social institutions and educational
institutions religious institutions.
how a baby grows up in a society and personality development
function of religion economic institutions functions of economic institutions
2. Social Institutions
Society has its various needs to be satisfied. People behave in the set customary patterns
which are controlled by instruments of social norms. This participation of people in various
customary ways to satisfy their needs develops social institutions.
According to another point of view, “a social institution is an interrelated set of norms.”
Defined by Bertrand: “institutions are systems of social relationship for meeting various
felt human needs.”
3. Family and Kinship
Definition: Horton and Hunt define family “as a kinship grouping which provides for
the rearing of children and for certain other human needs”.
Types of Family
1. By Size and Structure
i. Nuclear Family
ii. Extended Family
iii. Stem Family
2. By Marriage
4. 3. By Residence
4. By Authority
5. By Clan or Ancestry
5. Nuclear family: this family is based upon the marital relationship. It is mostly refered as
nuclear family. It means a married couple and their unmarried children living together is
called nuclear family. Husband and wife with children = nuclear family
Extended family: after marriage two or more siblings may live together with their parents.
Parents + their sons + son’s wives and their children living together.
Parents + their daughters + daughters’ husband and their children living together.
Stem family: only one child after marriage continues to live with his parents. His siblings
must leave the family after marry.
Parents + one child and + his spouse and his/her children.
Exogamy: the partner chosen from outside a defined group. Marriage out of kinsmen is
exogamy. Such marriage may be called as out of Biradri.
Endogamy: in this marriage, the partners belong to the same group. Both of them having
the same religion, caste, Biradri and the same family lineage. Such marriage may be called
6. Patrilocal: the husband and wife live with the parents of the husband. In our society, most
of the families are Patrilocal.
Matrilocal: the husband and wife live with the parents of wife. In our society, some
examples of this families are available.
Neolocal: the husband and wife live separately in an independent house. In western
societies, almost all the new marriages found this type. In our society, this form is growing
popular, specially in urban areas.
Patriarchal: according to power and authority, the family is called patriarchal in which
father is determinant in all its affairs. Most of our families are of this type.
Matriarchal: in this family the mother is dominant. Some families where after father is
absent by death or separation or where the mother is dominant this family is found in our
7. Patrilineal: according to lines of descent, the relation is traced in father and grandfather line in this
family. It means through father the lineage is determined. All the families in Pakistan are Patrilineal.
Matrilineal: the ancestral relationship in this family is determined through mother. Thie
system is not found in our society.
Bilineal: where the relationship is traced through both the father and the mother. All Arab
societies are of this type where son shows line of his father and the daughter of her mother.
8. Functions of Family
Regulation of sex: family is the only institution in which the sexual desires are satisfied
regularly. The world societies arrange marriages in family and for this , the husband and wife
re freely allowed sexual intercourse without fear, shame or disgrace.
Reproduction: human generation is reproduced in family. This institution continues the
process of human reproduction. In all the societies, this function is performed by family.
Socialization: after reproduction of human race , the next important function is to social its
members so that they may become good members of society. It is life-long process and
continues throughout the whole life in family and in other institution. A doctor misbehaves
his patients, a boy disobey his parents, what a child behave in class? How a teacher teaches
his students? All these behaviors are the products of family socialization.
9. Safeguard of Interest: family protects its members in their interests. The children develop
their own interests in life and they expect the family to support them in their protection.
The family supports them in their interests, religious, political, recreational, marital and
whatsoever may be.
Protection: the family protects its members when they are in need of it. In ill-health,
unemployment, childhood, old age, political loss of status, loss of social security and
physical handicapping the family is the only protection fair such members.
Economic: the economic function is the basis of socialization for its members. The new
comers bring nothing with them but enter the family as dependents. The family fulfills all
the economic needs of children and makes them able to earn their livelihood by socializing
them various techniques of social life. Family provides house to live in, clothes to wear,
medicine, food, education, transport, recreation and marriage of their children.
10. Education: Family provides formal and informal education to its members so that they
may become useful members of society. It teaches the elementary skills at home and sends
in educational institutions for formal education.
Recreation: family provide recreational activities to its members within the family and
outside also. The children play together at home, listen to fairy tales from parents, listen to
radio and see television. Outside the family they paly games, enjoy matches, visit holy and
historical places, visit zoo and museum, develop personality traits in children.
Religious and Cultural Values: the family transmits its religious and cultural values to its
members by social interaction. In our society the children are first taught “Kalimah” and
guided to offer prayers. Similarly, respect for parents, elders and love for younger
inculcated in the children. Saying salam to others, speaking truth and being honest in
dealings of life are a few cultural values taught by parents.
