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agriculture of pakistan

introduction,importance,problems and their solutions.

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agriculture of pakistan

  1. 1. • About 25% of Pakistan's total land area is under cultivation • It is watered by one of the largest irrigation systems in the world. • Pakistan irrigates three times more acres than Russia. • Agriculture accounts for about 21% of GDP hh • Employs about 41% of the labor force.
  2. 2. CROPS • Wheat: Accounts for 13.1 percent of the agriculture and 39 percent of major crops • Sugarcane • Cotton: 6.9 percent stake in agriculture and 21.4 percent in value addition of major crops • Rice: recorded lowest ever production since 2002 due to floods. • Together account for more than 75% of the value of total crop output.
  3. 3. LIVESTOCK • It contributes 11.5 per cent of Pakistan's GDP, which is more than the crop sector. • It contributes about half of the value added in the agriculture sector. • Major source of income in the rural areas. • The livestock sector grew by 3.7 percent in 2010-11. • Poultry & products grew by 7.0 percent. • Milk production grew by 3.3 percent. • Pakistan the 5th largest producer of milk in the world. • These animals produce 29.472 million tons of milk • 1.115 million tons of beef, • 0.740 million tons of mutton, • 0.416 million tons of poultry meat, 8.528 billion eggs, • 40.2 thousand tons of wool, • 21.5 thousand tons of hair and 51.2 million skins and hides.
  4. 4. FISHERY • Pakistan have a coastline of about 814 km. • It is also a major source of export earning. • Accounting for only 0.4 percent of GDP. • Growth rate is 1.9 percent in 2010-11.
  5. 5. FORESTRY • About only 4% of land in Pakistan is covered with forest. • The forest of Pakistan are a main source of food, lumber, paper, fuel wood, medicine as well as used for purposes of wildlife conservation and ecotourism. • Forestry accounts for 0.2 percent of GDP . • Value addition contracted by 0.4 percent compared to an expansion of 2.2 percent last year. Ayubia National Park Forest Changa Manga Islamabad Forest Sawat Forest
  6. 6. SOIL EROSION • Removal of top soil faster than the soil forming processes can replace it, due to natural, animal, and human activity (over grazing, over cultivation, forest clearing, mechanized farming, etc.). • Soil erosion results in land infertility It is estimated that 20 percent of the world's topsoil was lost during 1950-1990, and its loss is continuing at a fast. • The thickness of fertile layer of soil in Pakistan is more than 6 inches • Average yield in Pakistan is lower than other countries where layer of fertile soil is only 4 inches.
  7. 7. WATER WASTAGE IS VERY HIGH • The archaic method of flood irrigation is still in practice in whole of the country which wastes almost 50 to 60 percent of water. • The irrigation system of Pakistan needs improvement as about 67% of the land is irrigated with canals. • A new irrigation system called drip irrigation system has been introduced in many parts of the world. This not only saves water but also gives proper quantity of water according to the needs of plants.
  8. 8. OLD METHODS OF CULTIVATION AND HARVESTING • Pakistan has low yield per acre that means the average crop in Pakistan is just 1/4th of that of advance states. • Where as Nepal, India and Bangladesh are using modern scientific methods to increase their yield per acre. For this purpose, these states are using modern machines to improve their yield.
  9. 9. EXPLOITATION OF SMALL FARMERS • The small farmers are increasing in our country as the lands are dividing generation by generation. • So, there are large number of farmers who own only 4 acres of land. • These small farmers do not get credit facilities to purchase seeds, pesticides, fertilizers etc. • A large area of land is owned by feudal and the farmers who work on their lands, are just tenants. • This uncertain situation of occupancy neither creates incentive of work nor does attract capital investment.
  10. 10. WATER LOGGING AND SALINITY • As the storage capacity of the dams is decreasing so the water availability per acre is also decreasing. Therefore, the farmers are installing more and more tube wells to irrigate their crops. This is why salinity is becoming the major issue in most parts of Punjab and Sindh.
