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Essentials of Management.pptx

  1. Essentials of Management
  2. • UNIT- I: INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENT Definition of Management – Science or Art –Evolution of Management – Scientific, human relations , system and contingency approaches – Current trends and issues in Management. • UNIT –II: PLANNING Nature and purpose of planning – planning process – types of planning – objectives – setting objectives – policies – Planning premises – Decision making steps and process. • UNIT- III: ORGANISING Nature and purpose – Formal and informal organization – organization chart – organization structure – types – Line and staff authority – departmentalization – delegation of authority – centralization and decentralization.
  3. • UNIT –IV: DIRECTING Foundations of individual and group behaviour – motivation –– motivational techniques– leadership – types– communication – process of communication – barrier in communication – effective communication. • UNIT- V: CONTROLLING System and process of controlling – budgetary and non-budgetary control techniques – control and performance – direct and preventive control.
  4. Management • Management is the art of inducing people to give their best contribution towards the most effective and efficient accomplishment of group goals by performing managerial functions of planning, organising, staffing, directing and controlling with emphasis on co- ordination throughout the managerial process.
  5. • According to Koontz and‘ o‘ Donnel ―Management is the art of getting things done through others.
  6. NATURE OF MANAGEMENT • (a) Universal applicability: They can be applied in all types of organizations, business as well as non-business, small as well as large enterprises. • (b) General Guidelines: They are general guidelines to action and decision – making however they do not provide readymade solutions as the business environment is ever changing or dynamic. (c) Formed by practice and experimentation: They are developed after thorough research work on the basis of experiences of managers. • (d) Flexible: Which can be adapted and modified by the practicing managers as per the demands of the situations as they are man-made principles.
  7. • (e) Mainly Behavioural: Since the principles aim at influencing complex human behaviour they are behavioral in nature. • (f) Cause and Effect relationship: They intend to establish relationship between cause and effect so that they can be used in similar situations. • (g) Contingent: Their applicability depends upon the prevailing situation at a particular point of time
  8. MANAGEMENT AS A SCIENCE, ARTS AND PROFESSION! • Management as a Science: Science can be defined as a systematic and organized body of knowledge based on logically observed findings, facts and events. Science comprises of exact principles which can be verified and it can establish cause and effect relations. • Systematic body of knowledge • Scientific principles are derived on the basis of logical and scientific observations • Principles are based on repeated experiments • Universal Validity
  9. • Management as an Art: Art can be defined as systematic body of knowledge which requires skill, creativity and practice to get perfection. • Systematic body of knowledge/Existence of theoretical knowledge • Personalized application • Based on Practice and creativity
  10. Evolution of management • The different approaches of management are • a) Classical approach, • b) Behavioral approach, • c) Quantitative approach, • d) Systems approach, and • e) Contingency approach.
  11. Classical approach • Three areas of study that can be grouped under the classical approach are • scientific management, • administrative management, and • bureaucratic management.