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Mughal Architecture

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Mughal Architecture

  1. 1. Mod 4: MUGHAL ARCHITECTURE
  2. 2. • Delhi had various competing interests ,fell prey to an outside conqueror. • Babur established the Mughal empire.It extended from Deccan to the Turkistan at the time of Babur’s death • Baburs oldest son Humayun lost his throne in 1540 to Sher Shah Suri ,an Afgan • Sher Shah Suri ruled for 15 yrs established a centralised system of administration on the foundation of which later the Mughals expanded. • Humayun regained the throne in 1555 but died a year later • He was succeded by Jalal-ud-din Akbar who laid the foundation and consolidated the Mughal empire.
  3. 3. Mughal Gardens • Before the Mughals the gardens were a grove of trees ,free flowing rivulets of water,flowers. • Mughals organised each of the natural elements within a refined man-made framework of geometric patterns. MUGHAL PATTERN OF CHARBAGH WATER CHANNELS STONE PATHWAYS
  4. 4. Akbar Jahangir Shah jahan Aurangzeb Babur Humayun LINEAGE OF THE MUGHAL RULERS
  5. 5. HUMAYUN’S TOMB • Humayuns wife Begai Begum brought a persian architect Mirak –Mirza Ghiaz to build the tomb • It was located on the east of a tomb designed for one of Shershah’s noblemen in 1547 • Humayuns tomb influenced the design of the Taj Mahal 50 years later. • Faced with red sandstone. Set into the axis of each causeway is a water channel with small,square lily ponds at intersections. • Main gate was on the south ,though there were entrances on all 4 sides.
  6. 6. • The eastern wall was directly built over river Yamuna .Over time the river moved farther to the east.
  7. 7. 1.Bu Halimas tomb and garden 2.Isa Khan’s Mosque and Tomb 3.Afsarwalas mosque and Tomb 4.West Gate 5.Humayuns Tomb 6.Baburs Tomb 7.South Gate • Sits at the centre of a large square garden divided into quadrants by causeways
  8. 8. • Interior is plastered and painted in white and a delicate orange red that closely matches the red sandstone is used on the exterior. • Building has 2 platforms –a low platform with with chamfered ends followed by second main platform containing secondary arcaded and vaulted chambers. • Stairs from the central arch lead to the upper platform. LOWER PLATFORM HIGHER PLATFORM STAIRS STAIRS DOME DRUM
  9. 9. • These are further divided into 9 smaller sections in the manner of char bagh four –garden plan of Persian origin.
  10. 10. • Building is an octagon with 8 surrounding chambers on two levels.A bulbous dome covered in marble sits on the high drum. • Passageways connect all the chambers. TOMB CHAMBER PASSAGEWAYS Chamber 1 Chamber 2 Chamber 3 Chamber 4 Chamber 5 Chamber 6 Chamber 7 Chamber 8
  11. 11. • A tomb stone marker indicating the actual tomb below sits under the main dome
  12. 12. Rauza-I-Munavvara (Illuminated Tomb)
  13. 13. TAJ MAHAL (1628-58) • Shah jahan inherited a vast and prosperous empire. • He enjoyed large dividends of peace • Was dedicated to poetry,art ,literature,architecture • Spent a large amount of resources to build palaces,mosques and tombs especially in Delhi where he built a large empire , a brand new city called Shahjahanabad • Later half of his reign was devoted to the creation of a funerery tomb for Mumtaz Mahal • Tomb was known to mughals as (Illuminated Tomb) because of his luster and transparency of marble. • pietra dura (marble inlay work) floors and pretty colored glass • English named it to TajMahal • 20 thousand workers worked for 15 years.
  14. 14. • To the west stands a diminutive mosque ,made of sandstone ,with 3 modest marble domes. • To the east is an identical structure ,placed there to provide symmetry • Reflected in the wide waters of the Yamuna ,which flow slowly in Agra ,the Taj Mahal seems to be an aparition of domes and minarets rising above the plain. • Land based access to the Taj is from the southern garden. • Perimeter walls are made of red sandstone. • A small gate in the middle of the wall.
