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• Know the roots of fire safety- enjoy the fruits of duty.• Accident brings tears, fire safety brings cheers.• Fires that are small, soon will be tall!• Get out quick, before the smoke gets thick!• Never hide, stay outside!• Crawl down low, when it’s time to go!• Never hide, stay outside!• Fire defence is a self defence.• Fire defence is a self defence. pnrao 3
pnrao Fire at Sara-Sahara and Manish markets 4 9 August 2012 in Mumbai
FIRE HAZARD• A fire hazard is a situation in which there is a greater than normal risk of harm to people or property .• Fire hazards are caused due to materials which catch fire easily and produce toxic fumes when heated or objects which block fire exits, such as blocked cooling vents, or overloaded electric systems and threat hazard to people.• Fire due to equipment, LPG, oxy acetylene, oxygen, hydrogen and other inflammable cylinders’ explosions.• Burst of boilers or containers filled with molten metal.• Fire can spread rapidly in insufficiently protected fuel pnrao 5
CURRENT STATUS AND TRENDS OF FIRE INCIDENTS:• Irregularities in building codes and structures.• Extent of damage as per intensity of disaster and in over crowded localities and slums of low lying areas.• The current trend of the metro cities show an increasing number of fire incidents in residential buildings, markets, educational institutions, theaters, railway stations, bus stands, function halls, hotels, hospitals, circus, industries and slums closer to rivers pnrao sea coasts. and 6
Nuclear power plant Japan 11 Mar 2011pnrao pnrao pnrao 7
CLASSIFICATION OF FIRESFire incidents can be classified according to the material that causes fire and Intensity of fire.1. Class A Fires:• Fires involving solid materials like wood, rags, paper, plastic, coal etc, normally with carbon compounds in which combustion generally occurs with the formation of glowing embers. These types of fires are most common.2. Class B Fires:• Fires involving flammable liquids or liquefiable solids. i.e. fires occurring in vapor-air mixture over the surface of flammable liquids, such as gasoline, oils, paints, thinners, ghee, fats, petroleum products etc. pnrao 8
3. Class C Fires:• Fires involving liquefiable gases like . Propane, Butane, Methyl isocyanides, LPG, H2, Acetylene etc.4. Class D Fires :• Fires that occur in combustible metals such as magnesium, titanium, sodium etc.• These burning metals react with water and water containing agent to produce heat and fire. Electric fires are classified as per type of fire. pnrao 9
Safety measures• Sand is suitable for inflammable liquids and combustible metal fires. (Class B and Class D type fires)• Water suitable only for general fires ( Class A fires)• Hydrants at suitable locations along with water jets can ideally be used for.• Powder filled Fire extinguishers can be used for electric fires. Fire Extinguishers types:• Foam filled for fires other than electric and liquids.• Powder filled for inflammable liquids and combustible metal fires.• Carbon di oxide (CO2) filled for electric fires.• Special type cylinders forpnrao and oils.(newly introduced) fats 10
Colour code bandClasses A & B fires. Foam spray extinguishers arenot recommended for fires involving electricityFor paper, wood, plastic, liquids as paraffin, petrol, oiletc. Colour code band Dry powder fire extinguisher For Electric and liquid flowers Solids such as paper, wood, plastic, In flammable liquids such as paraffin, petrol, oil etc. FLAMMABLE GASES such as propane, butane, methane etc. Special powders for alluminium, magnesium, titanium etc. pnrao 12 when used indoors, powder can obscure vision
Colour code bandCarbon Dioxide (CO2) FireExtinguishersSuitable for the following types of fires:Flammable liquidsElectrically energised equipments. pnrao 13
I NDUST RI AL DI SAST ERMA N A G E ME N T F I RE HAZ ARDS pnrao 15
Types of Industrial DisastersEnergy industry disasters Manufacturing industry disastersMining industry disasters Food industry disasters pnrao 16
Present scenarioMost of the industries are facing with various problems as :• Primarily industries have been located beyond city dwelling but during course of time human migration surrounded industries with hutments and even permanent structured dwellings creating rows of colonies posing threats to human population and live stock. Relocation steps are in progress.• Some industries have no environmental and other safety clearances but they are still functioning.• Multiple industry location concept should ensure segregation of hazard prone and vulnerable industries and be located aloof from human habitation. pnrao 17
Prevention and Preparedness• Provision of personal identification system, bio matric etc. at main gate.• Road clearance for Ambulance, fire brigade and other relief.• Adequate working space in the industrial units.• Strong store rooms for storing inflammable solids or liquids.• Equipment control room and safety alarming system.• PA system connecting all locations.• Fire extinguishers, water jets, water hydrants and hose at suitable places.• CCTV/GPS for surveillance. Inter communication system with all rooms. Efficient communication system be developed.• Dump yards with separate type of waste dumped.(Waste management) pnrao 19• Up dated Disaster management plan with maps.
