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Dar-e-Arqam School M.B.Q Campus
DIPLOMA IN EDUCATIONAL
LEADERSHIP & MANAGEMENT
Zahid Islam Tanoli
Equip us with the knowledge to improve our understanding of educational
management and leadership.
Enable us to apply latest theory and research in our institutes.
Equip with professional development through reflection on practice.
Allow us to consider issues related to the policy context of education.
Give us the chance to contribute towards improvement of educational systems and
institutions and to reflect on the quality of learning and teaching.
Transform our school culture and develop a safe & caring environment.
Identify and play management roles & function effectively.
Suffer now and live the rest of your life as a champion. (M.Ali Jinnah)
Confidence comes from discipline and training. (Robert Kiyosaki)
In sha Allah this Diploma will…….
Foundation of EducationFoundation of Education
Education is an agent of social change in society.
Learning Objectives: 3-H Theory or Bloom Taxonomy
Basic Elements of Education: Student, Teacher, Curriculum, Methodology, Learning, Evaluation
Differentiate between Education and Learning
What is Education:
Positive change in behavior through attitude is called education.
Education is a process of learning. (INPUT)
Learning is desired change in behavior. (OUTPUT)
Leadership Styles & TacticsLeadership Styles & Tactics
Leadership: leadership is the capacity to translate vision and reality.
Leadership Styles: leadership style is the manner and approach of providing direction,
Implementing plans, and motivating people towards the attainment of organizational goals.
Some leadership styles: Autocratic, Democratic, Delegative,
Qualities of a leader, (Group Discussion)
Honesty, Visionary, Ability to Delegate, Communication, Confidence,
Commitment, Positive Attitude, Creativity, Ability to Inspire,
Seven Habits of highly effective peoples by Stephen R. CoveyBook Recommended:
Don’t use “I” always use “We”.
Try not to become a man of success, try to become a man of values.
True leaders don’t create followers, they create more leaders!
leaders are Readers….!
Conducive Learning Environment
Definition: physically, psychologically, socially, and culturally secure place is called
Conducive Learning Environment.
Some Characteristics Of A Highly Effective Learning Environment
The students ask the questions—good questions
Questions are valued over answers
Ideas come from a divergent sources
A variety of learning models are used
Classroom learning “empties” into a connected community
Learning is personalized by a variety of criteria
Assessment is persistent, authentic, and transparent,
Criteria for success is balanced and transparent.
Learning habits are constantly modeled
There are constant opportunities for practice
Make Learning Relevant
Always Be Positive
Engage Positive Role Models
Reinforce Positive Behaviors
Teach Positive Actions
Create a Classroom Code of Conduct
Strategies for Building Positive Classrooms
Managing Co-Curriculum ActivitiesManaging Co-Curriculum Activities
Definition: All activities that are connected or mirror of curriculum are called
Importance of co-curricular activities. (Group Discussion)
for all the levels,
all the genders,
in all styles,
according to the event,
minimum in 4 languages,(Arabic, English, Urdu and local language)
Activities support the academic mission of schools.
Activity programs provide opportunities for character development and unique learning
for valuable life lesson and universal values.
Activities foster success in later life.
Research shows that students involved in co-curricular activities are more
likely to have high grades in academic.
Participation promotes positive health behaviors.
Participation enhances the overall educational experience of the student.
Types of co-curricular activities in School.
• Sports: how to accept defeat gracefully and victory modestly.
• Debates and Speeches
• Social awareness programs
• Voluntary work
• Write our own plays and sketches.
• Play a greater role in community services
• Get involved in social welfare, charity, visits to hospitals, prisons, etc.
• Become members of community organizations and learn about such topics as
“drug abuse” etc.
• Assist aged in neighborhood
• Literacy Programs
• Islamic Art
• Karate/Martial Arts
• Playing games to promote teamwork
• Joining Muslim Youth Movements
• Do good work for ALL humanity (not only for own race or religion!)
• Cultural festivals
• Forum Discussions
• Youth camps and School Magazines etc…
HRM in SchoolHRM in School
Definition: The process of hiring and developing employees so that they become
more valuable to the organization.
