         dimension) (Oliveira, 2004).

                                                         A good performer (i.e., a good soccer player) is an individual able to select the most appropriate action
                     Organization
                                                         to respond to different game scenarios, and these actions are always determined by a tactical context
                                                         (Garganta & Pinto, 1998). Accordingly, the tactical dimension should be the dominant training component.
                                                         For example, the concept of “speed” would change to relative speed. However, the tactical dimension does
                                                         not exist by itself; it makes sense only when it occurs through the interaction of the other three dimensions
 Transition        Moments                  Transition   (Oliveira, 2004).
from Attack
 to Defend          of the                from Defend
                                            to Attack    This implies that the tactical, technical, physiological and psychological elements are never trained inde-

                    Game                                 pendently. Everything is included, with the main concern being that every exercise is organized around (at
                                                         least) one of the four moments of the game and the tactical principles of play.
                                                         The tactical principles of play refer to a set of match-play patterns that a coach wants a team to adopt at
                                                         any of the four moments of the game. It is how a coach wants the team to play soccer; a conception of the
                                                         game. Given the high unpredictability that exists during a match, a coach tries to create predictability through
                     Defensive
                                                         preparation, planning and training. Accordingly, every training session is designed to fit the coach’s game
                    Organization
                                                         model. The systematic repetition of the tactical principles of play should enable the players to transform
                                                         the match-play patterns that the coach wants into habits. Creating habits is possible only when the brain
                                                         has experienced the same or similar situations and has “recorded” them.
          Figure 1. Moments of the soccer game.          The work of Haggard & Libet (2001) showed that the brain prepares movement responses long before a
                                                         person is aware that a movement will occur. Actions and decisions that are taken daily, that seem to be
                                                         conscious and instant, are in fact the result of subconscious processes in the brain. Thus, through these
                                                         habits, decision and reaction times can be reduced substantially (McCrone, 2002). This way of training
                                                         is intended to prepare a player to understand and react more quickly to every possible game situation.



         Game model
         “To me, the most important aspect in my teams is to have a defined game model, a set of principles that provides organization.
         Therefore, since the first day our attention is directed to achieve that.” (Mourinho, J. in Gaiteiro, 2006)

         Modeling results from the need to make intelligible the complexity of the interactions between the different elements of a system. In
         the game of soccer, there are specific features such as players’ decision-making. This decision-making cannot be coincidental, but has
         to be based on certain principles that follow an internal logic. While constructing the game model of the team, coaches should consider
         several factors that operate within a given specific context, where each factor is equally important (see Figure 2).
    28     May | June 2012
A key aspect in building the game model relates to the idea of play that the coach wants to see. It is impera-
                                                                                                                                                       Tactics
                                                         tive that players know exactly what they have to do in every moment of the game. A coach will want certain
                                                         tactical behaviors and patterns to be revealed during the game.

                                                         Thus, the model consists of principles, sub-principles, and sub-sub-principles of play that represent different
                        Players’                         moments of the game (Oliveira, 2003).
                      Capabilities

                                            Club’s
                                                         The compatibility of the different principles and moments of the game is particularly important, because
 Principles &
Sub-principles                           Structure &     behaviors sometimes can be incompatible. These behaviors and patterns will express a collective dynamic
    of Play                                  Aims        behavior, revealing a certain playing identity, which could be called a functional organization. The structural
                                                         organization is how the team is placed on the field; it is usually called system of play, for example 1-5-3-2 or
                     Game                                1-4-3-3. Although the structure represents only a fixed spatial shape, it can have an important role in promot-

 Coach’s
                     Model                     Club &
                                              Country
                                                         ing or constraining the desired behaviors. For instance, to have good levels of ball possession and circulation,
                                                         players create diagonals and “diamonds.” Some structural organizations can enhance these behaviors more
  Ideas                                       Football
                                               Culture
                                                         than others (e.g., structures with a high number of lines, both transversal and longitudinal).

                                                         Regarding players, the game model has to highlight and enhance their best features and capabilities. It is es-
                                                         sential that the coach develop a deep knowledge of the players, especially their level of game understanding.
            Structural           Moments of
           Organization           the Game               In this regard, Frade (2003) points out that the game “has to be born first in the players’ minds.” Therefore,
                                                         it is crucial for the coach to use strategies to let the players recognize the importance of certain behaviors.
                                                         Consequently, the construction of the game model arises through a process that operates among the coach,
                                                         players and the team itself. The coach’s constant awareness about what should happen both in collective
   Figure 2. Factors that influence in designing and
                 building up a game model.
                                                         and individual terms and what is actually happening in the game should be the driver of the training process.
           (Adapted from Oliveira, G. 2007)              However, it is important to understand that the definition and creation of a clear game model should not
                                                         be perceived as something that will require players to act as “robots” following a predefined plan. On the
                                                         contrary, the main purpose of having a clear game model is to reduce players’ uncertainty, which should give
                                                         players more time to use their creativity.

                                                         The structure and expectations of a club or federation are also an important aspect in creating a game
                                                         model. Coaching a team that can train only two or three times a week is different from coaching one that
                                                         can practiced five days. The scope for improvement both collectively and individually is also different. The
                                                         culture of the countries and clubs has to be considered when creating a game model.




