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  1. 1. Quality Circle Quality Circle
  2. 2. What We Cover What We Cover z Chapter-1. 9Quality and It’s Essentials z Chapter-2. 9Evolution of Quality Circle z Chapter-3. 9Quality Circle and It’s Essentials z Chapter-4. 9Implementation, Benefits and Pit-falls of QC
  3. 3. Ch Ch- -1. Quality and It’s 1. Quality and It’s Essentials Essentials
  4. 4. Necessities of Human Beings Necessities of Human Beings z Food z Shelter z Clothing z Amenities To Lead a good Quality of Life
  5. 5. Market Scenario “Then & Now” Market Scenario “Then & Now” z Seller’s market ( Monopolist Approach) ™ Produce anything ™ No Concern for Quality ™ No option Given to buyers z Buyers Market ( Consumers Approach) ™ Produce only things needed ™ Concerned with Quality ™ Many Options ™ People have become more Choosy
  6. 6. Quality and Cost Quality and Cost z Quality at any Cost has No Meaning. z There must be a Good Balance between the Quality and the Acceptable Cost the “Customer is Willing to Pay”
  7. 7. Quality and Cost Matrix Quality and Cost Matrix z Quality Adds 9 Value 9 Increases Productivity 9 Increases Customer satisfaction 9 Profit 9 Increases Market Share and So on… Bad Business Antiquated Platinum Junk Good Business C O S T Quality
  8. 8. What is Quality What is Quality ™ The concept of quality is subjective and is difficult to define ™ Certain aspects of quality can be identified ™ Ultimately, the judgement of quality rests with the customer
  9. 9. Quality Characteristics Quality Characteristics ™ Measurable ¾ Dimensions ¾ Composition ¾ Specifications ¾ Purity ¾ and so on.. ™ Non Measurable ¾ Appearance ¾ Taste ¾ Service ¾ Customer Appeal ¾ and so on..
  10. 10. Quality ( General ) Quality ( General ) z It is the narrowing up of the Gap between the Customers Expectation and the Suppliers Process Capability
  11. 11. Definition of Quality Definition of Quality 9 9“ “The degree of excellence of a thing” The degree of excellence of a thing” (Dictionary) (Dictionary) 9 9“The totality of features and “The totality of features and characteristics that satisfy the characteristics that satisfy the needs” (ASQ) needs” (ASQ) 9 9Fitness for use Fitness for use 9 9Quality of design Quality of design
  12. 12. Definition of Quality Definition of Quality 9 Conformance to specifications and standards 9 Meeting customers’ needs 9 Loss imparted to society
  13. 13. How to Achieve It How to Achieve It ™ Using the 5’Ms of the Organization
  14. 14. Quality Control and Inspection Quality Control and Inspection ¾ Quality Control Dept can not achieve “Quality” ¾ It has been already Determined by the time the product has reached inspector ¾ Inspector at his best can Segregate ¾ He can’t undo what has been already done
  15. 15. What is Required What is Required z CWQC z Purchase z Design z Engineering z Production z Finance z Q.C., and so on…
  16. 16. Building Quality Building Quality z Quality is not a “Gamble” z It is a Sustained Good Work z “ Doing Right the First Time ” z Self Control z Building Step by Step, and z Stage by Stage Not Giving “Any Chance” to QC Inspector
  17. 17. Gaining Profits Gaining Profits z Better Quality z Reducing “Wastes and Rejections” z Adding Value z Defect free goods z Good Service z Providing goods at affordable Cost z Effective Utilization of Resources.
