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Oral Language
THE NEFEC REACH PROJECT

was funded by a grant through Early Reading First 2007-2011. The
information in this PowerPoint i...
Oral Language …
• is the foundation for literacy
development.
• involves speaking and listening.
• is essential for childr...
Importance of Oral
Language


Children who develop strong oral language skills during the
preschool years create an impor...
Interactions
Hart & Risley compared the mean number
of interactions initiated per hour in each
of the three groups.

(Torg...
Interactions

Hart & Risley also compared the mean
number of minutes of interaction per
hour in the three groups

(Torgese...
Interactions

Perhaps most striking were the
differences in quality of
interaction, when the affirmations
vs. prohibitions...
Cumulative Language Experiences

(Torgesen, 2005)
Cumulative Language Experiences
Cumulative Words Spoken to Child
(in millions)

50

40

30

20

Professional

10

Working
...
Stages in Language Development
Birth to 1 year:




First few months - babbling and cooing
8 months - repeated consonan...
Stages in Language
Development
From 3 to 4 years



Syntactic structures added include plurals and regular verbs
Apply ...
Five Components of Oral
Language






Semantics
Syntax (grammar)
Morphology
Phonology
Pragmatics
Conversational Strategies & Peer
Conversations

Conversational Strategies:
 Clarify & Extend
 Question & Tell
 Think – ...
Thing to Avoid When Talking to
Children





Correct children’s grammar or pronunciation
Demand complete sentences
Rej...
How Do We Increase Children ’s
Vocabularies?





Language-rich interactions with adults
Reading frequently to childre...
Instruction: 5 Best
Practices






Shared book reading
Songs, rhymes, and word play
Storytelling
Circle time
Dramati...
Shared Book Reading
Key Behaviors to Use During Interactive Readings:
 Prompt to be actively engaged
 Clarity & extend
...
Songs, Rhymes, & Word
Play
Instructional framework:
1. Say/Sing
2. Recite & Invite
3. Replay

(Roskos, Tabors, & Lenhart, ...
Storytelling
Tips for Effective Storytelling:
 Begin with familiar stories (e.g., The Three Little
Pigs)
 Practice, prac...
Circle Time: Improving Whole Group
Conversations





Children do most of the talking
Encourage many children to parti...
Dramatic Play: Sustaining the
Play

Provide more props
Ask open-ended questions
Help negotiate problem solving
Model play ...
References
Assel, M. A., Landry, S. H., Swank, P. R., & Gunnewig, S. (2007). An evaluation of curriculum,
setting, and men...
References
Dickinson, D. K. & Neuman, S. B. (Eds.). (2006). Handbook of early literacy research (Vol. 2).
New York, NY: Gu...
References
Storch, S. A., & Whitehurst, G. J. (2002). Oral language and code related precursors to
reading: Evidence from ...
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Oral Language and Literacy Powerpoint