  15. 15. • The Mughals actually accessed it from waters arriving by means of a special barge that docked at the north eastern edge of the platform from which a stair leads upto the tomb • The side usually depicted today is the buildings rear. CHARBAGH TAJ MAHAL MOSQUE GUEST HOUSE
  16. 16. • Main tomb is on the southern bank of Yamuna river,on a vast platform 103 m square,7m high erected on arches.
  17. 17. chabutarah
  18. 18. • The slender 3 storey minarets create an implied cube that contains the Taj Mahal,making the tomb 3dimensional. ENTRY GATEWAY TO TAJ MAHAL
  19. 19. • Tomb sits on a 300m sq garden divided into quadrants • Each further divided into further quadrants known as char bagh /four gardens • It is a representation of the Islamic garden of paradise • 4 channels representing the four rivers of paradise flow out from the centre • Deciduous and evergreen trees • Once through the gate ,full frame of the Taj Mahal jumps to focus.Even at a distance Taj Mahal fills the frame. Mihmankhana(guest house) Hauz-i-khausar
  20. 20. • Central chamber is surrounded by 4 corner spaces connected by corridors to permit circumambulation • At the ground entrance level are the tombs of Shah-jahan and Mumtaz,the actual burials are in a crypt directly below. • The outer dome also rises well above the central iwan of the elevation making it the undisputed centre of the composition,unlike in Humayuns tomb where the side chambers compete with the overall central dome making the structure more squat . 57m PLAN OF TAJ MAHAL
  21. 21. • The section reveals that the outer bulbous dome is raised exceptionally high on a drum well above the inner dome. • The double dome of the tomb rises above the minarets to avoid any clash between the elements. 95m CHABUTARAH RAISED PLATFORM Two domes ACTUAL TOMB OF MUMTAZ AND SHAH JAHAN UNDER THE GROUND DRUM
  22. 22. • The side iwans are faceted only on the outer side and not on the inner (as in Humayuns tomb) • The articulation of the horizontal elements have been decidedly subduded in favour of the vertical ones. • In Taj mahals elevation all elements are clustered and heirarchially arranged to ensure that they donot compete with each other and instead build up the centrality of the main dome. • The chattris have been clustered right next to the central dome. Drawing an imajinary line along the edges of the central dome and chattris yeild a triangle or a pyramidal framed by 4 minarets
  23. 23. Tomb of Rabi Durrani (Bibi ka Maqbara) • Dilras Banu-was the Empress of the Mughal empire and the wife of Aurangzeb(son of Shah jahan) • 3 years after the death of Aurangzeb’s wife he commisioned a mausoleum at Aurangabad. • Bibi Ka Maqbara was the largest structure that Aurangzeb had to his credit • Deccan plateau has only one example of Mughul architecture and i.e. the Bibi-ka- Maqbara which is a replica of the Taj Mahal.
  24. 24. FATEHPUR SIKRI (1569 AD) • Built by Akbar as a tribute to saint Salim Chisti.Sheikh Salim Chisti lived on a stony escarpment (cliff) 48 kms west of the capital Agra. • Akbar travelled to Salim Chisti barefoot to beg for the gift of a son. • Akbar decided to built a new mosque and palace complex on the long and narrow escarpment. • It is at an angle to the cliff.So the whole cliff staggers down the axis of the ridge. • The centre of the courts are not aligned axially.It makes for the diagonal sequencing of spatial experience full of unexpected expansions and contractions. • It was planed as cultural ,commercial and administrative centre of Mughal empire • Built in red sandstone • Blend of Hindu and Islamic elements • It was abandoned 14 years after its creation
  25. 25. n • All the buildings are tilted such that the mosque faces the actual west direction
  26. 26. • Fateh-pur sikri was a city with no streets but arrangement of broad terraces and stately courtyards. • The location of particular buildings were determined by pragmatic solutions of various problems. • Function • Orientation • Topography • Security • Aesthetics • The interior function of the building was determined • Service areas like water works, serias,and guards quarters were located on the outskirts. • Public areas like the courts, Diwan-i-Am and Jami-masjid formed a ring around private audience chambers of the Kings and Queens residence which were located at the very heart astride the top of the ridge. • All the important structures were located on cardinal direction. • Buildings of secular nature were oriented along N-S,Jami Masjid was aligned along E-W Akbar abandoned Sikri after occupying it for 15 years.