  18. 18. Results and Outcome Results and Outcome z Sense of Satisfaction z Pride of people engaged in the activity z Brand name and Creating Identity z Increased Market Share z Achieving higher Productivity z Increased Profits z Sense of Belonging
  19. 19. Ch Ch- -2. Evolution of Quality 2. Evolution of Quality Circle Circle
  20. 20. Scenario After WW Scenario After WW- -II II z Japan was Known for it’s poor “Quality- Goods” z Shift in Quality Leader Ship 9 1920’s Germany 9 1950’s USA 9 1980’s Japan
  21. 21. Current Scenario of Japan Current Scenario of Japan 9 Way ahead in ¾ Quality ¾ Productivity ¾ Innovation 9 Way achieved ¾ Hard work ¾ Intelligent Effort ¾ Single minded devotion to “Quality”
  22. 22. Nation Wide Promotional Nation Wide Promotional Policy Policy z Launched a number of Major tools in a package of program ™ Statistics ™ Quality Circles ™ Quality control ™ Quality training ™ Quality Audit Harnessed the Un-Tapped Intelligence of work forces by virtually “Eliminating all Defects”
  23. 23. Key Aspects of Revolutionary Key Aspects of Revolutionary Changes Changes z Invited Quality “ Gurus From USA” 9 Dr., Demming 9 Dr., Juran Joseph z Propagated CWQC and Training Japanese supervisors z Application of SQC on shop floor
  24. 24. Philosophy Philosophy z Demming 9 P-D-C-A Cycle and SQC z Juran 9 SQC Techniques and Implementation z Propagation Through Supervisors Assembled groups of Workers and disseminated the Knowledge Learnt, This resulted in group work and promoted QC
  25. 25. Application of philosophy Application of philosophy z Automobiles z Watches z Cameras 9 Result ¾ Americans started sending teams to Japan ¾ Working methodology ¾ Impact of quality circle
  26. 26. Aim of QC Movement Aim of QC Movement z Development of people z Promotion of family feeling z Gaining confidence and satisfaction z Empowerment z Improvement in work life z Tapping of peoples’ intellectual capabilities z Improving quality, productivity and performance of products
  27. 27. Ch Ch- -3 3 Quality Circle and its Essentials
  28. 28. Philosophy of Quality Circle Philosophy of Quality Circle z Similar to Village Panchayat z Democratic Process z Participative Management Culture z Bossism – Never Accepted z Sharing of Ideas and Expertise with Mgt z Solving the problems of same work area
  29. 29. Definition of Quality Circle Definition of Quality Circle z A Quality Circle is a Group of 6-10 ( members) People coming together Voluntarily to Identify Work-Area problems, Analyze them and find solutions.
  30. 30. Working Methodology Working Methodology z Forming a Group of 6-10 Members z Meet once in a Week on regular Basis z Selecting the name of QC z Electing a Leader to conduct Deliberations z Fixing the day-venue for their weekly meetings z Identify work area problem & find solution z Present and Implement solution after management approval z Review and follow-up Implementation
  31. 31. Quality Circle Operation Cycle Quality Circle Operation Cycle z 1. Problem Collection z 2. Problem Selection z 3. Problem Analysis z 4. Problem Solution z 5. Management Presentation z 6. Implementation z 7. Review and follow-up
  32. 32. Problem Collection Problem Collection z Creating a Problem Bank z Assigning a Priority Number to Problem z Priority based on “Benefit, Potential and Urgency” z Problem Collection as a “Continuing Activity” as ABC policy z A- Not in purview z B- Involving other Departments z C- Within their full control
  33. 33. Problem Selection Problem Selection z Pick up one problem at a time z Follow order of Priority z Priority can be changed with circumstances z Any body can refer the problem to the circle z Priority will be decided by the circle
  34. 34. Problem Analysis Problem Analysis z Subjective opinion and feeling has no meaning z Every problem has an effect z Identify the underlying causes z Brain storm to establish cause and effect z Use all relevant tools
  35. 35. Problem Solution Problem Solution z Create a proper environment and group thinking z Combine Experience and Expertise of the work area z Generate number of alternate solutions z Select the Optimum solutions
  36. 36. Management Presentation Management Presentation z Grand finale z Moment of Pride z Sells their project (solution) to Mgt z Motivates the Potential QC Members z Promotes the concept to the organization z Recognition from superiors
  37. 37. Management Presentation Management Presentation (cont..) (cont..) z A Snappy presentation for 20 minutes z High light main observations z The developed solution z Anticipated benefits of recommendation
  38. 38. Implementation, review, and Implementation, review, and follow follow- -up up z Chalk out a schedule z Implement the accepted Proposal of the management z Review the results z take follow-up action
  39. 39. Leadership Leadership z Every Member is a Potential leader z A leader need not be permanent z It is through rotation z Leads to development of leadership qualities
  40. 40. Quality Circle Organization Quality Circle Organization Members Leader Facilitator Steering committee Executive Committee
  41. 41. Executive Committee (Top Executive Committee (Top- -Mgt) Mgt) and Its Activities and Its Activities z It is the core of Quality Circle z It is a policy making body z Provides Guidance to Steering Committee z Selects Facilitator z Guidelines to Facilitator z Visible support to Quality Circle z Promotes Motivation z Recognizes the members efforts & Soln.
