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Managing change theories

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Managing change theories

  1. 1. Managing Change - Theories David Stonehouse Senior Lecturer Tel: 01695 657003 E-mail: stonehod@edgehill.ac.uk the University of choice
  2. 2. Change Theories ■ Leaders & Change ■ Resistance to Agents Change ■ Planned Change ■ Comfort Zone ■ Emergent ■ Project Approach Management ■ Kurt Lewin the University of choice
  3. 3. Change is the constant & stability the exception. “A round man cannot be expected to fit into a square hole right away. He must have time to modify his shape.” Mark Twain the University of choice
  4. 4. “Change is not the same as transition. Change is situational: the new site, the new structure, the new team, the new role , the new procedure. Transition is the psychological process people go through to come to terms with the new situation. Remember that change is external and transition is internal.” William Bridges the University of choice
  5. 5. Leaders in Change. “It is the leader who is the innovator, who is proactive and a motivator. He/she has a vision of how things could be and the drive and commitment to bring that vision to fulfilment” (Stonehouse, 2011:510). “managers cope with the complexities and results of change while leaders inspire and initiate change” (Smith and Langston,1999:6) the University of choice
  6. 6. Change Agents Often the person given the job of implementing and leading the change is called the change agent (Marquis and Huston, 2009). the University of choice
  7. 7. Planned Change ■ Cyclical process involving diagnosis, action & evaluation, and further action & evaluation ■ Triggered by the need to respond to new challenges or opportunities presented by the external environment, or in anticipation of the need to cope with potential future problems. ■ An intentional attempt to improve the University of choice
  8. 8. The Emergent Approach ■ Change is seen as a continuous process ■ Stresses the developing & unpredictable nature of change ■ Environment is increasingly dynamic & uncertain ■ Change as a period of organisational transition characterised by disruption, confusion & unforeseen events that emerge over long time- frames. ■ No universal rules with regard to leading change the University of choice
  9. 9. ‘Unfreezing, Moving & Refreezing.’ – Kurt Lewin Unfreezing Moving •The nature of the change •Defining problems needed •Identifying solutions •The methods planned to •Implementing solutions achieve the change. •The needs of those affected Refreezing •The ways that progress will •Stabilising the situation be planned & Monitored. •Building & rebuilding relationships •Consolidating the systems the University of choice
  10. 10. Forcefield Analysis – Lewin (1947) Driving forces S Restraining forces T for change A for equilibrium T U S Q U O For effective organisational change to take place the status quo has to change: • Identify forces for and against • Identify key forces – list actions for reducing restraining forces and maximising driving forces the University of choice
  11. 11. Why Resistance? “Because change disrupts the homeostasis or balance of the group, resistance should always be expected” (Marquis and Huston, 2009:176). the University of choice
  12. 12. Key reasons for resisting change Level of See problem and solution emotional/political but resist as feel threatened involvement by the solution See problem and solution but resist as do not feel involved in finding the solution See the problem but don’t agree with the solution See the problem but not the solution Don’t see the problem Don’t care Level of understanding the University of choice
  13. 13. Resistance Can Be ■ Overt/Immediate ■ Covert/Implicit The aim is for the resistance to be overt, so that it is out in the open and can be dealt with. the University of choice
  14. 14. Individual Resistance To Change ■ Do not recognise the need to change. ■ ‘If it isn’t broke, don’t fix it!’ ■ Other things are the priority. - Patients/staff needs - do not have the time. Kantor (2009:181) states that “the effort it takes to manage things under routine circumstances needs to be multiplied when things are changing.” the University of choice
  15. 15. Individual Resistance To Change ■ Embarrassment about admitting that what they are doing could be improved. As the ‘Code of Conduct for Assistant / Associate Practitioners and Healthcare Support Workers – Working to Standards’ (Assistant Practitioners Coordinator Network, 2011), states as support workers you must improve the quality of your care through updating your skills, knowledge and experience. If we continue to try and hold onto our old way of working we find ourselves trying to defend our past practices while fighting against the change (Kanter, 2009). the University of choice
  16. 16. Individual Resistance To Change ■ Lacking trust in a person or organisation. ■ Anticipating a lack of resources. - Time - Equipment - Staff - Training - Support the University of choice
  17. 17. Organisational Resistance To Change ■ Culture – traditions, customs, beliefs, unwritten rules. “If an organisations culture is one which is not open to change and development then it will be resistant” (Stonehouse, 2013: ). May need a culture change. Change of top management may be required before a change in culture can take place. the University of choice
  18. 18. Organisational Resistance To Change ■ Maintaining Stability – change is seen as being risky, a time of uncertainty. Mullins (2010:757) states “the more mechanistic or bureaucratic the structure, the less likely it is that the organisation will be responsive to change.” the University of choice
  19. 19. Organisational Resistance To Change ■ Threats to power or influence. “the main resistance may well come from middle and, especially, senior managers who see their status, power and personal beliefs challenged” (Burnes, 2000:171) the University of choice