  27. 27. • The first structure that was built at the Fatehpur Sikri was the Jami Masjid • The mosque had to be oriented due west
  28. 28. • Jami masjid has a huge courtyard with gates on 3 sides. • The Qibla wall centred on an iwan with a central dome flanked by 2 smaller side domes. • The mihrab and western wall are elaborately decorated with inlay work of stone mosaic and glazed tiles. • Except for the qibla wall rest of the mosque is made of red sandstone.
  29. 29. BULAND DARWAZA Buland Darwaza sits on a platform of 12.8 m
  30. 30. • Buland Darwaza is the southern gate of the mosque complex ,after his victory over Gujarat. • The interior of the elevation finishes below the height of the qibla iwan. • Ht is 55m. • Impress the viewer with its gigantic size • Provide momentary shelter as one passes underneath • Openings are of modest size,unlike other gateways
  31. 31. SALIM CHISTI TOMB • Made in white marble • Central square chamber – grave of Saint • Platform was 1m high
  32. 32. PERFORATED STONE OPENINGS
  33. 33. TOMB OF SALIM CHISTI
  34. 34. NAUBAT KHANA (DRUM HOUSE) • Near the entrance point of the city.The road passes through this building.It was to announce the entry of the emperor
  35. 35. • Panch Mahal , a pavilion of 5 storeys • Rectangular ground floor has 84 columns each different in design • Five storeys diminsh from N and W side. • E and S side end in a canopy. • Inspired by Budhist Viharas • Built for 300 wives of Akbar to enjoy leisure during summer • There are 176 columns in total PANCH MAHAL
  36. 36. Pachisi court: similar to modern day Ludo
  37. 37. Diwan-i-Khas (Fateh pur Sikri) • Hall of Private Audience • Situated on the north east corner of the royal complex. • Inside has a richly carved pillar. DOUBLE STORIED AS SEEN FROM OUTSIDE CHATHRIS
  38. 38. • The building is situated in the middle of a court • From outside the building appears to be made up of two stories, while inside there is a single chamber with a high ceiling. • Four kiosks /Chathris surmount the building • There are four entry doors and all of them lead to the most interesting pillar of the Mughal Era.
  39. 39. Central Pillar of Diwan-i-Khas • The central platform attached to the pillar was the seat of the emperor while the diagonal galleries are believed to be the seat of ministers and nobles that were entertained here.