  42. 42. Steering Committee and their Steering Committee and their Activities Activities z Plant Manager z Production Manager z Maintenance Manager z Product Manager z Safety manager z Ind. Engineer z Facilitator z QC Manager z Reviews QC operations z Necessary support and Help z Ensures support from Middle management
  43. 43. Facilitator Facilitator z Organizes, Co-ordinates QC activities z Trains QC members z Helps in putting up Mgt Presentations z Provides required support to QC z Arranges required machines, and amenities z Motivates the team z Communicates at all the three levels
  44. 44. Qualities of Facilitator Qualities of Facilitator z Acts as King-Pin of Quality Circle z Friend, Philosopher and a Guide z He must be of reasonable standing in the Organization z People loving z Dynamic z Educated and Un-assuming
  45. 45. Communication Communication
  46. 46. Training of Quality Circle Training of Quality Circle z Is the back bone of QC movement z Provides right inputs to members z Improves abilities of QC members z Since they are not used to rigors of problem solving
  47. 47. Method of QC Operation Method of QC Operation z Organized by Facilitator z Should not be organized as a crash course z Should be organized over a period of time z One session per week z Dealing one topic at a time
  48. 48. Method of QC Operation Method of QC Operation z Members assimilate them easily z Each member Understands everyone z Batch should not be more than 20-25 z More of a Work shop and less of theory z Practical Exercises must be given
  49. 49. Training Tools of QC Training Tools of QC z Seven tools of TQM 9 Pareto analysis ( Histogram ) 9 Cause and Effect Diagram 9 Check Sheets 9 Flow charts 9 Scatter Diagram 9 Run chart 9 SQC Techniques z Brain storming z Cost Benefit Analysis
  50. 50. Pareto chart Pareto chart
  51. 51. Pareto Principle Pareto Principle z Vilfredo Pareto (1848-1923) Italian economist – 20% of the population has 80% of the wealth z Juran used the term “vital few, trivial many”. He noted that 20% of the quality problems caused 80% of the dollar loss.
  52. 52. Pareto Diagram Pareto Diagram It is a categorical classification of data Such as z Field failures z Complaints z Types of nonconformities
  53. 53. Pareto charts Pareto charts
  54. 54. Pareto chart Advantages Pareto chart Advantages • Important tool for problem Identification • Categorizes to vital few and trivial many • Leads for measurement of process
  55. 55. Histogram Histogram
  56. 56. Histogram Histogram It is used for numerical data z Describes variation in process z Brings relationship between target and specification z Shows the shape of population z Helps to evaluate the spread of data
  57. 57. Histogram Histogram 0 5 10 15 20 25 1 . 9 2 . 9 3 . 9 4 . 9 5 . 9 6 . 9 7 . 9 8 . 9 9 . 9 1 0 . 9 1 1 . 9 1 2 . 9 1 3 . 9 1 4 . 9 1 5 . 9 M o r e Category Frequency
  58. 58. Histogram Histogram Helps to • Visualize the distribution • Location, spread and shape • Visualize the snap shot of a process • Provide Information on quality problems • Decision making
  59. 59. Cause and effect diagram Cause and effect diagram
  60. 60. Cause Cause- -and and- -Effect Diagrams Effect Diagrams z Show the relationships between a problem and its possible causes. z Developed by Kaoru Ishikawa (1953) z Also known as … • Fishbone diagrams • Ishikawa diagrams
  61. 61. Cause and effect diagrams Cause and effect diagrams To construct the skeleton, we need: z For manufacturing - the 4 M’s 9man, method, machine, material z For service applications 9equipment, policies, procedures, people
  62. 62. Cause and Effect “Skeleton” Cause and Effect “Skeleton” Quality Problem Materials Equipment People Procedures
  63. 63. Cause and effect diagram Cause and effect diagram