Core Dimensions of HRM
Job Analysis and Design
Recruitment and Selection
Training & Development
Employee Performance Evaluation
Compensation & Rewards
Recruitment and Hiring Process
The basic steps involved in an effective recruitment and hiring process are:
1. Develop the position description
2. Post and/or advertise the position
3. Receive and screen applications
4. Interview applicants
5. Check references
6. Make a hiring decision
7. Establish an employment contract
True motivation comes from achievement, personal development, job satisfaction, and recognition
You are Lucky, if you have right people, with the right abilities, in the right place at the right time.
The Use of Technology in Human Resources Administration
•Simplified reporting methods
Selection and Testing: Ability Tests
Cognitive Ability Tests
• Measure an individual’s thinking, memory, reasoning, and verbal
and mathematical abilities.
Physical Ability Tests
• Measure strength, endurance, and muscular movement
• Measure dexterity, hand-eye coordination, arm-hand steadiness,
and other factors.
Class Room Observation StrategiesClass Room Observation Strategies
Observation: it’s a methodology that involves watching and recording everything
Within a clearly defined area and set objectives.
Classroom observation: is the process of gathering data for sketching the Current
classroom practices in order to maximize student’s learning and teacher’s performance.
Principles of observation:
Clarify the purpose of observation
Decide observation schedule
Keep record of time intervals of what you observe
Participate in the class only if invited to do so
We need to be really clear about this. It is not because some other schools do it etc.. It is because
teaching is the heart of what schools are for and as professionals we should always be looking to
make improvements to what we do. Observation is one of the methods through which we access
the quality of teaching and learn how to develop further. Therefore it has to make a difference.
Classroom Observation Check listClassroom Observation Check list
Da r - e - Ar q a m S cho o l
M.B.Q Campus Abbottabad Date ___________
Observer Name: ___________________________Designation:___________________
Class: __________________Subject: _____________________
Classroom/ Teaching Observation rating scale
(1 = very poor, 2 = weak, 3 = average, 4 = good, 5 = excellent,)
Planning for Classroom
Clear objectives of lesson 1 2 3 4 5
Identifies concepts to be taught 1 2 3 4 5
Support material/reference for lesson 1 2 3 4 5
Prepare teaching learning aids 1 2 3 4 5
Definitions were given for vocabulary 1 2 3 4 5
Previewed by connecting to previous classes 1 2 3 4 5
Reviewed by connecting to future classes 1 2 3 4 5
Maintains proper environment of the class 1 2 3 4 5
Maintains proper discipline in the class 1 2 3 4 5
Time distribution for all activities 1 2 3 4 5
Quality of Teaching
Subject Command 1 2 3 4 5
Presentation of the subject 1 2 3 4 5
Students Involvement 1 2 3 4 5
Students asked questions 1 2 3 4 5
Proper use of teaching aids 1 2 3 4 5
Use of white board/clear hand writing 1 2 3 4 5
Individual attention to weak students 1 2 3 4 5
Communicate with clarity & effectiveness 1 2 3 4 5
Language was understandable 1 2 3 4 5
Clear pronunciation 1 2 3 4 5
Effective voice quality 1 2 3 4 5
Volume sufficient to be heard 1 2 3 4 5
Rate of delivery was appropriate 1 2 3 4 5
Effective body movement and gestures 1 2 3 4 5
Eye contact with students 1 2 3 4 5
Confident & enthusiastic 1 2 3 4 5
Cooperative with management 1 2 3 4 5
Had good relations with other colleagues 1 2 3 4 5
Teaching attitude with students 1 2 3 4 5
Professional & helpful manners with all 1 2 3 4 5
Special Classification Notes:
Strengths: (e.g. met curriculum, use of comparisons & contrasts, positive feedback,
opportunity provided for student questions)
Weakness: (e.g. unable to answer student questions, overall topic knowledge,
relevance of examples, etc.)
Overall Effectiveness Rating 1 2 3 4 5
Observer Signature: _______________
Sample of Observation Form
Effective Examination SystemEffective Examination System
IF YOU FAIL TO PLAN YOU ARE PLANNING TO FAILIF YOU FAIL TO PLAN YOU ARE PLANNING TO FAIL
Examination: A formal test of a person’s knowledge or proficiency in s subject or skill.