  40. 40. Diwan -i-Am (Fatehpur Sikri) • Diwan-I-Am or Hall of Public Audience was the place where Akbar heard petitions of the general public. Palace offices were situated adjacent to this spacious complex. • The colonnaded dalan surrounding it is divided into 111 bays by the use of square pillars. The most impressive feature of this complex is the Throne Chamber facing east. It is said that it was so built because of Akbar's belief in 'sun worship'. This chamber showcases a unique stone tiled roof and a exquisitely carved frieze. THRONE CHAMBER CHAJJAS
  41. 41. The chamber is broadly divided into three parts, • the space in front, *the seat of the emperor in center surrounded by the stone screens arranged in six-pointed star pattern and the portion masked by a beautiful screen meant for the royal ladies. A gracefully carved balustrade surrounded the chamber. • The building was devoid of any dome or superstructure but the elevation was artistically made prominent by the use of skilful use of pillars, brackets, chhajjas and kiosks at regular intervals in a masterly composition. SQUARE COLUMNS
  42. 42. MARIYAM’S HOUSE
  43. 43. ANUP TALAO • It was here were musical performances were conducted
  44. 44. FORTS
  45. 45. PARTS OF A FORT • Ramparts – outer walls to accommodate patrols in both direction • Watchtowers • Design of the ramparts and battlements depended on the weapon used • Massive wall thickness was to withstand cannon fire • Series of Gateways. Most of them were commemorative gateways. • Shutters were made of wood,reinforced with spikes. Within the shutters would be a small gateway for a single man to pass. • Paths leading to the gates were steep and winding • Place of worship • Armory /Sheila khana- arms and amunitions • Granary • Naqqar/ Naubat Khana
  46. 46. Living Quarters / Palace • Male Quarters Mardana • Female quarters Zenana  Kings Palace  Queens palace  Sheesh Mahal / Palace of Mirrors. • Public Area Diwan-I –Am Diwan-I Khas • Private Area
  47. 47. RED FORT , DELHI (SHAHJAHANABAD) • Shahjahan moved his capital from Agra to Delhi and name it Shahjahanabad. • He constructed his new capital in the year 1639 • It has a series of garden courts and palaces on either side of a central axis.a mosque,hamams and audiene halls. • It has a rectangular area of 945 m x 503 m. • The main buildings of the red fort are situated along the eastern wall ,along which the R.Yamuna flowed. • A moat surrounded the 18m high wall on other 3 sides • Open sided pavilions • Arched facades • Chajjas and Parappets and chattris. • The two main entrances to the fort are named after the cities they face. • On the west is the Lahore gate .Lahore gate is the main entrance and it leads to a covered bazaar and quarters for body guards. • On the south side is the Delhi gate.The elephants flanking its sides were installed by Lord Curzon in 1903 as the original ones were destroyed by Aurangzeb
  48. 48. 18m on the river side to 33m on the city side
  49. 49. • It is an irregular octagon, with two long sides on the east and west • Two main gates, one on the west (lahore gate) and the other on the southDelhi Gate.
  50. 50. (Redfort,Delhi) /Shah Jahanabad had two gateways Lahore Gate and Delhi Gate Lahore gate
  51. 51. From the western gateway (Lahori Gate) one passes through the vaulted arcade, called Chhatta-Chowk, to reache the Naubat- or Naqqar-Khana ('Drum-house'), which served as the entrance to the Diwan-i-'Am.
  52. 52. Chatta Chowk, • covered bazaar- double storied that sold fancy items, such as silk and jewels, to members of the noble class. • Vaulted roofs –supported on arches at regular intervals • Influenced by the Bazaar in Peshawar • a strong longitudinal link straight axis with the Naubat- Khana & Diwan-i-Am. • The whole of the market, in the interior and on the exterior, was originally stuccoed painted. • The upper cells may perhaps have been used for the official transactions related to the commercial function.
  53. 53. • Octagonal court at the centre- Chattar Manzil- divided the market into 2 sections. • Court has a dia of 9m • On both sides the bazaar is lined with 32 cells on both its ground floor & first floor. • The ground floor cells were actually divided into two – the outer room was used to display wares & entertain customers, while the room on the back was the artist’s workshop & storeroom.