  64. 64. Fishbone Diagram Fishbone Diagram Quality Problem Machines Measurement Human Process Environment Materials Faulty testing equipment Incorrect specifications Improper methods Poor supervision Lack of concentration Inadequate training Out of adjustment Tooling problems Old / worn Defective from vendor Not to specifications Material- handling problems Deficiencies in product design Ineffective quality management Poor process design Inaccurate temperature control Dust and Dirt
  65. 65. Cause and effect diagrams Cause and effect diagrams z Advantages • making the diagram is educational in itself • diagram demonstrates knowledge of problem solving team • diagram results in active searches for causes • diagram is a guide for data collection
  66. 66. Check sheets Check sheets
  67. 67. Check sheets Check sheets z Are data collection devices z Accurate data are obtained z This helps for further interpretation Forms are individualized developments
  68. 68. Check Sheet Check Sheet √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ Shifts Shifts Defect Type Defect Type √ √ √ √
  69. 69. Advantages of check sheets Advantages of check sheets z Identification of parts z Material z Defects z Non conformation
  70. 70. Flow diagrams Flow diagrams
  71. 71. Flow Diagrams Flow Diagrams " Draw a flowchart for whatever you do. Until you do, you do not know what you are doing, you just have a job.” -- Dr. W. Edwards Deming.
  72. 72. Flow Diagram (chart) Flow Diagram (chart) Identifies z Flow of product or services z Flow of activities z Flow of manufacturing z Easy to visualize the entire system z Identifies potential trouble spots z Answers, who is the next customer z Locates control activities
  73. 73. Types of flow chart Types of flow chart z Activity flow chart z Process flow chart
  74. 74. Activity Flow chart Activity Flow chart Activity Decision Yes Yes No No
  75. 75. A Typical Flow chart A Typical Flow chart
  76. 76. Process Flow Diagram Process Flow Diagram
  77. 77. Process Chart Symbols Process Chart Symbols Operations Inspection Transportation Delay Storage
  78. 78. A typical Process Flow Chart A typical Process Flow Chart Step Operation Transport Inspect Delay Storage Distance (feet) Time (min) Description of process 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Unload apples from truck Move to inspection station Weigh, inspect, sort Move to storage Wait until needed Move to peeler Apples peeled and cored Soak in water until needed Place in conveyor Move to mixing area Weigh, inspect, sort Total Page 1 0f 3 480 30 5 20 15 360 30 20 190 ft 20 ft 20 ft 50 ft 100 ft Date: 9-30-00 Analyst: TLR Location: Graves Mountain Process: Apple Sauce
  79. 79. Advantages of Flow Diagrams Advantages of Flow Diagrams z Operation reduction z Scope for combining the processes z Eliminating number of steps z Identifying the bottlenecks
  80. 80. Scatter diagram Scatter diagram
  81. 81. Scatter diagram Scatter diagram Way to identify z Cause and effect relationship between two variables z Deviation of points z Equal distribution of points on either side of the line
  82. 82. Scatter Diagram Scatter Diagram .
  83. 83. Examples of scatter diagram Examples of scatter diagram z Cutting speed vs tool life z Training vs errors z Current vs cooling effect z Breakdown vs equipment age ..and so on.
  84. 84. Run charts Run charts
  85. 85. Run Charts Run Charts z Run Charts (time series plot) – Examine the behavior of a variable over time. – Basis for Control Charts
  86. 86. Run charts Run charts It is similar to x-bar chart and provides information in 3 possible factors z Indication of average line z It can be a standard reference value z Population mean line
  87. 87. Run chart advantages Run chart advantages z Effective way of finding information about the process z Analyzing the process in the development stage z Provides information on data analysis
  88. 88. Control charts Control charts
  89. 89. Techniques of Quality Control Techniques of Quality Control z Control charts z Acceptance sampling
  90. 90. Control Charts Control Charts z Definition: They are graphs that would project the A statistical tool to determine, whether a process is in control.
