2. CONCEPTS OF CONTROL
The term “disease control” describes (ongoing)
operations aimed at reducing:
I. The incidence of disease.
II. The duration of disease, and consequently the risk
III. The effects of infection, including both the
physical and psychosocial complications; and
IV. The financial burden to the community.
3. DISEASE ELIMINATION:
♣ “Regional elimination”
♣ Describes interruption of transmission of disease.
Ex: elimination of measles, polio.
4. DISEASE ERADICATION
Eradication literally means to “tear out by roots”.
It implies termination of all transmission of infection
by extermination of the infectious agent.
As the name implies, eradication is an absolute
process, and not a relative goal.
5. ♣ The word eradication is reserved to cessation of
infection and disease.
♣ Smallpox, Polio, measles
♣ Disappointment in the eradication programmes
mounted against malaria, yaws, plague, kala-azar and
6. MONITORING AND
“The performance and analysis of routine
measurements aimed at detecting change in the
environment or health status of population".
“The continuous oversight of activities to ensure
that they are proceeding according to plan.
7. II SURVEILLANCE:
“The continuous scrutiny of the factors that determine
the occurrence and distribution of disease and other
conditions of Ill-health”
a. To provide information about new and changing
trends in the health status of a population, e.g.,
morbidity, mortality, nutritional status or other
indicators and environmental hazards, health practices
and other factors that may affect health.
8. b) To provide feed-back which may be expected to
modify the policy and the system itself and lead to
redefinition of objectives, and
c) Provide timely warning of public health disasters so
that interventions can be mobilized.
9. Sentinel surveillance:
A method for identifying the missing cases and thereby
supplementing the notified cases is required.
Reporting biases are minimized and feed-back of
information to the providers is simplified.
10. Evaluation of control
Evaluation is the process by which results are
compared with the intended objectives, or
more simply the assessment of how well a
programme is performing.
12. “Intervention” can be defined as any attempt to
intervene or interrupt the usual sequence in
the development of disease in man.
1. Health promotion
2. Specific protection
3. Early diagnosis and treatment
4. Disability limitation
13. 1. Health promotion:
Health promotion is “the process of enabling people to
increase control over, and to improve health.”
i health education
ii environmental modifications
iii nutritional interventions
iv lifestyle and behavioral changes
14. (i) Health education:
“the extension to all people of the benefits of
medical, psychological and related knowledge is
essential to the fullest attainment of health.
♦ Safe water.
♦ Sanitary latrines.
♦ Improvement of housing.
(iii) Nutritional interventions:
(iv) Lifestyle and behavioral
15. 2. Specific protection:
The following are some of the currently available
interventions aimed at specific protection.
♦ use of specific nutrients
♦ protection against occupational hazards
16. ♦ protection against accidents
♦ Protection from carcinogens
♦ of allergens
♦ the control of specific hazards in the general
17. Health Protection:
Health protection is defined as "The provision of
conditions or normal mental and physical functioning of
the human being individually and in the group. It
includes the promotion of health, the prevention of
sickness and curative and restorative medicine in all its
18. Early diagnosis and
“The detection of disturbances of Homoeostatic and
compensatory mechanism while biochemical,
morphological, and functional changes are still
not economic but reduces high morbidity and
19. Mass Treatment:
The rationale for a mass treatment programme is the
existence of at least 4-5 cases of latent infection for
each clinical case of active disease in the community.
20. 4. Disability limitation:
When a patient reports late in the pathogenesis phase,
the mode of intervention is disability limitation.
The objective of this intervention is to prevent or halt
the transition of the disease process from impairment
22. (i) Impairment:
“any loss or abnormality of psychological, physiological
or anatomical structure or function.
This inability to carry out certain activities is termed
“any restriction or lack if ability to perform an activity
in the manner or within the range considered normal
for a human being”.
23. (iii) Handicap:
“a disadvantage for given individual, resulting from
an impairment or a disability, that limits or
prevents the fulfillment of a role that is normal
(depending on age, sex, and social and cultural
factors) for that individual”.
Accident ………… Disease (or disorder)
Loss of foot……… Impairment (extrinsic or
Cannot walk……… Disability (objectified)
Unemployed ……… Handicap (socialized)
24. Disability prevention:
(a) Reducing the occurrence if impairment, viz.
immunization against polio (primary prevention);
(b) Disability limitation by appropriate treatment
(c) Preventing the transition of disability into handicap
25. 5. Rehabilitation:
“The combined and coordinated use of medical, social,
educational and vocational measures for training and
retraining the individual to the highest possible level of
a) Medical rehabilitation – restoration of function
26. b) Vocational rehabilitation – restoration of the
capacity to earn a livelihood.
c) Social rehabilitation – restoration of family and
d) Psychological rehabilitation – restoration of
personal dignity and confidence.