Measurement: Is the process of assessing student's achievement in term of score. (Quantitative term)
Evaluation: Is the process of judging student's achievement in a narrative/descriptive form. (Qualitative term)
Under this term we judge value or worth of student’s achievement.
Assessment: Is the process of collecting, tabulating, analyzing, interpreting, recording, and communicating,
data with respect to student's achievement. It’s a broader and comprehensive term.
Types of Tests Matching test,
Problem sets test,
12 Characteristic of a good test
It means that it measures what it is supposed to measure. It tests what it ought to test. A good test which
measures control of grammar should have no difficult lexical items.
If it is taken again by ( same students, same conditions ), the score will be almost the same regarding that the time
between the test and the retest is of reasonable length. If it is given twice to same students under the same
circumstances, it will produce almost the same results. In this case it is said that the test provides consistency in
measuring the items being evaluated.
It is easy to be conducted, easy to score without wasting too much time or effort.
It covers all the items that have been taught or studied. It includes items from different areas of the material
assigned for the test so as to check accurately the amount of students’ knowledge
It measures reasonably well the achievement of the desired objectives.
It tests linguistic as well as communicative competence and it reflects the real command of the language. It tests
also appropriateness and accuracy.
7- Appropriate in difficulty:
It is neither too hard nor too easy. Questions should be progressive in difficulty to reduce stress and tension
Questions and instructions should be clear. Pupils should know what to do exactly.
The language of the test should reflect everyday discourse
10- Appropriate for time:
A good test should be appropriate in length for the allotted time.
If it is marked by different teachers, the score will be the same. Marking process should not be affected by the
teacher’s personality. Questions and answers are so clear and definite that the marker would give the students the
score he/she deserves.
It makes the best use of the teacher’s limited time for preparing and grading and it makes the best use of the
pupil’s assigned time for answering all items. So, we can say that oral exams in classes of +30 students are not
economical as it requires too much time and effort to be conducted.
Strategic VisionStrategic Vision
Vision: The ability to see invisible or think about or plan the future with imagination
Without a clear vision, we don’t have a direction! Without a direction,
we are at severe risk!
Just as it is unwise to start a building your house without a plan, it is unwise to start
your day, your week, your month, your year and your life without a vision and a plan.
Strategic Vision: Ideas for the direction and activities of business development.
Generally included in a document or statement so all company managers can
share the same vision for the company and make decisions according to the
shared principles and company mission.
Strategic Planning: Vision & Mission
Principles & beliefs
Goals & Objectives
Strategies & Tactics
Benefits of strategic planning…
Motivating staff and volunteers. Thinking about the future is a stimulating and
energizing process. It can create a shared vision, with concrete ideas about how to
surmount obstacles in order to achieve that vision.
Building and planning team with a common vision. The strategic plan that emerges
from the process is generally more realistic and achievable, and working or
interdependent relationships within the organization are strengthened.
Confronting key issues and solving problems. Strategic planning sets in motion a
dynamic process that allows the organization to continually reassess, confront change,
and grow within an agreed-upon framework.
Defining roles and responsibilities. Measurable performance objectives are set
and the person(s) who is responsible for specific activities is identified.
Challenging the status quo. The process creates an open atmosphere, stressing the
interests of the whole organization. It often answers the question “How can we do
things better?” in a more systematic and thorough way.
Allowing busy managers and policy makers to concentrate exclusively on the
organization’s future for a short period of time, meaning that they will be able to focus
their expertise and insights on self-assessment and planning future directions.
Explaining or exposing your organization to others, particularly donors. A thoughtful
and clear strategic plan is often a good marketing tool and can encourage donor
support for the organization and its future directions.
Developing a renewed sense of organizational mission and consensus, so that
individual perspectives, roles, and problems are subsumed by an overall plan that
coordinates all staff members and volunteers so that agreed-upon goals and objectives
are achieved in a timely manner.
Effective Communication in SchoolEffective Communication in School
Effective: Successful in producing a desired result.
Communication: Process of transmission of an idea, or feeling from A to B for achieving desired results.
Communication is the key to achieving all of our goals
How do we spend our communication time?