  91. 91. History of Control Charts History of Control Charts z Developed in 1920’s By Dr. Walter A. Shewhart. Shewhart worked for Bell Telephone Labs in America and introduced this technique for the first time
  92. 92. Two Types of Control Charts Two Types of Control Charts z Variable Control Charts z Attribute Control Charts
  93. 93. Variable Control Charts Variable Control Charts z Deals with items that can be measured z Examples 1) Weight 2) Height 3) Speed 4) Volume
  94. 94. Types of Variable Control Types of Variable Control Charts Charts z X-Bar chart z R chart
  95. 95. Variable Control Charts Variable Control Charts z X chart: deals with a average value in a process z R chart: takes into count the range of the values
  96. 96. Attribute Control Charts Attribute Control Charts z Control charts that are drawn for the quality attributes of a process to determine if the process is performing “in or out of control”.
  97. 97. Types of Attribute Control Types of Attribute Control Charts Charts z P chart z C Chart z U Chart
  98. 98. Attribute Control Charts Attribute Control Charts z P Chart: a chart of the percent defective in each sample set. z C chart: a chart of the number of defects per unit in each sample set. z U chart: a chart of the average number of defects in each sample set.
  99. 99. Reasons for using Control Reasons for using Control Charts Charts z Improve productivity z Make defects visible z Determine what process adjustments need to be made z Determine if process is “ in ” or “ out of control ”
  100. 100. How Will Using Control Charts help the How Will Using Control Charts help the Company? Company? z Possible Goals when using Control Charts in the Company: 1. Line reengineering 2. Continuous improvement of process 3. Increased profits 4. Zero defects
  101. 101. Chapter Chapter- - 4. 4. Implementation, Benefits and Pit-falls of QC
  102. 102. Implementation Implementation ƒ Form quality circle group (team) ƒ Identify work area problems ƒ Take one problem at a time ƒ Find solution to the problem ƒ Conduct management presentation ƒ Implement the solution ƒ Carry out follow-up activities.
  103. 103. Benefits Benefits z Enrichment of members work life z Changes in workers attitude z Brings cohesive team culture z Avoidance of drudgery due to stereotypic work z Improved work environment z Happy relations with co-employees z Greater job satisfaction.
  104. 104. Pit falls of QC Pit falls of QC z Lack of top managements support and its withdrawal will leave the circle at loose- ends z Mere assurance of support z Disapproval of acceptable QC’s solutions z Expectation of miracles overnight z Ill defined objectives and policies z Disapproval of QC philosophy by the Boss z Expectation of morality from the bottom
  105. 105. Pit falls of QC. Cont…. Pit falls of QC. Cont…. z Capital sanctions not being released in time z Indifference of middle management to QC z Middle management should not consider the activities of the circle as waste of time z Lack of understanding and objectives of QC z Improper planning by the facilitator z Improper training facilities
  106. 106. Pit falls of QC. Cont…. Pit falls of QC. Cont…. z Incomplete Knowledge z Irregularities by facilitator on QC activities z Non co-operation of facilitator in all three levels z Communication gap among circle members z Mad rush to expand the activities by the facilitator z Lack of publicity on the circle activities.
  107. 107. Pit falls of QC. Cont…. Pit falls of QC. Cont…. z Language barriers z Authoritarian approach by boss, unable to get along with the workers z Lack of initiative and participation z Mixing up of projects at one time z Devoid of mutual trust and respect among members
  108. 108. Where it can be applied Where it can be applied Applicable to all work situations, such as z Production z Service z Government departments z Industries z All most all organisations
  109. 109. Where it can be applied. Where it can be applied. Cont… Cont… z Applicable to areas concerned with The end quality costing production safety marketing personnel