                                                                                                          Tactical                           Making
                                                                                                         Fatigue &                          Principles
                                                                                                       Concentration                       Operational

   Tactical Periodization:                                                                                               Tactical
   methodological                                                                                 Hierarchy
                                                                                                                       Periodization
                                                                                                                                                Systematic

   principles                                                                                    Organization
                                                                                                                       Methodological
                                                                                                                                                Repetition

                                                                                                                         Principles
   The Tactical Periodization has defined and developed unique
   methodological (pedagogical) principles.                                                            Performance                          Complex
                                                                                                       Stabilization      Horizontal       Progression
                                                                                                                          Alternation


                                                                                                 Figure 3. Methodological principles of the Tactical Periodization.




           Principle of specificity
           “For me training means to train in specificity. That is, to create exercises that allow me to exacerbate my principles of play.”
            (Mourinho, in Amieiro et al, 2006)


           This may be the most important principle of Tactical Periodization. Specificity arises when there is a permanent relationship be-
           tween all the dimensions of the game and the training exercises are specifically representative of the game model (style of play).
           Therefore, the concept of Specificity directs and leads the training process. In this regard, Vitor Frade (in Silva, 1998), affirms that
           regardless of the training exercises’ features (e.g., with more or fewer players, larger or smaller spaces), they should always be
           articulated in a way that enables our principles of play to be learned and used in competition. But every exercise is just “poten-
           tially specific.” The fulfillment of the Principle of Specificity will be achieved only if during training players understand the aims
           and objectives of the exercise, they maintain high levels of concentration, and the coach’s intervention is appropriated (Oliveira,
           2008). Then, specificity is related to the capacity to make operational the principles of play, and their respective sub-principles.

           Continued on page 31                                                                                                                                       29
Principle of making tactical principles of play operational
“One of the most difficult questions is to make operational our style of play that by creating exercises where we are able
to embrace all aspects (dimensions), but never forgetting our first concern: to enhance a given principle of play of our
game model.” ( (Mourinho, J. in Gaiteiro, 2006)

A team tends to be attracted to a dynamic behavior that represents its identity and describes a pattern of action. To transform these
patterns into practice, every training exercise must relate to the style of play (game model) and the concept of specificity (see above).
These references should be present in daily work, in order to provide specific adaptations and tactical knowledge. If the proposed
exercise is designed without taking into consideration the style of play, the promoted adaptations can have adverse effects and inter-
fere with acquisition of the desired knowledge. It is crucial that the exercises represent the way we want to play and the randomness
and unpredictability that the game has. This implies that each of the proposed exercises has to lead to something that players do not
control. If the game is nonlinear, the training exercises, even being less complex, should be nonlinear, excluding any direct cause-effect
relationship. The coach’s intervention plays a key role in conducting the exercise, catalyzing in a positive or negative way its specificity.

It is also important to note that the structural and functional configuration of the exercises is crucial in order to comply with the specific-
ity of the game. It means that some exercises, because of their structure, promote functionality (e.g., the acquisition of non-conscious
behaviors).




      Principle of disassembly and hierarchical organization
      of principles of play
      “I wrote a document that never is going to be published. It is my training dossier, where I keep all my training guidelines. That
      is, all my training goals and the way to achieve them through my methodological principles; ‘to improve these given principles,
      these exercises.’ If I should have to name this document, its title would be: ‘The evolution of my training concepts.’
      (Mourinho, J. in Lourenço, L. & Ilharco, 2007)




                     Moment of the Game                                                               Principles of play are complex concepts because they
                                                                                                      involve several variables that are related. This is why
                        Transition from Attack to Defend                                              Tactical Periodization breaks them down to reduce their
                                                                                                      complexity. Thus, principles of play are subdivided into
                                                                                                      sub-principles, and these are further fragmented into
                                     Main Principle:                                                  sub-sub principles. The aim is to make them more under-
                              Immediate press to opponent                                             standable for the players. This process of disassembling
                           on the ball and his nearest space                                          the principles of play has to be done carefully, respecting
                                                                                                      the style of play (game model) and the wholeness of
                                                                                                      the game (systemic vision). Each specific principle of
               Sub-Principle:                                 Sub-Principle:                          the game model is directly related to one of the four
                                                                                                      moments of the game (see Figure 4 for an example).
                Making the opponent                           Getting compact to
                                                                                                      Not an equal value is given to all the principles of play.
                to play backwards                           either press the ball or
                                                                                                      Thus, there is a hierarchical organization. The importance
                                                           to get organized to defend
                                                                                                      of each principle during the training process is directly
                                                                                                      related to the intended game model. Some principles
      Sub- Sub                                                                         Sub- Sub       are more important and valued than others in terms
      Principle:                                                                       Principle:     of what is intended. A coach’s ability to articulate all
                                                                                                      the principles that conform to a game model will help
    Changing mental                                                              Communication to
                                                                                    ensure optimal    determine the team’s DNA, the coach’s conception of
   attitude from attack
        to defend                                                                defensive coverage   the game (Tamarit, 2007).

                                                                                                      Continued on page 32
                        Figure 4. Example of the Disassemble of a Principle of Play.
                                     (Adapted from Gomes, M. (2006)

                                                                                                                                                            31
Principle of horizontal alternation in specificity
“Our daily concerns are directed to make operational our game model. However, the structure of the training session and
what to do each day is related not only to tactical objectives, but also with the physical fitness component to be privileged.”
(Mourinho, in Amieiro et al., 2006)




This principle relates to the necessity of maintaining a regu-                                                                  Aquisition Days
lar and fixed weekly pattern respecting the alternation in                               Recovery                                                          Recovery
the training-recovery demands (Amieiro et al., 2006). The
Principle of Horizontal Alternation in Specificity highlights
the importance and relevance that Tactical Periodization
gives to the physiological dimension, contrary to the un-




                                                                                                                                     Endurance
founded misconception that this dimension is forgotten




                                                                           Game




                                                                                                                                                                         Game
                                                                                                                     Strength
and not trained. In a simplistic manner, the three main




                                                                                                                                                   Speed


                                                                                                                                                            Activation
                                                                                                   Recovery
training (acquisition) days (see Figure 5) in the week will
alternate the physical fitness component (we are here
assuming that the team is playing one game per week).