Effective Communication Model
1: Sending Message 2: Hears & Responds
3: Clarifies 4:Confirms
Types of Communication
(a) Written Communication
2) Non-Verbal Communication
(a) Visual Communication
(b) Aural Communication
“If we were supposed to talk more than listen, we would have been given two mouths and one
Flow of Communication
Time Tabling TechniquesTime Tabling Techniques
What is a Time Table? A time table or schedule is an organized list, usually set out in tabular form, providing
information about a series of arranged events.
What is the Importance of Time Table?
Time table is a mirror that reflects the entire educational programme followed in the school. It also serves the
Eliminates Wastage of Time and Energy
Ensures due attention to every Subject or Activity
Develops Moral Values
Brings System in the School Life
Ensures Regular and Even Progress
It ensures equitable distribution of time to different subjects and activities
Develops Good Habits
Advance Planning by the Teachers and Students
Elements of a School Time Table Students, Teachers, Rooms(Location), Time Slots(Periods)
Types of Time Table
Ideally speaking there should be seven types of time-table:
(1) Master time indicating the entire programme of the school
(2) Class time-table.
(3) Teacher's time-table.
(4) Vacant period time-table.
(5) Games time-table
(6) Co curricular activities time-table.
(7) Home-work time-table.
Time - Use it, do not abuse it
To realize the value of ONE YEAR, ask a student who has failed a grade.
To realize the value of ONE MONTH, ask a mother who has given birth to a pre-mature baby.
To realize the value of ONE WEEK, ask an editor of a weekly newspaper.
To realize the value of ONE DAY, ask a daily wage laborer who has kids to feed.
To realize the value of ONE HOUR, ask the lovers who are waiting to meet.
To realize the value of ONE MINUTE, ask a person who has missed the train.
To realize the value of ONE SECOND, ask a person who has avoided an accident.
To realize the value of ONE MILLI-SECOND, ask the person who has won a silver medal in the Olympics.
The Characteristics of Time
We are to bear in mind that time has certain characteristics, among of which are the following:
Time passes quickly.
Time that passes can never return, nor can it be compensated for, for time is irretrievable.
Time is the most precious thing that man possesses.
Basics of Educational ManagementBasics of Educational Management
Introduction: In this first unit we introduce some theoretical perspectives on management
and examine a number of key management concepts and principles. We believe that a deeper
understanding of the nature of educational management will enable you to improve your practice
as a school manager.
Concepts of management in education
Management can mean different things to different people at different times, and a variety of
definitions have been offered. The term 'management' itself, derives from the verb 'to manage',
which can mean:
• to handle
• to control
• to make and keep submissive
• to organize
• to alter by manipulation
• to carry out for a purpose.
Management Cycle in School
Management as an art
As an art, management is about carrying out organizational functions and tasks through people.
This art involves the application of techniques in:
• human and public relations
• the delegation of an authority: assigning and sharing responsibilities and duties
• communication: including decision-making and problem-solving.
• managing change.
Management as a science
Management here is concerned with establishing a philosophy, laws, theories, principles, processes
and practices which can be applied in various situations, including schools.
Management as an organization
As an organization, management is about creating formal structures and an establishment based
on a mission (or goals), objectives, targets, functions and tasks. For example, social and welfare
organizations in government management can refer to education and health services, whilst public
security management services could refer to the police and military.
Management as a person
Managements may be seen as a person or a group of people. For example, a teacher could say
'The school management has changed the timetable in the middle of the term'. This could be
referring to you, as the head alone, or to all the senior staff, or it could refer to the members of
the board of governors or school committee. In schools with several promoted staff a 'senior
management team' might be formed in much the same way as a government has a cabinet of
Management as a discipline
In this sense, management is a field of study with various subjects and topics. Knowledge, skills
and attitudes in management can be acquired through learning, from experience and from
Management is a collection of processes, including such things as decision-making, problem-
solving and action-planning. These processes involve the management of resources including
human, material, financial and time. These processes are also known as the functions of
The functions of managers
We will briefly examine five main functions of managers, namely: planning, organizing, directing,
Strategic Time ManagementStrategic Time Management
Time Management is the art of arranging, organizing, scheduling, and Budgeting one’s
time for the purpose of generating more effective work and productivity.