• The Incident Command System (ICS) is a part of Disaster management system used to organize emergency response and was designed to offer a scalable response to incidents of any magnitude.• The system is designed to grow and shrink along with the incident, allowing more resources to be smoothly added into the system when required, and also the smooth release of resources when no longer needed• ICS is interdisciplinary and organizationally flexible to meet the following management challenges:• Meet the needs of incidents of any kind or size.• Allow personnel from a variety of agencies to mold rapidly into a common management structure.• Provide logistical and administrative support to operational staff.• cost effective by avoiding duplication of efforts. pnrao 20
Incident Action Plan ( IAP)• The consolidated Incident Action Plan ( IAP) is a very important component of the Incident Command System which reduces freelancing and ensures a coordinated response.• Location of hospitals with telephone numbers and number of beds available , X-Ray facilities and operation facilities, Position and capacities of heavy cranes , Helicopter availabilities, Suitable schools/colleges/community centers to rehabilitee affected persons on immediate basis , duties and responsibilities should clearly be incorporated through Disaster Management plans. pnrao 21
Rescue strategy• Protect your customers, infra structure, management records and systems against potential threats. Electronic date vaulting, monitoring and interfacing data.• Organise a system to indicate levels of alert to alert customers and staff in time and it will also help expiate positive help as per requirement from all agencies .• Minimize disruption and operational losses.• Manage the recovery operation in an organized and effective manner with cooperation of government, non government agencies and other stake holders. System integration with all agencies specially essential service agencies.• Restore and build back confidence of customers, investors, and stakeholders to maintain brand image and reputation of the organisation. pnrao 22• Fully observe survival procedures.
RescueEvent management. Functioning :• Control room coordinating external and internal agencies.• Round the clock assistance system in well identified booth.• PA system to alert people of the event.• Display of help line numbers and essential services numbers at suitable places for quick requisition of help.• Help from NGOs, NSS, NCC, Scouts, guides, NYC can be requisitioned• Communication with STD facility for contacting relatives of victims• Identification of exit doors , emergency doors.• Road clearance for emergency services. pnrao 23• .
• Special attention to ladies, children and elders.• Adequate water and food arrangements by keeping stock lasting for more than three days.• Collecting addresses and phone numbers of victims.• First aid to injured.• Hospitalization of seriously injured.• Hospital wise list of injured and information to media.• Detailed casuality list display at suitable place and in media.• Securing dead.• Media management: authentic information should be given to media by responsible and nominated official only. pnrao 24
Constraints in rescue operationsAs per various findings of enquiry reports/recomondations andresearch aftermath disaster all over the world it was found thatthere are many constraints in rescue operations:• Delay in reaching rescue material by the agencies is due to procedural lapses like approval by higher management, delay in inspection, account constraints etc.• Non procurement of items well in advance.• Lack of independence in sending the material to site of disaster, even though material is ready but awaiting for orders.• Delay due to ‘who to do first?’ tendency by Non government agencies.• Multiple agencies acting separately.• Unwanted and non user-friendly rescue material reaching the site of disaster. pnrao 25
MITIGATION• Hazard mapping• Hazard risk and vulnerability analysis• Land use planning. Relocation of damaged unit to safer location.• Community participation programs.• Community preparedness with training.• Internal and external functioning surveillance.• Holistic approach through technical up gradation.• Waste water management and rain water harvesting for storing water in sumps for emergency usage.• GIS,GPS• Procurement of failsafe equipments only. pnrao 26
• Power supply and communication normally fails during fire. Standby power supply as generators, invertors, solar panels can be used.• Water sump with hose and hydrants for instant use on fire.• Wireless or microwave communication can be used• Sufficient number of walkie talkies.• Mobile phone accessibility through advanced technology.• Use Safety slogans, posters, banners, stickers, glow signs boards, seminars etc. freely to develop awareness in staff.• HRD: resourceful utilisation of human element through knowledge sharing and welfare programs.• Display of Disaster management plans, readily available to employees, management and rescue teams. pnrao 27
OTHER MITIGATION MEASURES• Implementation of committees reports with financial implications of reports.• Strengthening surveillance by upgrading technology.• Judicious enquiry system for disasters with recommendations.• Implementation of learning from past strategies.• Safety awareness programs for employees and officers.• Replacement of old electric wiring with standard concealed wiring.• Auto response to faults with technically upgraded systems.• Adequate fire safety equipments as all types of fire extinguishers, smoke detectors and fire detectors with alarms.• Oxygen masks to safeguard from smoke.• Wet cloth or wet tissue paper can absorb smoke to some extent pnrao 28 if put on nose.