This is done by either prioritizing strength (first acquisi-
tion day), endurance (second acquisition day) and speed
(third acquisition day) factors. Thus, no two days within
                                                                                                              Figure 5. Standard weekly pattern.
a given week are demanding the same physical fitness
                                                                                                                (Adapted from Oliveira, 2007)
component. The main goal is to avoid a large amount of
the same physical fitness component stressed the day be-
fore, giving the body time to recover. Recovery would take              between exercises within the same training session (vertically). The tactical goals of each train-
place, at least partly, by switching the dominant physical              ing day may vary in accordance with the specific needs of the team, but the physical fitness
fitness component throughout the week. This alternation                 component used on a given day of the week will remain the same. Thus, it can be said that for
in the physical fitness components to be prioritized is said            Tactical Periodization, the physiological dimension provides the biological framework where
to occur horizontally along the weekly pattern rather than              the soccer-specific training/recovery continuum lies.




           Principle of conditioned practices
           “Training is worth it only when it lets you make your ideas and principles operational. Thus, the coach has to find
           exercises to guide his team to do what it is intended to do in the game.” (Mourinho, J. in Gaiteiro, 2006)




                          Principle of                                                                          When the aim is to teach or improve a particular principle or
                                                                                                                sub-principle of a game model, the best way to do it is to cre-

                      Conditioned Practices                                                                     ate appropriate exercises. Then, if we are interested in certain
                                                                                                                behaviors related to a given principle of play, we should make
                                                                                                                them appear more often than others in the exercise. As such,
                                                                                                                the requested behavior has to appear more frequently than
                    Physiological                           Tactical/Technical                                  during the formal game, enabling players to create mental
                                                               Dimension                                        images about the desired target. Thus, the configuration of
                     Dimension
                                                                                                                the exercise (e.g., playing space, number of players, rules,
                                                                                                                objectives) must promote the appearance of the required
                                                                                                                behaviors, what are called “conditioned practices” (see Fig-
      Type of physical                                                           Density of                     ure 6). For example, setting up an exercise where a team’s
                                                                                predominant                     defensive sector is under-loaded and is constantly defending
                                                                                                                will make behaviors related to its defensive organization
      Level of Intermittency                                                   motor behaviors
       (work recovery rate)                                                                                     emerge. Then, there will be many opportunities for coaches
                                                                                                                and players to “shape” these behaviors.
                               Figure 6. Principle of conditioned practices.



 32   May | June 2012
Principle of complex progression
    “Since the very beginning, the principles and sub-principles of our game model are privileged through a set of exercises.
    But the best way to convey our ideas is by lowering the complexity through reduced games.” (Mourinho, J. in Fernandes, 2003)

    This principle relates to the hierarchical organization of the principles and sub-principles of play. It has nothing to do with a general to
    specific progression, from volume to intensity. For Tactical Periodization, the concept of progression is built around the acquisition of a
    certain way of playing. This progression appears at three different levels of complexity: during the season, throughout the week (taking
    into account the last game and the next one) and finally during each training session, thus becoming a complex progression where each
    level is related to the others.
    According to Frade (2004), at the early stages of the training season we should introduce the general principles of play (related to
    four moments of the game—defensive organization, offensive organization, transition defense-attack and transition attack-defense).
    If players know and can explain when to apply the principles of play relative to each moment, it will be easier for them to assimilate
    the specific principles that each coach has in a game model. In a second phase, we will work on the specific principles of “our” model
    of game. At this stage we can distinguish two moments. The first: the defensive organization of the team, which we will begin to work
    with. According to Tactical Periodization, it is preferred to focus first on defensive organization, because by having a good defensive
    balance the team will gain confidence and consistency, enabling coaches to progress into other game situations (defending properly to
    attack even better). In addition, to defend is “easier” than to attack. Then, coaches will move to more complex behaviors, such as the
    offensive organization. The transitions are key in soccer, so coaches should try to train them from the beginning. They will obviously be
    linked to the team’s defensive and offensive organization.
    To understand the entire logical structure, we should link the Principle of Complex Progression to the Principle of Horizontal Specificity
    Alternation. We refer to a “building up” and “disassembly” of the principles and sub-principles and their hierarchy inside the weekly
    plan and over weeks according to the evolution of the players and the team. This methodological principle has two levels of planning
    which interact with each other, the short-term (game to game) and medium- and long-term (style of play/game model).