Time- Use it, do not abuse it.
What is Time Management
Yesterday is History,
Tomorrow is Mystery
But Today is a Gift,
That’s Why They call it
Don’t try to please everyone , or you may end up pleasing no one.
Story of a father and son with a donkey.
Principles of Time Management
1. Determine what is urgent and important
We’re all faced with a lot of different tasks that fight for our attention and time each day. How do you decide what is
most worthy of your time?
The best approach is to prioritize those tasks that are both urgent and important. A task that is highly time sensitive
is urgent. Important tasks may not be time sensitive, but they are valuable and influential in the long run. Stephen
Covey’s time management grid can be extremely helpful for
seeing what tasks should be prioritized. A common mistake is to get bogged down with things that are urgent, but
not necessarily important. By using the grid you can be sure that you’re focusing on things that will have a real
2. Don’t over commit
If you’re someone that tends to say “yes” to every request for your time, you may find that all of these
commitments prevent you from making effective use of your time. Make an effort to only commit to things that you
can realistically accomplish with the time that you have available. You’ll also want to be sure that committing to
something won’t prevent you from being able to do other things that are important to you.
3. Have a plan for your time
Each of us is different and not everyone works in the same way. I prefer to have a detailed to-do list that keeps me
on task for each day and each week. Someone else may feel overwhelmed by a list of things to check off each day.
Regardless of your approach or preferences, you need to have some method of planning your time. Not having a
plan leads to a less efficient use of your time as you’ll wind up getting off task or working on things that really aren’t
important. Find a system of planning that works for you and use it in your daily routine.
4. Allow time for the unexpected
It never fails that something unexpected will come up and demand your time and attention. No matter how well you
plan your time, things are bound to come up — so make sure that you leave some time in your daily schedule.
When I’m creating my to-do list for any given day, I tend to assign myself tasks that I anticipate will take about
75% of my time for the day. That leaves another 25% for tasks that take longer than anticipated or for unexpected
things or emergencies that need to be addressed. Avoid the temptation to plan your time so full that you won’t be
able to deal with important issues that arise.
5. Handle things once
Rather than dealing with something several different times before completing a task, make an effort to handle it
only once. Email is a great example here. If you read through an email, make an effort to respond and take care of
the issue at one time. I’ve found myself at times reading through emails and then
deciding I’ll get back to it later. When I do get back to it, I have to read the email again and it winds up taking more
time. Multiply that by several times throughout the day and it adds up. Whenever possible, handle it once and be
6. Create realistic deadlines
You may have deadlines for your work that are set by a boss or a client, but it’s also important to set deadlines of
your own. If you do have deadlines from bosses or clients, it can be helpful to break up the project into smaller
chunks and set deadlines to keep yourself on track. If you don’t have anyone giving you deadlines for your work,
try setting your own deadlines. In addition to simply having deadlines, it’s also important that these deadlines
are realistic and will give you enough time to do your best work. If your boss or client is pushing for a deadline
that isn’t realistic, explain why you need more time and the possible consequences of the project being rushed,
and suggest a more realistic deadline.
7. Set goals for yourself and your time
Setting goals is an important part of achieving maximum efficiency. Your goals can include things that you want to
accomplish in a particular day, week, month, or year. Goals can be used with major accomplishments or smaller
tasks that are important to you. Whenever you’re setting goals, it’s best to set a date or deadline for achieving
8. Develop routines
Habits and routines can be quite powerful. When used effectively, routines can help you to get more done and to
make better use of your time. I use routines to take care of several small tasks that I need to do each day.
First thing in the morning, I go through a routine that includes checking email and responding to messages
received overnight, a few minutes of networking via social media, moderating comments on my blogs, publishing
new content that has already been written and prepped, and a few other small tasks.
The result of my routine is that I can get a lot of small tasks off my daily to-do list in a small amount of time right
at the beginning of the day. After that, I can have the most productive part of my day for essential tasks
that require more of my time and concentration.
9. Focus on one thing at a time
Multitasking is overrated. Sure, in theory it would be awesome to be able to do several different things at once,
but the problem is that you won’t be able to do your best work when multitasking. If you focus on one thing at a
time you can move through tasks quicker and the quality of your work will be better.