  54. 54. NAUBAT KHANA
  55. 55. • Naubat /Naqqar Khana • used for playing music five times a day at propitious hours • also called Hathipol, as visitors dismounted from their elephants here • it is a large three-storeyed building, rectangular on plan • Carved designs on its red stone walls appear to have been originally painted with gold, • the interior was painted in other colours. • Several layers of these paintings can be traced in the entrance chamber. • Mughal kings Jahandar Shah (1712-13) and Farrukhsiyar (1713-19) are said to have been murdered Naubat-Khana
  56. 56. Diwan-i-Am (“Hall of Public Audiences”) . The façade has an arcade with nine bold arches and the hall is divided into three aisles. Open on all 3 sides • Though the building was constructed in red sandstone, yet it had been plastered with white shell plaster to resemble the white marble. • lies on the eastern edge of a large quadrangle. • It was richly decorated . • Fourth side contains a niche with a beautiful square marble base in front covered by a bangaldhar roofed canopy,under which rested the Shah Jahans famous Peacock throne.
  57. 57. FRONT AND SIDES OF THE DIWAN-I –AM ARE OPEN AND THE EMPERORS THRONE IS LOCATED AT THE FOURTH OR REAR SIDE CHATHRIS
  58. 58. • Beyond the Diwan-e-Am are the royal palaces including the Rang Mahal and Moti Mahal arranged within a mosaic of flowers- filled courtyards and gardens • Within these runs a canal within the marble flooring from N-S. It was an extension made to the canal of 1350 to bring water to Delhi from the river. NAUBAT KHANA VIEWD FROM THE DIWAN-I-AM INTERIOR ARCHES OF THE DIWAN-I-AM
  59. 59. Throne of the emperor
  60. 60. Diwan-i-Khas • Hall of Private audience was a single storied flat roof building surmounted by four small chathris. • The celling rests on massive pillars caring multi lobed arches • The interior is divided into 15 sections. • The windows overlooked the river Yamuna and were covered with lattice work. STONE WINDOWS OVERLOOKING THE RIVER YAMUNA
  61. 61. Mumtaz Mahal, formerly the women’s quarters (Zenana) but now an archaeological museum. • Overlooked the River Yamuna • All 6 palaces were conneted by Stream of Paradise (Nahr-i-Bishisht)
  62. 62. • Emperors private palace • Animal fights were organised between elephants and lions • The palace consists of 3 parts • A set of 3 rooms facing the Diwan-I Khas- Used for the emperors private worship • The 3 rooms behind it were the Khwabgah/sleeping chamber • To its south are rooms with painted walls and ceilings and perforated screens.- robe chamber Khas-Mahal
  63. 63. • The projecting octagonal tower Muthammen Burj. • It was where the emperor used to greet people waiting on the river bank SEAT OF THE EMPEROR FACING THE RIVER WHERE PEOPLE GATHERED
  64. 64. KHAS MAHAL INTERIORS CUSPED ARCHES WATER CHANNEL INSIDE IT WAS USED IN THE FOUNTAINS
  65. 65. Rang mahal The Rang Mahal is a part of the zenana, or the women's quarters in the palace in the Red Fort Complex. The zenana consisted of five pavilions lined up along the banks of the Jamuna river. Rang Mahal is the large and fine building bordered by the Mumtaz Mahal at the southern end of the zenana. It was the main resort for royal women. • The entrance is through five broad archways with cusped arches and faces a garden forecourt to the west. At the center of the hall is a lotus shaped fountain that empties out to marble channels on either side that are known as the • Nahr-i Bahisht (or River of Paradise) and connect several pavilions.