Principle of performance stabilization
“I do not want my team to have peaks in performance. I do not want my team to swing performance. Rather than that, I prefer
to keep always high levels of performance. This is because to me there aren’t periods or games more important than others.”
(Mourinho, in Amieiro et al, 2006)




       Horizontal Alternation in Specificity                                                                      The concept of performance from a conventional viewpoint is normally
                                                                                                                 based on a set of quantitative- oriented criteria based essentially on
                                                                                                                 the physiological dimension. Planning and periodization in soccer are
   Game                                                                 Game                                     vital to the concept of “performance stabilization,” derived from its
                                          Endur-
                                Stren-     ance                                                                  long competitive period. From this perspective, “being fit” is to “play
                                                    Speed
                                 gth
                                                                                     Performance Stabilization




                       Reco-                                 Activa-                                             well.” And “play well” is to carry out the on-field duties in accordance
                        very                                  tion                                               with the game model that is intended. The basis of collective and
                                                                                                                 individual performance is the organization of the team, which is the
   Game                                                                 Game                                     fundamental objective to be maintained. Thus, what really matters is
                                          Endur-
                                Stren-     ance                                                                  that a team regularly demonstrates a quality of play (despite minor
                                                    Speed
                                 gth                                                                             fluctuations) to guarantee regularity in the results.
                       Reco-                                 Activa-
                        very                                  tion
                                                                                                                 The stabilization of the level of optimum performance is achieved
                                                                                                                 through the establishment and maintenance of the standard weekly
    Game                         Game                                   Game
                                          Reco-                                                                  plan (see Figure 7). Thus, over the season, a weekly dynamic regarding
                                           very     Speed                                                        training contents, recovery schemes and the number and length of
             Reco-    Activa-                                Activa-                                             training units remain almost invariable. Soccer performance and train-
              very     tion                                   tion
                                                                                                                 ing cannot be separated from the competition and the game. It must
                                                                                                                 be translated in terms of play, a quality instead of quantity approach,
    Game                                                                Game                                     working always on offensive and defensive actions and the dynamics,
                                          Endur-
                                 Stren-    ance     Speed                                                        which allow the connection of these two moments. By working such
                                  gth
                       Reco-                                 Activa-                                             way, the methodological Principle of Stabilization is respected.
                        very                                  tion
                                                                                                                 Continued on page 34

              Figure 7. Interaction between horizontal alternation and performance
                     stabilization principles. (Adapted from Oliveira, G. 2007)
                                                                                                                                                                                      33
Principle of tactical fatigue & tactical concentration
“Concentration needs to be trained. It can be done by training according to a specific philosophy. I cannot dissociate training
intensity with the concept of concentration. When I say that soccer is made by actions of high intensity, I also refer to the need of
permanent concentration; it is implicit to the game.” (Mourinho, in Amieiro et al, 2006)




 Soccer players’ peak performance requires a constant tactical thinking, both
 in game and in training. Players must concentrate. The development of a
 tactical attitude presupposes the development of an attitude to think and
 decide quickly. The mastery of specific techniques and the capacity for tacti-
                                                                                                                                                Preference                   Principles                          Number
 cal decision-making depends on their suitability to the situation of a game.
                                                                                                                                                    of                      Complexity                              of
 That means high levels of concentration from the first to the last minute of
 the game are essential. Therefore, the intensity is not an intangible concept;                                                                  Muscular                                                        Players
 it is directly related to the principles and sub-principles of play, which, when                                                              Contractions
 trained through well-designed exercises, will lead a player’s future actions
 and thoughts. The more variables to be analyzed for the players during the
 execution of training exercises, the more demanding and intense will be the
 situation (Frade, 2003).                                                                                                                Emotional                       Excercises
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Space Size
 Intensity will be different from day to day, as the complexity of training ses-
                                                                                                                                           Load                          Complexity
 sions varies (see Figure 8). We can exemplify the concept of relative maximum
 intensity as follows: A team played on Sunday, so the player on Monday and
 Tuesday is not fully recovered physically, mentally or emotionally. To be able
 to overcome all the challenges that Tuesday training session can require, the                                                                                                                                Tactical-
 player should be working at a maximum intensity of concentration.                                                                                 Level of                                                   Technical
                                                                                                                                                Intermittency                    Length                     Prodominant
 That maximum intensity, however, will not be enough to overcome the in-
 creased complexity (and intensity) that the training tasks will demand on
                                                                                                                                                                                 of Time                       Actions
 Wednesday and Thursday (a player’s recovery level from the game is higher,
 too). Therefore, from Tactical Periodization, the intensity is always maximal in
 terms of concentration, but relative to players’ recovery and readiness to train.

 The higher levels of concentration during the training exercise, the less chance                                                                  Figure 8. Factors to manage to manage exercises complexity.
 to make mistakes. A high concentration provides a higher degree of learning.
 Consequently, coaches should always seek the maximum concentration in
 training.




