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Timothy Melton Tang Dynasty Research Paper CitationsSource: "Imperial Era: II." University of Maryland: The Imperial Era. netTrekker, Web. 1 Dec. 2010.<http://www-chaos.umd.edu/history/imperial2.html>.The Tang dynasty (A.D. 618-907), with its capital at Changan, is regarded by historians as a high pointin Chinese civilization--equal, or even superior, to the Han period. Its territory, acquired through themilitary exploits of its early rulers, was greater than that of the Han. Stimulated by contact with Indiaand the Middle East, the empire saw a ﬂowering of creativity in many ﬁelds. Buddhism, originating inIndia around the time of Confucius, ﬂourished during the Tang period, becoming thoroughly sinicized*and a permanent part of Chinese traditional culture. Block printing was invented, making the writtenword available to vastly greater audiences. The Tang period was the golden age of literature and art. Agovernment system supported by a large class of Confucian literati selected through civil serviceexaminations was perfected under Tang rule. This competitive procedure was designed to draw the besttalents into government. But perhaps an even greater consideration for the Tang rulers, aware thatimperial dependence on powerful aristocratic families and warlords would have destabilizingconsequences, was to create a body of career ofﬁcials having no autonomous territorial or functionalpower base. As it turned out, these scholar-ofﬁcials acquired status in their local communities, familyties, and shared values that connected them to the imperial court. From Tang times until the closingdays of the Qing empire in 1911, scholar-ofﬁcials functioned often as intermediaries between the grass-roots level and the government.*sinicized- has become Chinese in character or has come under Chinese inﬂuence.Source: Barrosse, Emily, Jerry H. Bentley, and Herbert F. Ziegler, eds. Traditions and Encounters: AGlobal Perspective on the Past. Third Edition. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2006. Print.“Apart from the Grand Canal, which served as the principal route for long-distance transportationwithin China, Tang rulers maintained an extensive communications network based on roads, horses, andsometimes human runners. Along the main routes, Tang ofﬁcials maintained inns, postal stations, andstables, which provided rest and refreshment for travelers, couriers, and their mounts...”
Timothy Melton Source: Hardy, Grant. "Tang dynasty." World Book Advanced. World Book, 2010. Web. 8 Dec. 2010. Taizong* was a powerful leader. He destroyed his competitors for the throne, began an alliance with the Korean state of Silla, and forced Turkish nomads out of Northern China. His armies conquered parts of Tibet and Turkestan, opening overland trade routes from China to India and central Asia. The trade routes not only brought great wealth to the empire, but they also promoted religious and cultural exchange. The routes gave Christian and other foreign missionaries an overland entrance into China and allowed Chinese Buddhist pilgrims to visit India. *Tang Taizong - He was the second Tang emperor; he ruled Tang China during it’s high pointSource: SILKMAP3. The Silk Road: Linking Europe and Asia Through Trade. Web. 10 Dec. 2010. <http://library.thinkquest.org/13406/images/SILKMAP3.JPG>.
Timothy MeltonSource: Haw, Stephen G. A Travellers History of China. Third ed. Brooklyn, NY: Interlink Books,Inc., 1999. Print.“All the major inventions of the pre-modern world-paper, printing, gunpowder, and the compass-were known and used by the Chinese.... China was undoubtedly the most advanced nation in theworld at the time, attaining a level which Europeans would have found hard to believe.” Anonymous China ScholarSource: Major, John S. "China: History of Dress." Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion. Ed.Valerie Steele. Vol. 1. Detroit: Charles Scribners Sons, 2005. 260-266. Gale Virtual ReferenceLibrary. Web. 1 Dec. 2010.“Under the Tang, trade along the Silk Route between China via Central Asia to the Mediterraneanworld ﬂourished, and inﬂuence from Persian and Turkic culture areas had a strong impact on elitefashions in China. Chinese silk textiles of the Tang period show strong foreign inﬂuence,particularly in the use of roundel patterns. Source: Major, John S. "China: History of Dress." Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion. Ed. Valerie Steele. Vol. 1. Detroit: Charles Scribners Sons, 2005. 260-266. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 1 Dec. 2010. “The Tang Dynasty was an aristocratic society in which military prowess and good horsemanship were admired as male accomplishments. Depictions of foot soldiers and cavalrymen in scale armor and heavily padded jackets, and ofﬁcers in elaborate breastplates and surcoats, are common in Tang sculptural and pictorial art.”