• UNIT- I: INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENT Definition of
Management – Science or Art –Evolution of Management –
Scientific, human relations , system and contingency
approaches – Current trends and issues in Management.
• UNIT –II: PLANNING Nature and purpose of planning –
planning process – types of planning – objectives – setting
objectives – policies – Planning premises – Decision making
steps and process.
• UNIT- III: ORGANISING Nature and purpose – Formal and
informal organization – organization chart – organization
structure – types – Line and staff authority –
departmentalization – delegation of authority –
centralization and decentralization.
• UNIT –IV: DIRECTING Foundations of individual
and group behaviour – motivation ––
motivational techniques– leadership – types–
communication – process of communication –
barrier in communication – effective
• UNIT- V: CONTROLLING System and process of
controlling – budgetary and non-budgetary
control techniques – control and performance –
direct and preventive control.
• Management is the art of inducing people to
give their best contribution towards the most
effective and efficient accomplishment of
group goals by performing managerial
functions of planning, organising, staffing,
directing and controlling with emphasis on co-
ordination throughout the managerial
• According to Koontz and‘ o‘ Donnel
―Management is the art
of getting things done
NATURE OF MANAGEMENT
• (a) Universal applicability: They can be applied in all types of
organizations, business as well as non-business, small as well as large
• (b) General Guidelines: They are general guidelines to action and decision
– making however they do not provide readymade solutions as the
business environment is ever changing or dynamic. (c) Formed by practice
and experimentation: They are developed after thorough research work
on the basis of experiences of managers.
• (d) Flexible: Which can be adapted and modified by the practicing
managers as per the demands of the situations as they are man-made
• (e) Mainly Behavioural: Since the principles aim
at influencing complex human behaviour they are
behavioral in nature.
• (f) Cause and Effect relationship: They intend to
establish relationship between cause and effect
so that they can be used in similar situations.
• (g) Contingent: Their applicability depends upon
the prevailing situation at a particular point of
MANAGEMENT AS A SCIENCE, ARTS
• Management as a Science: Science can be
defined as a systematic and organized body of
knowledge based on logically observed findings,
facts and events. Science comprises of exact
principles which can be verified and it can
establish cause and effect relations.
• Systematic body of knowledge
• Scientific principles are derived on the basis of
logical and scientific observations
• Principles are based on repeated experiments
• Universal Validity
• Management as an Art: Art can be defined as
systematic body of knowledge which requires
skill, creativity and practice to get perfection.
• Systematic body of knowledge/Existence of
• Personalized application
• Based on Practice and creativity
Evolution of management
• The different approaches of management are
• a) Classical approach,
• b) Behavioral approach,
• c) Quantitative approach,
• d) Systems approach, and
• e) Contingency approach.
• Three areas of study that can be grouped
under the classical approach are
• scientific management,
• administrative management, and
• bureaucratic management.