MEANING & THEORIES
Manal Manalody (Roll No.: 25)
Sreena R. (Roll No.: 52)
• “Leadership maybe defined as the
ability to exert interpersonal
influence by means of communication
towards the achievement of a goal.”
-Koontz and O’Donnel
• “Leadership is the lifting of man’s
vision to higher sights, the raising of
man’s performance to higher
standards, the building of man’s
personality beyond its normal
-Peter F. Drucker
03 MANAGERS V/S
• Managers have employees, leaders have followers.
• Managers react to change, leaders create change.
• Managers have good ideas, leaders implement them.
• Managers communicate, leaders persuade.
• Managers direct groups, leaders create groups.
• Managers take credit, leaders take responsibility.
• Managers exercise power over people, leaders develop power with
TRANSITION IN LEADERSHIP
1930s 1940/50s 1960/70s 1980s
TRAITS SKILLS FOLLOWERS CONTEXT ETHICAL
STYLES/TYPES OF LEADERS
TRAIT THEORY 06
•Based on the idea that
people are born with
certain character traits.
It assumes that people
are born as leaders.
appear to differentiate
leaders from followers.
6 TRAITS ASSOCIATED
• Ambition and energy
• Desire to lead
• Honesty and integrity
• Job-relevant knowledge
WHOM DO YOU PREFER? 08
CANDIDATE A - Associates with crooked politicians, and consults
with astrologists. He's had two mistresses. He also chain smokes
and drinks quite a few martinis a day.
CANDIDATE B - He was kicked out of office twice, sleeps until
noon, used opium in college and drinks a great deal of whisky every
CANDIDATE C - He is a decorated war hero. He's a vegetarian,
doesn't smoke, drinks an occasional beer and hasn't had any
• They look at what the leaders actually do.
• It is based upon the belief that great
leaders are made , not born.
• Some of the most popular behavioural
Kurt Lewin’s studies at the University of Iowa.
The Ohio State group.
The University of Michigan studies.
KURT LEWIN’S STUDIES AT
10 UNIVERSITY OF IOWA
• Focused on identifying the best leadership styles.
• It identified the following three leadership styles:
Autocratic: Centralise authority, dictate work
methods and limiting participation.
Democratic: Involve employees in decision-making,
delegating authority, encourages
participation, and uses feedback to train
employees. It is further divided into:
Democratic-consultative leader seeks input but he
himself makes the final decision.
Democratic-participative leader often allows
employees to put their suggestions.
Laissez-faire: The leader generally gives
employees complete freedom in decision-making.
THE OHIO STATE
STUDY • Identified 2 dimensions of leader behaviour:
Initiating structure: The extent to which a leader is likely
to define and structure his or her role and those of sub-ordinates
in the search for goal attainment.
Consideration: The extent to which a leader is likely to have
job relationships characterized by mutual trust, respect for
subordinate’s ideas, and regard for their feelings.
• The primary concern of leaders with considerate and employee-centered
style is the employee’s welfare. The primary concern
of leaders with initiating structure and production-centered
style are achieving goals.
• High-high leaders achieved high employee performance and
satisfaction more frequently than one who rated low but
enough exceptions were found to indicate that situational
factors needed to be integrated into the theory.
THE UNIVERSITY OF
• Identified 2 dimensions of leader behaviour:
Employee-oriented: Leaders emphasized interpersonal
relations, took a personal interest in employees’ needs,
and accepted individual differences among members.
Production-oriented: Leaders emphasized the technical
aspect of the job, focused on accomplishing group tasks,
and regarded group members as a means to that end.
• The Michigan researchers strongly favoured leaders
who were employee-oriented.
• Leaders who are employee oriented are strongly
associated with high group productivity and high job
• Developed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton in the early
1960s. It is also called Leadership Grid.
• It is based on 2 behavioural dimensions:
Concern for people: Degree to which a leader considers
the needs of team members, their interests, and areas of
personal development when deciding how best to
accomplish a task.
Concern for production: Degree to which a leader
emphasizes discrete objectives, organisational efficiency
and high productivity when deciding how best to
accomplish a task.