                    References

      Amieiro, N.; Oliveira, B.; Resende, N.; & Barreto, R. (2006). Mourinho:       Gomes, M. (2006). Do Pé como Técnica ao Pensamento Técnico dos Pés          Oliveira, J.G. (2004). Conhecimento Específico em Futebol.
      Porquê tantas vitórias? Lisboa. Gradiva.                                      Dentro da Caixa Preta da Periodização Táctica – um Estudo de Caso.          Contributos para a definição de uma matriz dinâmica do processo
                                                                                    Porto: M. Gomes. Dissertação de Licenciatura apresentada à Faculdade        ensinoaprendizagem/ treino do jogo. Porto: J. Guilherme Oliveira.
      Fernandes, V. (2003): Implementação do Modelo de Jogo: da razão               de Desporto da Universidade do Porto.                                       Dissertação de Mestrado apresentada à Faculdade de Desporto da
      à adaptabilidade com emoção. Monografia realizada no âmbito da                                                                                            Universidade do Porto.
      disciplina de seminário, opção de futebol. FCDEF-UP.                          Le Moigne, J. (1990): La modélisation des systèmes complexes. Dunod.
                                                                                    Paris.                                                                      Oliveira, J.G. (2007). F.C. Porto: Nuestro Microciclo Semanal (Morfoci-
      Frade, V. (2003). Entrevista in F. Martins, (2003). A “Periodização Táctica                                                                               clo). VI Clinic Fútbol Base Fundación Osasuna.
      “ segundo Vítor Frade: Mais do que um conceito, uma forma de estar            Lourenço, L. & Ilharco, F. (2007). Liderança: As Lições de José
      e de reflectir o futebol. Porto: F. Martins. Dissertação de Licenciatura      Mourinho. Booknomics.                                                       Oliveira J.G. (2008): Apontamentos do Curso de Treinadores de Fute-
      apresentada à Faculdade de Desporto da Universidade do Porto.                                                                                             bol UEFAb, Federação Portuguesa de Futebol, Associação Futebol
                                                                                    Haggard, P. & Libet, B. (2001). Conscious Intention and Brain Activity.     do Porto, Associação Nacional de Treinadores de Futebol. Porto.
      Frade, V. (2004). Entrevista in P. Leal (2004). Diferentes entendimentos,     Journal of Consciousness Studies, 8, No. 11, 2001, pp. 47–63                Trabalho não publicado.
      diferentes orientações metodológicas. Porto: P. Leal. Dissertação de
      Licenciatura apresentada à Faculdade de Desporto da Universidade              McCrone, J. (2002): Como Funciona o Cérebro: um guia para principi-         Silva, L (1998) Rendimento superior no futebol, “sem lesões”, quais
      do Porto.                                                                     antes. Dorling Kindersley - Civilização Editores. Porto.                    as razões? Porto:L. Silva. Dissertação de Licenciatura apresentada
                                                                                                                                                                à Faculdade de Ciências do Desporto e de Educação Física da
      Gaiteiro, B. (2006). A Ciência oculta do sucesso: Mourinho aos olhos da       Oliveira, J.G. (2003). Entrevista in J. Tavares (2003). “Uma noção          Universidade do Porto.
      ciência. Porto: B. Gaiteiro. Dissertação de Licenciatura apresentada à        fundamental - a especificidade: o como investigar a ordem das “coisas”
      Faculdade de Desporto da Universidade do Porto.                               dojogar, uma espécie de invariâncias de tipo fractal”. Porto: J. Tavares.   Tamarit, X (2007): Que es la Periodización Táctica? Vivenciar el juego
                                                                                    Dissertação de Licenciatura apresentada à Faculdade de Desporto da          para condicionar el juego. MCSports. Pontevedra
      Garganta, J. & Pinto, J. (1998). O Ensino do Futebol. In A. Graça & J.        Universidade do Porto.
      Oliveira (Eds.), O ensino dos jogos deportivos, 3ª Ed. (pp. 95 – 135).
      Porto: Centro de Estudos dos Jogos Desportivos, FCDEF-UP




 34    May | June 2012

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Tactical periodization soccer journal mayjune 28-34[1]