Multitasking can lead to a lot of mistakes that you have to go back and correct later, which is wasted time.
10. Eliminate or minimize distractions
Distractions are all around us. If you’re working at home you may have distractions like kids, other family
members, house guests, television, phone calls, and all kinds of personal responsibilities and tasks.
If you work in an office you’ll probably have plenty of distractions from co-workers. While it’s impossible to totally
eliminate distractions, you can improve your situation by minimizing them or avoiding them whenever possible.
For those who work at home, you can set up a dedicated office space with a door that you can close.
In an office, you may want to go in to work early to get some distraction-free time before co-workers arrive,
or maybe shift your lunch time so that you can get some peaceful time while most of your co-workers are away
at lunch. The key is to recognize the most significant distractions that are hurting your productivity, and then you
can work towards solutions that will minimize their impact.
11. Outsource tasks or delegate when possible
Part of being efficient with your time involves deciding what tasks require your own attention. There may be
things that could be done by someone else. Outsourcing work is a great option for freelancers and small business
owners. Delegating responsibilities may be an option if you’re in management or if you’re part of a team.
You can typically find qualified workers with very affordable rates, which allows you to dedicate your own time to
tasks that may be more important to you.
12. Leave time for fun and play
While the purpose of time management is to use your time wisely and to improve efficiency, it’s also important
that you don’t burn yourself out by working too much or too hard. Be sure to leave some time in your schedule
to do things with friends and family, or even on your own. Getting time away from work is essential for dealing
with stress, for refreshing your energy, and for living a balanced life.
Making efficient use of your time is important regardless of what type of job or career you have.
If you can make even small improvements in your own time management, you’ll see noticeable results in terms
of how much you can get done, the quality of your work, and your stress levels.
What approach do you take in your in time management? Are there things that work really well for you, or things
that don’t work for you? Feel free to share from your experience in the comments.
In any list of tasks, 80% of the Importance lies in 20% of the list.
Working with Parents & CommunityWorking with Parents & Community
Parents, families, educators and communities—there’s no better partnership to assure
that all students pre-K- to high school—have the support and resources they need to
succeed in school and in life.
How do parents, families, and communities get involved? Parent, family, and community
involvement means different things to different people. A research-based describes six types of
involvement— parenting, communicating, volunteering, learning at home, decision making, and
collaborating with the community—that offer a broad range of school, family, and community
activities that can engage all parties and help meet student needs. Successful school-parent
community partnerships are not stand-alone projects or add-on programs but are well integrated
with the school’s overall mission and goals. Research and fieldwork show that parent-school-
partnerships improve schools, strengthen families, build community support, and increase student
achievement and success.
Parents do not have enough time
Parents feel they have nothing to contribute
Parents don't understand; don't know the system; they don't know how to be involved
Parents don't feel welcome at school
Lack of child care
Parents are not available during the time school functions are scheduled
Parents feel intimidated
Language and cultural differences
Lack of transportation
Child Health & SafetyChild Health & Safety
Quality Area: The Quality Area Children’s health and safety focuses on supporting and promoting
children’s health and safety while attending education and care services.
Risk factors that contribute to playground safety
Quality Area : Standards and elements
Element 1.1 Each child’s health needs are supported.
Element 1.2 Each child’s comfort is provided for and there are appropriate
opportunities to meet each child’s need for sleep, rest and relaxation.
Element 1.3 Effective hygiene practices are promoted and implemented.
Element 1.4 Steps are taken to control the spread of infectious diseases and
to manage injuries and illness, in accordance with recognized guidelines.
Healthy eating is promoted and food and drinks provided by the service are
nutritious and appropriate for each child.
Physical activity is promoted through planned and spontaneous experiences
and is appropriate for each child.
Each child is
Children are adequately supervised at all times.
Every reasonable precaution is taken to protect children from harm and any
hazard likely to cause injury.
Plans to effectively manage incidents and emergencies are developed in
consultation with relevant authorities, practiced and implemented.
Educators, coordinators and staff members are aware of their roles and
responsibilities to respond to every child at risk of abuse or neglect.
School/Office ManagementSchool/Office Management
Effective utilization of human & material resources to achieve the organizational goals.