11. Educational Institution
F. J. Brown and J. S. Roucek: education is “ the sum total of the experience which moulds the
attitudes and determines the conduct of both the child and adult”.
Aims of Education
There are three basics aims of education.
1. Education is the development of the power to think and not the acquisition of information.
2. Education is a search for ‘virtue’ and truth rather than technical proficiency.
3. education looks to lasting truth, based on reason, not to mere opinion or to practical
12. Types of Education
1. Formal Education: it is taken from school, colleges, universities and other formal
2. Informal Education: it is taken from family, community and society with no hard and fast
rules and regulations.
Functions of Education
Cultural Transmission: the system of education transmits our cultural values to the next
generation. During education, the teacher while teaching learns the socio-cultural norms
himself. He himself is socialized first in the cultural ways of life. While teaching he adds his
own expriences in the knowledge what he received from his parents and teachers. He does
not transmit the same without change. Bt adding his expriences he makes knowledge up-to-
date and according to the requiremnets of society. He, by transmitting the new knowledge,
13. educates the new generation and thus brings social change.
Social Integration: education creates social organization in society by harmonizing the
attitudes, ideas, habits, customs, emotions and sentiments of the people. It develop
homogeneity by developing general laws of social life. Education integrates different
groups of people into an organised unit. It further paves the way for national integration.
Future Occupation: education directs towards selection of future occupation. It is a
guideline of social life. It provides methods to acquire information on various aspects of
life. The individual by this information selects his profession as the most suitable for him.
Techniques of Learning Skills: education enables man to learn the techniques of the
profession he has adopted. Education provides facilities for one who wants to study
medical, engineering orlegal knowledge. It is a weapon by which an individual can gather
the technical skills of his profession.
14. Socialization: education itself is a process of socialization. It changes those who receive
education. It develops personality traits among the students.
Rational Thinking: it makes man to think rationally. He can see the cause of an event and
understand the situation clearly. It makes man an independent individual in society.
Personal Adjustment: by education an individual makes personal adjustment with the
environment in which the lives. He can very easily adjust himself in the social group of his
Family Living: education trains man how to live in family. He knows the status of the
members of his family and fits himself with them by his roles. Marriage, marital roles,
children and the roles of father all get into his knowledge and he lives a successful life.
Patriotism: patriotism develops through education in the young generation. The children
recognize themselves and their duties toward nation.
Character Building: the major function of education is to build character among the
students. They learn the social and cultural values and become useful members of society.
The character is morality which is transmitted through education.
15. Religious Institution
Durkheim: “Religion is the unified system of beliefs and practices related to sacred things, that
is to say, things set apart and forbidden and unite people into a moral community”.
Elements of Religion
Ritual: All religious observe ceremonial practices called rituals. Religious rituals are prescribed
acts that are sacred and symbolize the sacred things. In Islam, prayers to God, animal sacrifice on
Eid-ul-Azha, the activities of Hajj, making ablution, recitation of the Holy Quran are the
Emotion: the rituals produce emotions of hope, fear, reverence and humility. The individual
16. performing religious rituals is attached with emotions. These emotions create close
attention toward rituals. Emotions are the feelings of one’s reality before God . He
compares himself and his sins before Almighty Allah and bows down in humility. Fear and
hope and reverence are created.
Beliefs: it has already been discussed. It is sensation of brain and belongs to faith not to
reason. Beliefs in one God, the Doomsday, life after death, the angels, the Prophet, Scared
books and good and bad luck are the elements of ‘faith’ in Islam.
Organization: religion is organized with belief, emotions and rituals. Without organization
no religion can survive. The people participate in rituals with emotions and make it a living
institution. Thousands of people gather at Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid-ul-Azha and lacs of people
from all parts of the world gather at Hajj. This system of prayer is organized so nicely that
no break can interfere in its operation.
17. Sacred Objects: every religion has its own sacred objects. The temples and idols are sacred for
Hindus. Cow is also sacred for them. Cross, church and Bible are sacred for Christians. The Quran, the
Baitullah, mosque and other things are sacred for Muslims.
Symbolism: in religion, symbols are used for sacred objects and beliefs. The Baitullah and
mosque are symbols of God and not God themselves. The Quran is also symbol of words
from Allah. Sacrifice of animals on Hajj is a symbol of sacrifice of son made by Hazrat
Sect: every religion has small groups of followers differing from the main religion called
sects. Among Christians there are Catholics, Protestants and others. Among Muslims there
are Shia, Duobandi, Brailvi and Ahle-Hadith. Every sect claims to be true but only one of
them is on the path of righteousness.