  66. 66. • In plan, the pavilion is three bays deep and seven bays wide. The bays are formed by broad, cross-shaped piers supporting a series of cusped arches and a flat roof. • The bays at either end of the pavilion are enclosed into rooms. SIDE VIEW OF RANG MAHAL
  67. 67. • Rang mahal had a central hall painted interiors • Its divided into 6 apartments. • North and southern end of the palace is known as Sheesh Mahal • Over the walls and ceilings are mirror pieces • Through the centre flowed the Nahr-i-bihisht • Centre there was a basin –originally with a ivory fountain Cusped Arches
  68. 68. Moti Masjid Diwan-i-Khas Khas Mahal Rang Mahal
  69. 69. Moti Masjid
  70. 70. • West of the hammam is the Moti Masjid the Pearl Mosque. • A later addition, it was built in 1659 as a private mosque for Aurangzeb. • It is a small, three-domed mosque carved in white marble, with a three-arched screen leading down to the courtyard
  71. 71. Royal Baths, comprised of three spacious hammams(Turkish-style baths) with a central fountain. These baths originally has pietra dura (marble inlay work) floors and pretty colored glass roof panels. • The baths were provided with 'hot and cold water. • To the west of the Hammam is the Moti-Masjid ('Pearl Mosque'), added later by Aurangzeb. HAMMAM (ROYAL BATHS)
  72. 72. The area north of the Moti-Masjid is occupied by a garden, called the (life-bestowing garden), divided into squares on the pattern of Mughal gardens with causeways and channels between them. • At the north-eastern corner of the garden is a tower, called Shah-Burj, now domeless, which suffered much during the Mutiny. – • The water for feeding the Nahr-i-Bihisht was apparently lifted up to the Shah-Burj from the river and then carried by channels to the various palaces. Hayat-Bakhsh-Bagh.
  73. 73. Sloping parappet Watch towers slits AGRA FORT (RED FORT AT AGRA 1530 AD ) MOAT
  74. 74. battlements merlons
  75. 75. • Initially another fort stood in the same site since the 11th century • It was originally a brick fort known as Badalgarh held by Raja Badalsingh Hindu Sikharwar Rajput King • After the battle of Panipat in 1526 Mughals captured the fort and treasure including Kohi-noor diamond
  76. 76. • Agra fort is built on a flat ground. The lower ramparts ,a battlement parappet has oblong merlons and are sloped forward to render scaling impossible • 94 acre brick fort Amar Singh Gate • Originally known as Akbars Gate • Amar Singh Rathore, an extra-ordinarily brave and righteous warrior during Shah Jahan’s time.
  77. 77. In the courtyard of The Amar Singh Gate. The gate itself is just visible between two tall bastions in the center. According to English traveller William Finch this southern gateway to the fort was originally known as 'Akbar Darwazah'. During Akbar's time the emperor and his personal entourage used this gateway. It was renamed during Shah Jahan's reign. It is believed that Rao Amar Singh of Marwar, the elder brother of Raja Jaswant Singh (one of the leading nobles of the empire), killed Salabat Khan, the chief treasurer of Shah Jahan in the full Court in 1644 A.D. Rao Amar Singh and his followers were cut to pieces while trying to escape and this notorious event gave the gate it's name.
  78. 78. JAHANGIRI MAHAL
  79. 79. Persian iwans of the blocks facing the court to Yamuna river Brackets of the block facing the inner courtyard
  80. 80. COURTYARD FACING THE YAMUNA (DONE IN PERSIAN STYLE ARCHITECTURE) IWANS
  81. 81. JAHANGIRI MAHAL YAMUNA RIVER • Built by Akbar • Symmetric Façade • Chathris • white marble inlaid work on the red sandstone walls. • Double storied building • The entrance hall of this palace leads to a courtyard, which is surrounded with various rooms based on the square distribution pattern • Front was occupied by male members • Its north and south halls are composed of a wooden-like post and beam system, and its stone eaves project over brackets, which are carved with wood-cut-like reliefs. • Another courtyard facing the Yamuna River, on the eastern side of the former, is much more in the Persian fashion with Iwans north and south. This palace synthesizes elements derived from various Asian areas, particularly the traditional Hindu technology and Persian architectural styles.
  82. 82. • Built by Shah Jahan There are three gates to the mosque • Main entrance is through the east • Prayer chamber has 21 bays • 3 are vaulted MARBLE TANK PRAYER CHAMBER ARCADED CLOISTERS MOTI MASJID (AGRA FORT)
  83. 83. • An arcade of 7 arches in the prayer chamber
  84. 84. Khas Mahal-Redfort-Agra
  85. 85. Khas Mahal Tank in front of Khas-Mahal Angoori bhag (grape garden)
  86. 86. Interiors of Khas –Mahal .Khas mahal was built by Shah Jahan for his daughters Jahanara and Roshanara.