  • 1. TACTICS Tactical Periodization: Mourinho’s best-kept secret? By Juan Luis Delgado-Bordonau, Football Coach with ASPIRE Academy for Sports Excellence, Doha, Qatar and Alberto Mendez-Villanueva, Sport Scientist and Football Fitness Coach with ASPIRE Academy for Sports Excellence, Doha, Qatar Tactical Periodization: a new soccer training approach “We can differentiate among traditional analytical training where the different factors are trained in isolation, the integrated training, which uses the ball but where the fundamental concerns are not very different from the traditional one; and there is my way of training, which is called Tactical Periodization. It has nothing to do with the previous two even though many people could think so.” (Mourinho, J. in Gaiteiro, 2006) In recent years, we have seen a trend toward a change in soccer training concepts and methodologies. Perhaps the biggest rupture with the traditional training methods in soccer has taken place in Portugal and Spain. One of the most contemporary training approaches in soccer is the so-called “Tactical Periodization.” The Tactical Periodization method was developed by Vitór Frade, lecturer at the Sports University of Porto (Portugal), and it is being applied by Jose Mourinho and Andre Vilas Boas among other coaches. Explained simplisti- cally, the main methodological and pedagogical principle behind Tactical Periodization is that the soccer game has to be “trained/learned” respecting its logical structure. For Tactical Periodization, the “logical structure” of the game revolves around the four moments of the game (see Figure 1). Accordingly, at least one of these four moments of the game is always present in every training exercise following the called principle of Specificity. Every game action, regardless of the four moments of the game in which it might happen, involves a decision (tactical dimension), an action or motor skill (technical dimension) that required a particular movement (physiological dimension) and is directed by volitional and emotional states (psychological dimension) (Oliveira, 2004). A good performer (i.e., a good soccer player) is an individual able to select the most appropriate action Organization to respond to different game scenarios, and these actions are always determined by a tactical context (Garganta & Pinto, 1998). Accordingly, the tactical dimension should be the dominant training component. For example, the concept of “speed” would change to relative speed. However, the tactical dimension does not exist by itself; it makes sense only when it occurs through the interaction of the other three dimensions Transition Moments Transition (Oliveira, 2004). from Attack to Defend of the from Defend to Attack This implies that the tactical, technical, physiological and psychological elements are never trained inde- Game pendently. Everything is included, with the main concern being that every exercise is organized around (at least) one of the four moments of the game and the tactical principles of play. The tactical principles of play refer to a set of match-play patterns that a coach wants a team to adopt at any of the four moments of the game. It is how a coach wants the team to play soccer; a conception of the game. Given the high unpredictability that exists during a match, a coach tries to create predictability through Defensive preparation, planning and training. Accordingly, every training session is designed to fit the coach’s game Organization model. The systematic repetition of the tactical principles of play should enable the players to transform the match-play patterns that the coach wants into habits. Creating habits is possible only when the brain has experienced the same or similar situations and has “recorded” them. Figure 1. Moments of the soccer game. The work of Haggard & Libet (2001) showed that the brain prepares movement responses long before a person is aware that a movement will occur. Actions and decisions that are taken daily, that seem to be conscious and instant, are in fact the result of subconscious processes in the brain. Thus, through these habits, decision and reaction times can be reduced substantially (McCrone, 2002). This way of training is intended to prepare a player to understand and react more quickly to every possible game situation. Game model “To me, the most important aspect in my teams is to have a defined game model, a set of principles that provides organization. Therefore, since the first day our attention is directed to achieve that.” (Mourinho, J. in Gaiteiro, 2006) Modeling results from the need to make intelligible the complexity of the interactions between the different elements of a system. In the game of soccer, there are specific features such as players’ decision-making. This decision-making cannot be coincidental, but has to be based on certain principles that follow an internal logic. While constructing the game model of the team, coaches should consider several factors that operate within a given specific context, where each factor is equally important (see Figure 2). 28 May | June 2012
  • 2. A key aspect in building the game model relates to the idea of play that the coach wants to see. It is impera- Tactics tive that players know exactly what they have to do in every moment of the game. A coach will want certain tactical behaviors and patterns to be revealed during the game. Thus, the model consists of principles, sub-principles, and sub-sub-principles of play that represent different Players’ moments of the game (Oliveira, 2003). Capabilities Club’s The compatibility of the different principles and moments of the game is particularly important, because Principles & Sub-principles Structure & behaviors sometimes can be incompatible. These behaviors and patterns will express a collective dynamic of Play Aims behavior, revealing a certain playing identity, which could be called a functional organization. The structural organization is how the team is placed on the field; it is usually called system of play, for example 1-5-3-2 or Game 1-4-3-3. Although the structure represents only a fixed spatial shape, it can have an important role in promot- Coach’s Model Club & Country ing or constraining the desired behaviors. For instance, to have good levels of ball possession and circulation, players create diagonals and “diamonds.” Some structural organizations can enhance these behaviors more Ideas Football Culture than others (e.g., structures with a high number of lines, both transversal and longitudinal). Regarding players, the game model has to highlight and enhance their best features and capabilities. It is es- sential that the coach develop a deep knowledge of the players, especially their level of game understanding. Structural Moments of Organization the Game In this regard, Frade (2003) points out that the game “has to be born first in the players’ minds.” Therefore, it is crucial for the coach to use strategies to let the players recognize the importance of certain behaviors. Consequently, the construction of the game model arises through a process that operates among the coach, players and the team itself. The coach’s constant awareness about what should happen both in collective Figure 2. Factors that influence in designing and building up a game model. and individual terms and what is actually happening in the game should be the driver of the training process. (Adapted from Oliveira, G. 2007) However, it is important to understand that the definition and creation of a clear game model should not be perceived as something that will require players to act as “robots” following a predefined plan. On the contrary, the main purpose of having a clear game model is to reduce players’ uncertainty, which should give players more time to use their creativity. The structure and expectations of a club or federation are also an important aspect in creating a game model. Coaching a team that can train only two or three times a week is different from coaching one that can practiced five days. The scope for improvement both collectively and individually is also different. The culture of the countries and clubs has to be considered when creating a game model. Tactical Making Fatigue & Principles Concentration Operational Tactical Periodization: Tactical methodological Hierarchy Periodization Systematic principles Organization Methodological