  11. 11. PROBLEMS OF FARMERS • While formulating the 5 or 10 years plan, no emphasize has been laid on the importance of solving the problems of farmers. Most of the farmers are illiterate, poor and ignorant. In this wake the loans issued by ADBP or other banks are used by them in other fields like repayment of debts, marriage of daughters etc., in spite of its befitting use in agricultural sector.
  12. 12. COMMUNICATION GAP • The only mean of communication in rural areas is T.V or radio so it is urgently needed on the part of these mass communication resources to air the programs related to the new agricultural techniques and allied sciences. But these programs should be telecast in regional or local languages. Because lack of guidance is the main reason of farmers backwardness. • The communication gap between well qualified experts and simple. • Availability of these experts is not ensured in rural areas as they are reluctant to go there
  13. 13. UNDERUTILIZATION OF CULTIVABLE LAND • Pakistan is rich in fertile land yet the land is being wasted in different ways. • 79.6% million hectors of land is cultivable where as only 20.43% million hectors is cultivated. • A major area is owned by feudal. It is difficult to manage such a huge area so only that part is cultivated which is easy to manage, the rest is left ignored. • The rise of industrialization has given threat to this sector. People are migrating to cities and cities are expanding, thus new towns and colonies are constructed on fertile lands.
  14. 14. MONOPOLY OF FOREIGN BIG COMPANIES • pesticides companies are sorting partnership with “world bank”. These companies are selling expensive pesticides. • These pesticides are hazardous for health. • By moving according to world bank these companies are gaining their own aims. • Moreover there is a conflict of interests. It is not ensured that either the company conducting agreement is basically trying to get access to international market or just working according to their aims.
  15. 15. FALSE POLICIES OF GOVERNMENT • 18 billion in budget was allocated for agricultural sector of Pakistan • withdrawal of subsidy on pesticides and electricity on the conditions of IMF has done serious damage to this sector. • Whereas America and European union are giving a huge amount of subsidy to their farmers • Support price policy is very weak. In Punjab sugar cane is sold 200 Rs. Per 40 kilograms. It was purchased and later on stocked by industrialist .
  16. 16. FEUDALISM SHOULD BE ABOLISHED • Lands should be allotted to poor farmers. This will enhance the productivity and per acre yield of all the crops in Pakistan. • Taxes should be levied on agricultural income but not without devising limit of land holding. Other wise it would directly effect poor farmers.
  17. 17. FEDERAL SEED CERTIFICATION AND FEDERAL SEED REGISTRATION • Should take responsible steps in approving seeds as it has already approved 36 new kinds of seeds. • Specially, those seeds should be banned which can create pest problem in near future. These seeds are of cotton mainly. • International seed makers are providing those seeds which are not successful in our country as these seeds are not tested on our soil.
  18. 18. A NEW AGRICULTURAL POLICY • A new agricultural policy must be framed in which following steps should be focused on. - Small farmer must be focused - Consumer friendly policy must be projected. - Productivity enhancement program must be constituted to adjust and support prices.
  19. 19. DIFFERENT AGRICULTURAL ZONES SHOULD BE INTRODUCED • As Multan in famous for its mangoes and citrus fruits so it must be made mango, citrus zone by which perishable products should be exported. • This would enhance agro based industry and increase foreign reserves. • Pakistan agricultural storage & services corporation needs to take steps in this regard.
  20. 20. LATEST MACHINERY SHOULD BE PROVIDED TO THE FARMERS • To increase the per acre yield , the availability of equipment should be on easy installments so that the farmers can avoid the burden of loans. • If possible subsidy should be given by the government of modern machinery.- • Modern techniques of irrigation can solve the problems of irrigation in Pakistan. This includes drip irrigation and sprinkle irrigation methods. By using this technique the farmers can save a huge some of money which he pays for irrigation through tube wells and tractors.
  21. 21. DAMS SHOULD BE CONSTRUCTED • More dams should be constructed on Indus, Jhelum and Chenab rivers. This will enhance the storage capacity of water and reduce the per acre cost of all the crops. • This step will also reduce the salinity chances of the lands as less tube well water will be flooded to the lands which cause salinity.