  1. 1. Oral Language
  2. 2. THE NEFEC REACH PROJECT was funded by a grant through Early Reading First 2007-2011. The information in this PowerPoint is provided by the NEFEC REACH Workshop Series Website. The information is a consolidation of professional learning presentations, current research and teacher contributions. The ERF REACH Lead Team is providing this early literacy information for early learning educators and professional leaders. We have provided the most current research as well as practical application ideas and suggestions for early learning educators to use in their classrooms. Please preview and adjust the information as needed for the purposes of your audience.
  3. 3. Oral Language … • is the foundation for literacy development. • involves speaking and listening. • is essential for children to gain knowledge about the world.
  4. 4. Importance of Oral Language  Children who develop strong oral language skills during the preschool years create an important foundation for their later achievements in reading, especially reading comprehension (Storch & Whitehurst, 2002).  Children who lag behind their peers in language development are at-risk for later reading difficulties (Catts, Fey, Tomblin, & Zhang, 2002).  Vocabulary knowledge is strongly related to reading proficiency and overall academic success (Beck, McKeown,& Kucan, 2002)
  5. 5. Interactions Hart & Risley compared the mean number of interactions initiated per hour in each of the three groups. (Torgesen, 2005)
  6. 6. Interactions Hart & Risley also compared the mean number of minutes of interaction per hour in the three groups (Torgesen, 2005)
  7. 7. Interactions Perhaps most striking were the differences in quality of interaction, when the affirmations vs. prohibitions per hour were compared.
  8. 8. Cumulative Language Experiences (Torgesen, 2005)
  9. 9. Cumulative Language Experiences Cumulative Words Spoken to Child (in millions) 50 40 30 20 Professional 10 Working Welfare 0 0 12 24 36 48 Age of child (in months) (Torgesen, 2005)
  10. 10. Stages in Language Development Birth to 1 year:    First few months - babbling and cooing 8 months - repeated consonant and vowel sounds (i.e., da, da, or ma, ma) 8-12 months - first words spoken (i.e., Mommy) From 1 to 2 years  One word utterances Use telegraphic speech From 2 to 3 years  Continue to use telegraphic speech Sometimes use functional words (Morrow, 2007)
  11. 11. Stages in Language Development From 3 to 4 years   Syntactic structures added include plurals and regular verbs Apply basic rules that govern language Talk about what they are doing while they are doing the activity From 5 to 6 years   Their talk sounds like adult talk Knows that a word can have more than one meaning Creative in using language (Morrow, 2007)
  12. 12. Five Components of Oral Language      Semantics Syntax (grammar) Morphology Phonology Pragmatics
  13. 13. Conversational Strategies & Peer Conversations Conversational Strategies:  Clarify & Extend  Question & Tell  Think – Aloud Peer-to-peer conversations:  Talk about a book in pairs  Have conversations in centers  Talk about what they are eating during snack
  14. 14. Thing to Avoid When Talking to Children     Correct children’s grammar or pronunciation Demand complete sentences Reject children’s home language Demand a quiet classroom (Bennett-Armistead, Duke, & Moses, 2005)
  15. 15. How Do We Increase Children ’s Vocabularies?     Language-rich interactions with adults Reading frequently to children Use of interesting themes Incorporating the 5 best practices into your curriculum
  16. 16. Instruction: 5 Best Practices      Shared book reading Songs, rhymes, and word play Storytelling Circle time Dramatic Play (Dickinson & Neuman, 2006)
  17. 17. Shared Book Reading Key Behaviors to Use During Interactive Readings:  Prompt to be actively engaged  Clarity & extend  Expand & extend  Explain the meanings  Prompt to use new vocabulary
  18. 18. Songs, Rhymes, & Word Play Instructional framework: 1. Say/Sing 2. Recite & Invite 3. Replay (Roskos, Tabors, & Lenhart, 2009)
  19. 19. Storytelling Tips for Effective Storytelling:  Begin with familiar stories (e.g., The Three Little Pigs)  Practice, practice, practice  Use props (e.g., flannel board)  Use voice inflections  Use repetitive phrases
  20. 20. Circle Time: Improving Whole Group Conversations     Children do most of the talking Encourage many children to participate Look to another child for a response Use praise and encouraging comments
  21. 21. Dramatic Play: Sustaining the Play Provide more props Ask open-ended questions Help negotiate problem solving Model play dialogue and scenarios by participating in children’s play.  Observe and interact with children to monitor progress.  Encourage child-to-child conversations    
  22. 22. References Assel, M. A., Landry, S. H., Swank, P. R., & Gunnewig, S. (2007). An evaluation of curriculum, setting, and mentoring on the performance of children enrolled in prekindergarten. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 20(5), 463-494. Beck, I.L., McKeown, M.G., & Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing words to life: Robust vocabulary instruction. New York: The Guilford Press. Bennett-Armistead, V. S., Duke, N. K., Moses, A. M. (2005). Literacy and the youngest learner: Best practices for educators of children from birth to 5 . New York, NY: Scholastic. Bialystock, E. (2001). Metalinguistic aspects of bilingual processing. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 21, 169-181. Catts, H. W., Fey, M. E., Tomblin, J. B., & Zhang, X. (2002). A longitudinal investigation of reading outcomes in children with language impairments. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 45, 1142-1157. Dickinson, D. K. (2006). Large group and free-play times: Conversational settings supporting language and literacy development. In D. K. Dickinson, & P. O. Tabors (Eds.), Beginning literacy with language: Young children learning at home and at school (pp. 223-256). Baltimore, MD: Brookes.
  23. 23. References Dickinson, D. K. & Neuman, S. B. (Eds.). (2006). Handbook of early literacy research (Vol. 2). New York, NY: Guilford. Goswami, U. (2001). Early phonological development and the acquisition of literacy. In S. B. Neuman & D. K. Dickinson (Eds.), Handbook of early literacy research (pp. 111-125). New York: Guilford. Hart, B., & Risley, T. R. (1995). Meaningful differences in the everyday experience of young american children. Baltimore, MD: P.H. Brookes Publishing. Juel, C. (1988). Learning to read and write. A longitudinal study of 34 children from first through fourth grades. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 437-447. Mashburn, A. J., Justice, L. M., Downer, J. T., & Pianta, R. C. (2009). Peer effects on children’s language achievement during pre-kindergarten. Child Development, 80(3), 686-702. National Reading Panel. (2000). Teaching children to read: An evidence based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction . Washington DC: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Roskos, K. A., Tabors, P. O., & Lenhart, L. A. (2009). Oral language and early literacy in preschool. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
  24. 24. References Storch, S. A., & Whitehurst, G. J. (2002). Oral language and code related precursors to reading: Evidence from a longitudinal structural model. Developmental Psychology, 38, 934-947. Torgesen, J. K. (2005). The urgent need to improve reading instruction and outcomes for our K-12 students. Retrieved from http://www.fcrr.org/science/pdf/torgesen/Servelunch.pdf

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