18. Functions of Religion
Religion removes fear and anxiety: Islam gives hope of ultimate success in all failures
and thus removes anxiety. In Quran, He says, “don’t lose hope from the mercy of God”. At
another place he directs Momin to seek his help with patience and prayer. He further says,
“actually Allah is with those who keep patience”. Similar words have been revealed several
times in Holy Book. Recitation of Holy Quran, offering prayers and adopting patience
remove fears and anxieties and provide a very peaceful life.
Relation between Man and Universe: religion paves way of relations between man and
this universe. Religion provides norms as how to know this universe and utilize its
resources for the welfare of humanity. This universe has been offered to subjugate to manas
revealed again and again in the Quran.
19. Relationship between Man and God: another impotent function of religion is to create deep
relationship between man and His Creator God. This relation was created by the Prophets of God who
came from time to time at various places in the world. They preached and taught man the orders
of God as to lead a successful life.
Judgment of Right Wrong: Religion is a standard of right and wrong. Islam divides actions in
these two categories. The right acts lead to Heaven and the wrong acts to Hell. In this social life,
a normative order has been given by Islam by which a Muslim can easily judge his act as right or
wrong. This code of judgments called ‘Shariat’.
Preservation of Values: religion preserves social and cultural values which have been derived
from it. The social and cultural values of our society have their base in Islam. Acts contrary to
Islamic values are forbidden and condemned in society. Sanctity of women, respect for Ramzan,
Quran, mosque and the elders are the impotent socio-cultural values. They have direct
relationship with Islamic values.
20. Religion Creates Purity and Cleanliness: religion creates physical and social cleanliness. All
religious objects are pure like mosque and the Quran. An unclean person and an infidel is not allowed
to enter the mosque or touch the Holy Quran
Religion is Socializing Institution: during socialization a Muslim child learns norms of
social behavior. He understands his social life and the world around him very well. The
social and cultural values, norms, attitudes, ideas, emotions, customs, conventions, ritual
and sentiments are taught during religious education to the students.
Religion Creates Social Solidarity: religion is a binding force among individuals and
groups. It creates harmony of attitude, ideas and habits among its followers . They come
closer to one another and are cemented together.islam is a great unifying force which binds
more than one billion Muslims of the world together as shown by various Islamic
Conferences held during the last several years in Pakistan.
21. Religion Relates Man to Man: religion is only for human beings and not for animals. It
relates man to man by common bonds of human values. It teaches respect for other’s life,
honout, property and freedom. All religions agree on this principle of fraternity among all
Islam, specially, focuses on respect for others even they may belong to any religion.
Religion is no barrier between man and man relationship in trade, education, technology,
sports, recreation and politics.
22. Economic Institution
Economy is the social institution that organizes a society’s production, distribution and
consumption of goods and services.
Property ownership: if the property is owned and controlled by the individuals the system
is called Capitalism. If the property is owned and controlled by the state the system is
Labour Force: labour is central point in functioning of economic institutions. Who will
work? The question is answered by the laborer. All economic activities require labor to go
into its processes of production.
23. Distribution of Production: the products of the economic institutions are distributed
among consumers by various groups called traders and businessmen. They form a rich class
in society. This system produces marketing system.
Economic Norms: the economic institutions have their respective norms by which they are
controlled. Agriculture has different norms from industry and transport. The rules
governing the production, distribution and consumption of economic goods and services
are their economic norms.
Exchange Values: the economic goods have their exchange value, which can be measured
in cash and kind. There are societies where still the exchange in kind called ‘barter’ and this
is their buying and selling. The literate societies use currency in exchange of economic
products. Money is the source of exchanging things.
24. Functions of Economic Institution
Social stratification: the society is divided into various classes by the distribution of
economic resources. The people claim to belong to a certain class, upper, middle and lower.
They can change their classes with change in their economic resources.
Power and Authority: the economic resources provide power and authority to its holders.
Wealth is a great power which authorizes one to hold of various agencies, organizations and
Interdependence of Other Institution: the economic institutions can neither survive nor
develop without cooperation of other institutions. The labor force is drawn from the
families. The technical skill is drawn from technical institutes to run them. Sociologists are
required to intervene when the labor goes on strike and industries are closed. Traders and
businessmen play basic role between the owners and the consumers.
25. Provision of Funds: economic institutions provide financial support to the other
institutions like family, politics, religion, education. Without economic institutions, these
institutions cannot perform rather collapse.
Division of labor and specialization: economic institutions assign roles according to
skills, capacities and abilities of the people. In this way, different roles are assigned to the
Income generation and employment: economic institutions provide employment and
income generation opportunities to the people. Through this, people fulfill the needs of life.
People set their business under economic institutions and fulfill the needs of society.