  20. 20. Organisational Resistance To Change ■ Investment in resources, time and personnel. Resources need to be invested in the short term to get rewards in the long term. Costs need to be acceptable to the organisation. the University of choice
  21. 21. Organisational Resistance To Change ■ Existing legal contracts or agreements. May need to wait until these can be re-negotiated before a change can take place. the University of choice
  22. 22. The Change Agent “The role of the change agent is to recognise the causes of resistance ad to address each one. If this is not done, then the change will be much harder to implement successfully and may not even succeed at all” (Stonehouse, 2012:256). the University of choice
  23. 23. Rosabeth Moss Kanter Interesting Solutions to Resistance to Change ■ Wait ■ Reduce the stakes ■ Wear them down ■ Warn them off ■ Appeal to a higher ■ Remember that only authority afterwards does an ■ Invite them in innovation look like ■ Send emissaries the right thing to have ■ Display support done all along the University of choice
  24. 24. Ways to Overcome resistance! ■ Communication. ■ Open, honest, with no secrets or surprises ■ Involve everyone, which develops ownership “The More that staff are actively involved in reaching towards an agreed solution, the more constructive their response is likely to be” (Aubrey, 2011:140). ■ Share the vision. the University of choice
  25. 25. Resistance to Change a Positive!! ■ Should be seen positively. ■ Resistance strengthens the change outcome, making it more robust and error free. ■ Often the fault is not with the recipients of change, but with the Change Agent. the University of choice
  26. 26. Resistance to Change a Positive!! “Resistance is not simply a force to overcome; it indicates a different viewpoint that should be listened to and explored” (Newton, 2009:257). the University of choice
  27. 27. PANIC ZONE DISCOMFORT COMFORT ZONE ZONE Comfort Zone – people stay here, don’t change, don’t learn Discomfort Zone – people uncertain, most likely to change, most likely to learn Panic Zone – people freeze, will not change, will not learn
  28. 28. What Is A Project ■ “A unique set of co-ordinated activities, with definite starting and finishing points, undertaken to meet specific objectives within defined schedule, cost and performance parameters.” the University of choice
  29. 29. What Is A Project ■ Has a start and finish time ■ Creates something new or improves something already there ■ Performed by people and teams ■ Has resource issues ■ Planned and controlled the University of choice
  30. 30. What Is A Project ■ “A temporary endeavour undertaken to create a unique product service or result.” - Temporary - Unique the University of choice
  31. 31. What Is NOT A Project ■ Your day to day activities. ■ What is routine. the University of choice
  32. 32. Project Teams For people who are working together on a common task or project. Come together for a specified time. - Used within the military, aeronautics and space agencies. the University of choice
  33. 33. A Successful Project is ■ Completed on Time. ■ Within Budget. ■ Quality ■ Satisfaction of Stakeholders & Organisation. ■ Satisfaction of the Project Team Members. the University of choice
  34. 34. A Project Should Be SMART S = Specific M = Measurable A = Achievable or A = Agreed To R = Realistic or R = Realistic T = Time-based. the University of choice
  35. 35. The Five Phases of Project Management 1. Initiation 2. Planning 3. Executing 4. Monitoring 5. Closing the University of choice
  36. 36. References Assistant Practitioners Coordinator Network (2011) Code of Conduct for Assistant / Associate Practitioners and Healthcare Support Workers – Working to Standards. National Health Service North West, Manchester. Aubrey, C. (201) Leading And Managing I The Early Years. Second Edtiion. London: Sage. Burnes, B. (2000) Managing Change: A Strategic Approach To Organisational Dynamics. Third Edition. Essex: Pearson Education Ltd. Kanter, R.M. (2009) ‘Managing The Human Side Of Change.’ In: Price, D. (ed) The Principles And Practice Of Change. Hampshire: Palgrave MacMillan. Pp 175-183. Kanter, R.M; Stein and Jick (1992) The Challenge of Organizational Change. New York: Free Press. Marquis, B. L. & Huston, C. J. (2009) Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Nursing. Sixth Edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. the University of choice
  37. 37. References Mullins, L.J. (2010) Management and Organisational Behaviour. Ninth Edition. London: Financial Times Prentice Hall. Newton, R. (2009) The Practice And Theory Of Project Management: Creating Value Through Change. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan. Smith, A. & Langston, A. (1999) Managing Staff in Early Years Settings. London: Routledge. Stonehouse, D. (2011) ‘Management and Leadership For Support Workers.’ British Journal of Healthcare Assistants. October. Vol 05. No 10. Stonehouse, D. (2012) ‘Resistance To Change: The Human Dimension.’ British Journal of Healthcare Assistants. September. Vol 06. No 09 Stonehouse, D. (2013) the University of choice

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • Way of mapping out the forces at work in any situation which are keeping things as they are. It can be used to diagnose the current situation in a clear and systematic way which shows how the situation may be changed. Idea underlying the technique is that any situation which appears stable is in fact in a state of dynamic tension between the forces for change and the forces resisting change. In order to move the situation in the desired direction the main aim is to reduce or remove restraining or blocking forces. Identify forces for and against – people, resources, time, technology, politics List key forces for reducing restraining forces and maximising promoting forces.
  • Comfortable Loss of control or power Not their idea Don’t believe in it – ideological Fear Feel criticised Process – lack of involvement or consultation Too much change Magnitude – may not be able to imagine the change