  87. 87. • Khas Mahal was built by Shah Jahan, during 1631-40. • It is a white marble pavilion, with arches and pillars. • There is extensive artwork on the pillars and also on the ceiling. • There are open spaces all around it. • In front of Khas Mahal is the Anguri Bagh, or the Grape Garden. • It has alternating patterns of grass in different colors, which gives a good overview from a distance. • In the days of Mughal rule, it used to have different varieties of grapes and flowers. • Anguri Bagh is divided into four parts to give the famedChar Bagh look. • Water tank with a fountain in the center.
  88. 88. Golden Pavilion There are two golden pavilions, one between Shah Jahani Mahal and Khas Mahal and the other between Khas Mahal and Musamman Burj. Here, the roof is in a particular shape, similar to huts in Bengal.
  89. 89. Musamman Burj. • It is believed to have been built by Shah Jehan as the palace of queen Mumtaz Mahal • It was here that he spent his last days as his son Aurungzeb imprisoned him till his death along with his favorite daughter Jahanara Begum. • It was first a small marble palace built by Akbar was situated at this site, which was later demolished by Jehangir to erect new buildings. • Shah Jehan erected a multi-storied marble tower inlaid with precious stones for Mumtaz Mahal.
  90. 90. View from Musammen Burj
  91. 91. INTERIORS OF MUSAMMEN BURJ ( INTRICATE WORK OF MARBLE) CENTRAL FOUNTAIN
  92. 92. VERTICAL CASCADE
  93. 93. Macchi Bhawan (Fish Enclosure) - this was grand enclosure for harem functions, and once had pools and fountains in the middle. • Situated in front of the Diwan-i-Khas. • The quadrangle has a spacious courtyard with entrance to its north and double- storeyed arched galleries on the other three sides. TREASURY AT THE LOWER FLOORS
  94. 94. • On the upper storey of the southern side, a small marble pavilion with a relief work of sun on its ceiling projects outward. • It is believed to be the place where the Golden Throne of the emperor was placed to allow him to have the entire view of the court below. • The rooms of the lower floor served as the treasury. • The southern pavilion served as a small reception room known as Diwan-i-Khas and has an open terrace with a white and a black marble throne. MACCHI BHAVAN
  95. 95. . • Constructed in 1635, it had two halls and the interior hall • Diwan-i-Khas had a flat wooden flat ceiling covered with gold and silver leaves in relief to imitate the rays of the sun. • Open on three sides • five arched openings supported on double columns Diwan I khas
  96. 96. Inside the Diwan-i-Khas or Hall of Private Audience. Blind arches
  97. 97. Side View of the Diwan-i-Khas
  98. 98. Diwan-i-Am (Red fort agra)
  99. 99. • The place where the emperor addressed the general public as well as the nobility. • it is situated close to Machchhi Bhawan. • The huge assembly hall measuring 201' by 67' • has flat roof and two arched red sandstone gateways to the north and south. • The façade has an arcade with nine bold arches and the hall is divided into three aisles. • The building was constructed in red sandstone, yet it had been plastered with white shell plaster to resemble the white marble. • The raised rectangular chamber from where the emperor addressed the people was • ornamented. • was known as the 'Takht-i-Murassa' (the Throne Room). • This chamber was connected to the royal apartments and the royal ladies could watch the ceremonials of the Diwan-i-Am through the marble windows with perforated screens on the right and left of the enperor's chamber. • The marble dias below this chamber was known as 'Baithak'. • It used to serve as the seat for Wazir, who presented petitions to the emperor. • It is said that the hall used to have silver balustrades for the nobility, where they could stand according to their ranks • The outlines of the columns and the spandrels were done in gold. Diwan I Am (1631-40)