Repetition Principles The Tactical Periodization has defined and developed unique methodological (pedagogical) principles. Performance Complex Stabilization Horizontal Progression Alternation Figure 3. Methodological principles of the Tactical Periodization. Principle of specificity “For me training means to train in specificity. That is, to create exercises that allow me to exacerbate my principles of play.” (Mourinho, in Amieiro et al, 2006) This may be the most important principle of Tactical Periodization. Specificity arises when there is a permanent relationship be- tween all the dimensions of the game and the training exercises are specifically representative of the game model (style of play). Therefore, the concept of Specificity directs and leads the training process. In this regard, Vitor Frade (in Silva, 1998), affirms that regardless of the training exercises’ features (e.g., with more or fewer players, larger or smaller spaces), they should always be articulated in a way that enables our principles of play to be learned and used in competition. But every exercise is just “poten- tially specific.” The fulfillment of the Principle of Specificity will be achieved only if during training players understand the aims and objectives of the exercise, they maintain high levels of concentration, and the coach’s intervention is appropriated (Oliveira, 2008). Then, specificity is related to the capacity to make operational the principles of play, and their respective sub-principles. Continued on page 31 29
  • 3. Principle of making tactical principles of play operational “One of the most difficult questions is to make operational our style of play that by creating exercises where we are able to embrace all aspects (dimensions), but never forgetting our first concern: to enhance a given principle of play of our game model.” ( (Mourinho, J. in Gaiteiro, 2006) A team tends to be attracted to a dynamic behavior that represents its identity and describes a pattern of action. To transform these patterns into practice, every training exercise must relate to the style of play (game model) and the concept of specificity (see above). These references should be present in daily work, in order to provide specific adaptations and tactical knowledge. If the proposed exercise is designed without taking into consideration the style of play, the promoted adaptations can have adverse effects and inter- fere with acquisition of the desired knowledge. It is crucial that the exercises represent the way we want to play and the randomness and unpredictability that the game has. This implies that each of the proposed exercises has to lead to something that players do not control. If the game is nonlinear, the training exercises, even being less complex, should be nonlinear, excluding any direct cause-effect relationship. The coach’s intervention plays a key role in conducting the exercise, catalyzing in a positive or negative way its specificity. It is also important to note that the structural and functional configuration of the exercises is crucial in order to comply with the specific- ity of the game. It means that some exercises, because of their structure, promote functionality (e.g., the acquisition of non-conscious behaviors). Principle of disassembly and hierarchical organization of principles of play “I wrote a document that never is going to be published. It is my training dossier, where I keep all my training guidelines. That is, all my training goals and the way to achieve them through my methodological principles; ‘to improve these given principles, these exercises.’ If I should have to name this document, its title would be: ‘The evolution of my training concepts.’ (Mourinho, J. in Lourenço, L. & Ilharco, 2007) Moment of the Game Principles of play are complex concepts because they involve several variables that are related. This is why Transition from Attack to Defend Tactical Periodization breaks them down to reduce their complexity. Thus, principles of play are subdivided into sub-principles, and these are further fragmented into Main Principle: sub-sub principles. The aim is to make them more under- Immediate press to opponent standable for the players. This process of disassembling on the ball and his nearest space the principles of play has to be done carefully, respecting the style of play (game model) and the wholeness of the game (systemic vision). Each specific principle of Sub-Principle: Sub-Principle: the game model is directly related to one of the four moments of the game (see Figure 4 for an example). Making the opponent Getting compact to Not an equal value is given to all the principles of play. to play backwards either press the ball or Thus, there is a hierarchical organization. The importance to get organized to defend of each principle during the training process is directly related to the intended game model. Some principles Sub- Sub Sub- Sub are more important and valued than others in terms Principle: Principle: of what is intended. A coach’s ability to articulate all the principles that conform to a game model will help Changing mental Communication to ensure optimal determine the team’s DNA, the coach’s conception of attitude from attack to defend defensive coverage the game (Tamarit, 2007). Continued on page 32 Figure 4. Example of the Disassemble of a Principle of Play. (Adapted from Gomes, M. (2006) 31
  • 4. Principle of horizontal alternation in specificity “Our daily concerns are directed to make operational our game model. However, the structure of the training session and what to do each day is related not only to tactical objectives, but also with the physical fitness component to be privileged.” (Mourinho, in Amieiro et al., 2006) This principle relates to the necessity of maintaining a regu- Aquisition Days lar and fixed weekly pattern respecting the alternation in Recovery Recovery the training-recovery demands (Amieiro et al., 2006). The Principle of Horizontal Alternation in Specificity highlights the importance and relevance that Tactical Periodization gives to the physiological dimension, contrary to the un- Endurance founded misconception that this dimension is forgotten Game Game Strength and not trained. In a simplistic manner, the three main Speed Activation Recovery training (acquisition) days (see Figure 5) in the week will alternate the physical fitness component (we are here assuming that the team is playing one game per week). This is done by either prioritizing strength (first acquisi- tion day), endurance (second acquisition day) and speed (third acquisition day) factors. Thus, no two days within Figure 5. Standard weekly pattern. a given week are demanding the same physical fitness (Adapted from Oliveira, 2007) component. The main goal is to avoid a large amount of the same physical fitness component stressed the day be- fore, giving the body time to recover. Recovery would take between exercises within the same training session (vertically). The tactical goals of each train- place, at least partly, by switching the dominant physical ing day may vary in accordance with the specific needs of the team, but the physical fitness fitness component throughout the week. This alternation component used on a given day of the week will remain the same. Thus, it can be said that for in the physical fitness components to be prioritized is said Tactical Periodization, the physiological dimension provides the biological framework where to occur horizontally along the weekly pattern rather than the soccer-specific training/recovery continuum lies. Principle of conditioned practices “Training is worth it only when it lets you make your ideas and principles operational. Thus, the coach has to find exercises to guide his team to do what it is intended to do in the game.” (Mourinho, J. in Gaiteiro, 2006) Principle of When the aim is to teach or improve a particular principle or sub-principle of a game model, the best way to do it is to cre- Conditioned Practices ate appropriate exercises. Then, if we are interested in certain behaviors related to a given principle of play, we should make them appear more often than others in the exercise. As such, the requested behavior has to appear more frequently than Physiological Tactical/Technical during the formal game, enabling players to create mental Dimension images about the desired target. Thus, the configuration of Dimension the exercise (e.g., playing space, number of players, rules, objectives) must promote the appearance of the required behaviors, what are called “conditioned practices” (see Fig- Type of physical Density of ure 6). For example, setting up an exercise where a team’s predominant defensive sector is under-loaded and is constantly defending will make behaviors related to its defensive organization Level of Intermittency motor behaviors (work recovery rate) emerge. Then, there will be many opportunities for coaches and players to “shape” these behaviors. Figure 6. Principle of conditioned practices. 32 May | June 2012