School management deals with HRM, Curriculum, Communication, Resources & Finance,
Discipline, Record keeping and Guideline etc.
OFFICE: is a term used by many to refer to the place where information
MANAGEMENT: is the art or skills used by those who blend together the six M
Process of Management
Domains of Office Management 1: Self Management
2: Team Management
Managing School CurriculumManaging School Curriculum
School BudgetingSchool Budgeting
Budget is a numerical plan for allocating money to activities for a specific period of time.
Factors of Financial Management
Planning (Answers of W types questions. What, Who, When ,………)
Organizing (Assembling required resources to attain organizational objectives.)
Staffing (The selection and training of individuals for specific job functions, and charging them with
the associated responsibilities.)
Developing (Organized activity aimed at imparting information or instructions to improve the recipient’s
performance to attain a required level of knowledge or skills.)
Reporting (A document containing information organized in a narrative, graphic, or tabular form, prepared
on ad hoc, periodic, recurring, regular, or as required basis.)
Budgeting (Process of expressing quantified resource requirements (amount of capital, amount of material,
number of people) into time-phased goals and milestones.)
Staff AppraisalStaff Appraisal
Definition: The staff appraisal is a periodical advisory and support discussion between staff members and
management, which also reaches agreements about objectives and the achievement of targets, which are then
incorporated in target agreements.
Types of Appraisal: Performance appraisal system allows the management categorize employees into
performers and non-performers. It is primarily done to estimate the employees’ worth. Going back to the types,
there are different variations of performance appraisal systems. Let us list them down and see a bit of what they are:
Behavioral checklist: Behavioral checklist has a list of criteria that an employee should workup to be a diligent worker.
The behaviors differ according to the type of job been assessed. This method is considered favorable as the evaluation
is done on the basis of individual employee performance without comparisons.
360 degree appraisal: 360 degree appraisal involves feedback of the manager, supervisor, team members and any
direct reports. In this method of appraisal, employees complete profile has to be collected and assessed. In addition
to evaluating the employees work performance and technical skill set, an appraiser collects an in-depth feedback of
Management by objective: This is an objective type of evaluation which falls under modern approach of performance
appraisal. In MBO method of performance appraisal, manager and the employee agree upon specific and obtainable goals
with a set deadline. With this method, the appraiser can define success and failure easily.
Psychological appraisals: This appraisal method evaluates the employees intellect, emotional stability, analytical skills
and other psychological traits. This method makes it easy for the manager in placing the employees in appropriate teams.
Model 1: Checking for the sake of Punishment and reward.
Model 2: Checking for the sake of Improvement and Development.
Read and understand National Professional Standards for Teachers in Pakistan (Policy Document)
Elements: more than 200
E E E E
School Marketing PlanSchool Marketing Plan
Pillars of Marketing Product, Price, Promotion, Placement
Marketing is Transaction or exchange.
Ten Social Classes
Upper Upper, Middle Upper, Lower Upper
Upper Middle, Middle Middle, Lower Middle
Upper Lower Middle Lower, Lower Lower,
is bellow the poverty line.
Positive /Negative words of mouth is the real advertisement of your school.
Character Building in SchoolCharacter Building in School
Character Education is a planned, comprehensive and systematic approach for teaching care,
fairness, self-respect, responsibility, trustworthiness and citizenship.
People of good character are admired and well respected in life. You can be a
person of good character, too, by possessing six important traits. We call these
traits the six pillars of character. They are trustworthiness, respect,
Honesty, responsibility, fairness, caring and citizenship.
Be honest - don’t lie, steal or
Always keep your promises.
Be courageous enough to do what is
right even though it may be
Be courteous and polite; don't insult
people, make fun of them, or call
Listen to what other people have to
Conduct yourself with dignity and
Treat people with kindness and
Be sensitive to people's feelings; never
be mean or hurtful.
Always remember - we become caring
people by doing caring things!
Do your share to make your school,
your community and the world a better
Participate in community activities and
be a good neighbor.
Respect family values and follow the
rules of your school and society.
Create and maintain a safe living
Be reliable and dependable; when you
agree to do something, do it.
Think before you act and imagine the
Play by the rules, and don’t be a
Think about how your actions will
Don't play favorites.