  100. 100. Seat of emperor Shah Jahan in the Diwan-e-am BAITHAK THE WINDOWS THROUGH WCHICH THE LADIES COULD VIEW THE PROCEEDINGS
  101. 101. Akbars Tomb (1605-1613 AD) 320’ 320’ ACTUAL GATEWAY WITH MINARETS FALSE GATEWAYS FALSE GATEWAY
  102. 102. CENOTAPH OF AKBAR
  103. 103. Southern Entrance to the Akbar’s Tomb The main gateway has bold inlaid ornamentation along with 4 graceful white marble minarets, above each corner
  104. 104. • Akbar’s mausoleum was built by his son, the Emperor Jahangir, 8 years after Akbar’s death, completed in 1613. • The tomb structure situated in the centre of the enclosure is a square in plan of 320’ side and over 100’ high. • In the middle of each side of the enclosure is a gatehouse, three of which are false doorways added for symmetry and the southern being the main entrance. • The ground storey of tomb consists of a massive terrace 30’ high, with a series of arches recessed within its sides. • In the centre of each side is a tall rectangular structure containing an arched alcove with a graceful marble kiosk above its parapet. • A doorway within the southern alcove leads to a corridor going to the tomb chamber which is a small cell confined within the womb of the building. • The uppermost storey of Akbar’s tomb is composed entirely of white marble • It is a massive structure with a solid projecting cornice with a tall and graceful kiosk over each corner. The entire structure is surrounded by a range of delicately perforated screens. • The interior of this storey is an open court surrounded by arcaded cloisters and a cenotaph in the centre. • It is probable that this storey was supposed to have dome to provide a suitable apex to the pyramidal elevation and to protect the exquisite craftsmanship of the cenotaph.
  105. 105. • The shape of tomb is pyramidal and consists of five storeys. • The cenotaph is at a level below the ground level, while the false cenotaph is at the top floor • The ground floor is surrounded by cloisters except at the centre on the southern side. • These cloisters are divided by massive arches and piers divisible into many bays.
  106. 106. SECTION OF AKBARS TOMB
  107. 107. JAMA MASJID ,DELHI
  108. 108. JAMI MASJID,NEW DELHI • Largest mosque in India • Originally known a mosque commanding the view of the world • It was a replica of the Moti Masjid at Agra Fort • It is a congregational mosque • Located 500m west of Red fort (delhi) • Strategic position as it was the highest point on a rocky ridge
  109. 109. • Mosque built by Shah Jahan • After shifting the capital from Agra to Delhi,upon the death of Mumtaz Mahal • It has 3 entrances • South gate (public) • North (nobles) • East (royals) Eastern gate (royal gate) is octagonal in plan • Soffit of the roof is carved with honeycomb carving • It has one central arched opening in the 3 archway • Projected balcony as a result of Bengali influence • Southern and Northern gateways are smaller in size. • Back façade of the gates are smaller than its front facades • Each side of the gate has 17 arched openings.
  110. 110. • Ablution tank is made in marble, it measures (30mx10.9m) • In the centre of the tank there is a fountain • Four corners of the tank contain marble kiosks • There are two sundials in the courtyard to indicate the time of prayer.
  111. 111. JAMA MASJID, DELHI
  112. 112. COURTYARD OF JAMA MASJID,DELHI Red fort/shahjahanabad CLOISTERS SURROUNDING THE COURTYARD KIOSKS AT THE END OF THE CLOISTERS
  113. 113. Mosque • Five arched openings on either side of the mosque hall • Area of the main mosque is less in propotion to the huge courtyard • Entry to the sactuary is through a archway. • The archway has minarets on either sides.The minarets has octagonal cupolas • The dome has inner shell and outer shell to cool the interior of the mosque • The dome is supported by squinches • Minars are octagonal in plan. Each of the minar is topped by a cupola
  114. 114. (Royal gate) (Nobles) (Public)

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