  • 5. Principle of complex progression “Since the very beginning, the principles and sub-principles of our game model are privileged through a set of exercises. But the best way to convey our ideas is by lowering the complexity through reduced games.” (Mourinho, J. in Fernandes, 2003) This principle relates to the hierarchical organization of the principles and sub-principles of play. It has nothing to do with a general to specific progression, from volume to intensity. For Tactical Periodization, the concept of progression is built around the acquisition of a certain way of playing. This progression appears at three different levels of complexity: during the season, throughout the week (taking into account the last game and the next one) and finally during each training session, thus becoming a complex progression where each level is related to the others. According to Frade (2004), at the early stages of the training season we should introduce the general principles of play (related to four moments of the game—defensive organization, offensive organization, transition defense-attack and transition attack-defense). If players know and can explain when to apply the principles of play relative to each moment, it will be easier for them to assimilate the specific principles that each coach has in a game model. In a second phase, we will work on the specific principles of “our” model of game. At this stage we can distinguish two moments. The first: the defensive organization of the team, which we will begin to work with. According to Tactical Periodization, it is preferred to focus first on defensive organization, because by having a good defensive balance the team will gain confidence and consistency, enabling coaches to progress into other game situations (defending properly to attack even better). In addition, to defend is “easier” than to attack. Then, coaches will move to more complex behaviors, such as the offensive organization. The transitions are key in soccer, so coaches should try to train them from the beginning. They will obviously be linked to the team’s defensive and offensive organization. To understand the entire logical structure, we should link the Principle of Complex Progression to the Principle of Horizontal Specificity Alternation. We refer to a “building up” and “disassembly” of the principles and sub-principles and their hierarchy inside the weekly plan and over weeks according to the evolution of the players and the team. This methodological principle has two levels of planning which interact with each other, the short-term (game to game) and medium- and long-term (style of play/game model). Principle of performance stabilization “I do not want my team to have peaks in performance. I do not want my team to swing performance. Rather than that, I prefer to keep always high levels of performance. This is because to me there aren’t periods or games more important than others.” (Mourinho, in Amieiro et al, 2006) Horizontal Alternation in Specificity The concept of performance from a conventional viewpoint is normally based on a set of quantitative- oriented criteria based essentially on the physiological dimension. Planning and periodization in soccer are Game Game vital to the concept of “performance stabilization,” derived from its Endur- Stren- ance long competitive period. From this perspective, “being fit” is to “play Speed gth Performance Stabilization Reco- Activa- well.” And “play well” is to carry out the on-field duties in accordance very tion with the game model that is intended. The basis of collective and individual performance is the organization of the team, which is the Game Game fundamental objective to be maintained. Thus, what really matters is Endur- Stren- ance that a team regularly demonstrates a quality of play (despite minor Speed gth fluctuations) to guarantee regularity in the results. Reco- Activa- very tion The stabilization of the level of optimum performance is achieved through the establishment and maintenance of the standard weekly Game Game Game Reco- plan (see Figure 7). Thus, over the season, a weekly dynamic regarding very Speed training contents, recovery schemes and the number and length of Reco- Activa- Activa- training units remain almost invariable. Soccer performance and train- very tion tion ing cannot be separated from the competition and the game. It must be translated in terms of play, a quality instead of quantity approach, Game Game working always on offensive and defensive actions and the dynamics, Endur- Stren- ance Speed which allow the connection of these two moments. By working such gth Reco- Activa- way, the methodological Principle of Stabilization is respected. very tion Continued on page 34 Figure 7. Interaction between horizontal alternation and performance stabilization principles. (Adapted from Oliveira, G. 2007) 33
  • 6. Principle of tactical fatigue & tactical concentration “Concentration needs to be trained. It can be done by training according to a specific philosophy. I cannot dissociate training intensity with the concept of concentration. When I say that soccer is made by actions of high intensity, I also refer to the need of permanent concentration; it is implicit to the game.” (Mourinho, in Amieiro et al, 2006) Soccer players’ peak performance requires a constant tactical thinking, both in game and in training. Players must concentrate. The development of a tactical attitude presupposes the development of an attitude to think and decide quickly. The mastery of specific techniques and the capacity for tacti- Preference Principles Number cal decision-making depends on their suitability to the situation of a game. of Complexity of That means high levels of concentration from the first to the last minute of the game are essential. Therefore, the intensity is not an intangible concept; Muscular Players it is directly related to the principles and sub-principles of play, which, when Contractions trained through well-designed exercises, will lead a player’s future actions and thoughts. The more variables to be analyzed for the players during the execution of training exercises, the more demanding and intense will be the situation (Frade, 2003). Emotional Excercises Space Size Intensity will be different from day to day, as the complexity of training ses- Load Complexity sions varies (see Figure 8). We can exemplify the concept of relative maximum intensity as follows: A team played on Sunday, so the player on Monday and Tuesday is not fully recovered physically, mentally or emotionally. To be able to overcome all the challenges that Tuesday training session can require, the Tactical- player should be working at a maximum intensity of concentration. Level of Technical Intermittency Length Prodominant That maximum intensity, however, will not be enough to overcome the in- creased complexity (and intensity) that the training tasks will demand on of Time Actions Wednesday and Thursday (a player’s recovery level from the game is higher, too). Therefore, from Tactical Periodization, the intensity is always maximal in terms of concentration, but relative to players’ recovery and readiness to train. The higher levels of concentration during the training exercise, the less chance Figure 8. Factors to manage to manage exercises complexity. to make mistakes. A high concentration provides a higher degree of learning. Consequently, coaches should always seek the maximum concentration in training. References Amieiro, N.; Oliveira, B.; Resende, N.; & Barreto, R. (2006). Mourinho: Gomes, M. (2006). Do Pé como Técnica ao Pensamento Técnico dos Pés Oliveira, J.G. (2004). Conhecimento Específico em Futebol. Porquê tantas vitórias? Lisboa. Gradiva. 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