Geospatial Information System a tool for Disaster Management• GIS can be used as an important methodological tool for Disaster management planning and.• Natural disasters can not all together be eliminated but impact can be reduced by implementing disaster management plans to reduce risk.• It provides resilence to natural disasters and help in post disaster reduction• It is an effective forecasting assessing ,monitoring and communication system .• Spatial information available can be disseminated to all concerned Disaster management officials making rescue operations easily pnrao quickly operative. and 29
• It can be used as a training tool for disaster management cycle .• It is a reliable data provider for analyzing and studying vulnerable locations and as a pre warning system.• GIS data can effectively be used for monitoring, assessing and mitigation.• Its high resolution data can easily analyse natural hazards speedily with cost effectiveness.• Pattern and forthcoming impact of disasters can be easily visualized as pre warning system.• It can clearly identify vulnerable locations and help in mitigation and preparedness well in advance. pnrao 30
Union Carbide gas leak Industrial Disaster Bhopal 1984 pnrao 31
R. Tyagarajan expert scientist report:• There were cracks in the leaked tank and about 30% more of liquefied MIC than permitted was stored.• Another tank was found with 35 ton of MIC with similar risk was neutralised deploying helicopter with water jets and area was covered to arrest any leakage of gas or escape for which production plant was started to produce pesticide.• Clogged pipes were with rusted joints• It was a disaster of low possibility with high consequence.• Anderson, the than CEO claimed that it was a sabotage.• Nitrogen layer was protective layer on top of MIC stored.• Cooling systems failed. pnrao 32
Michel Wright investigator from USA investigation :• Vent gas scrubber unit was not sufficient to neutralise Leaked MIC• Pressure gauzes were faulty• No refrigeration system was available• Leakage caused due to cracks in the MIC storage tank• Water canons to neutralise MIC was not suffecient• Negligence on part of management was found.• The plant ought to have been closed well in advance to avert disaster pnrao 33
individual safety precautions If you are safe, you can protect your organisation.• Wear your appropriate personal safety dress prescribed along with other safety gadgets like gas mask, glows, gumboots and other safety gadgets as prescribed.• Observe all safety rules and sign boards displayed.• Any fault or dangerous condition of machinery must immediately be reported in writing to the superiors.• All Switches must be kept off when not in use. For prolong non usage of the systems the power chords must be removed.• Do not shut down or restart machinery without proper notification and acknowledgement.• Undertake repairs only after obtaining permission, acknowledgement and by putting danger and lockout boards. pnrao 34• Do not remove any danger board put on machinery maintained
• Notice for power shut down and restoration of power must be done by giving due notification and acknowledgement.• Oiling, greasing and maintenance of machinery must be down after due shut down process.• Maintance works including electric must be done by qualified persons only.• Inflammable liquids must not be kept un attended in workplace rather they should be stored in well protected strong rooms.• Check for cracks and corrosion in boilers, furnaces and pipelines.Immediate repairs or replacements can save for disasters.• System check of filter appliances and accessories must be done regularly done.• Refregeration and cooling systems must be frequently pnrao 35 checked.
• Check and arrest leakages of pipelines and joints.• Use helmets where overhead movement of machinery or parts take place and avoid staying bellow them unless required to do so and be with full protection.• Do not use blowers for dusting your clothes.• Keep premises clean of obstructions, litter and inflammables• Take guidance of safety related supervisor/officer pnrao 36
AcknowledgementSources for further details• http://www.mfs-fire extinguishers.co.uk/types.htm• http://www.london-fire.gov.uk/celebratingsafely.asp• http://www.ndtv.com/article/cities/major-fire-in-sahara-market-in- mumbai-153112• http://www.nidm.gov.in• http://www.iapa• http://www.safetyrisk.com.au/safety-slogans/fire-safety-slogans/• http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_are_ten_facts_about_cyclones#ixzz1 G7Fl7W3R• Guidance notes on fire safety at workplaces Hong Kong• Disaster Management Future Challenges and Opportunities by Jagbir sing. I.K. International. New Delhi.• Prevalent safety rules must always be referred to. pnrao 38
Thank you P.N.Rao B.Sc.; M.A (Eco.); DRTM; DTEM Life associate(244) IRT New Delhi Safety course RSC Vadodara Safety course IRITM Lucknow STM(Safety) Gaz. Retired. pnrao 39