• The 5 leadership styles include:
1.Impoverished leadership 2.Country Club leadership
3.Task leadership 4.Team leadership
Based on the idea
that the leader’s
ability to lead is
factors, including the
style, the capabilities
and behaviour of
followers and also
•Developed by Fred MODEL
•This theory states that there is no best way for
managers to lead. Situations will create different style
requirements for a manager.
•Proposes that effective group performance depends
upon the proper match between the leader’s style of
interacting with followers and the degree to which the
situation allows the leader to control and influence.
•Fielder uses the following devices to determine leader
personality and the situation:
Least Preferred Co-Worker Scale
Leader-Situation Match and Mismatch
LEAST PREFERRED CO-WORKER
• It is used to measure a leader’s motivation.
• HIGH LPC SCORE: It means that the
respondent is primarily interested in good
personal relations with this co-worker.
• LOW LPC SCORE: It means that the respondent
is primarily interested in productivity.
• About 16% of the respondents score in the
middle range. Such individuals cannot be
classified as either relationship oriented or task
oriented and thus fall outside the theory’s
predictions. The rest 84% fall either into the
high or low range of the LPC.
•There are 3 factors that determine the
favourableness of a situation:
Leader-Member Relations, referring to the degree of mutual
trust, respect and confidence between the leader and sub-ordinates.
Task Structure, referring to the degree to which the task at
hand is low in multiplicity and high in verifiability, specificity,
Leader-Position power, referring to the power inherent in the
leader’s position itself.
•The leader-member relationships are either good or poor,
task structure is either high or low and position power is
either strong or weak.
•Fiedler states that the better the leader-member
relationship, the more highly structured the job, the
stronger the position power, the more control the leader has.
• Task motivated leader has a match either with
very favourable situation or very unfavourable
• Relationship motivated leader has a match with
intermediate favourable situation.
• If there is match between motivation type and
the situation then leaders can lead efficiently.
• If there is no match then the leader should move
to a better matched situation. This is called “job
• It was developed by Paul Hersey and Kenneth
• Argues that successful leadership is achieved by
selecting the right leadership style which is
contingent on the level of the followers’ readiness:
Acceptance: Leadership effectiveness depends on whether
followers accept or reject a leader.
Readiness: The extent to which followers have the ability
and willingness to accomplish a specific task.
• The 2 leadership dimensions are task behaviour and
Hersey Hersey and and Blanchard’s
• Leaders create in-groups
and out-groups, and
subordinates with in-group
status will have higher
performance ratings, less
turnover, and greater job
•One of the things you may have noticed in your work
and study groups is the tendencies of leaders to develop
“special” relationships with some team members.
•This tendency is central to leader-member exchange
theory, or LMX theory as it is often called.
•The theory basically recognizes that in most, or at
least many, leadership situations not everyone is
treated the same by the leader.
•Instead, people fall into “in” groups and “out” groups in
relationships with their leaders. Obviously, the group
you are in can have quite a significant influence on your
experience with the leader.
• Developed by Robert House to
make leadership more
effective. It focuses on leader
behaviour rather than leader
• The theory states that it is the
leader’s job to assist followers
in attaining their goals and to
provide them the necessary
direction and/or support to
ensure that their goals are
compatible with the overall
objectives of the group or
• Developed by Vroom and Yetton in 1973.
• A leadership theory that provides a set of rules to
determine the form and amount of participative
decision making in different situations.
• Leadership is all about making decisions, conceiving
vision, setting goals, laying paths to reach the goal,
and making all efforts with followers in achieving it.
• Effective Leadership requires taking situation based
decisions. An individual will be accepted as Leader
when his ideas, suggestions and advise are more
appropriate to the situation. Decision taken under
particular situation may not hold good for all
situations & it may give different results in
• Vroom and his associates have provided us with some specific , empirically
supported contingency variables that should be considered when choosing your
Importance of the decision
Importance of obtaining follower commitment to the decision
Whether the leader has sufficient information to make a good decision
How well structured the problem is
Whether an autocratic decision would receive follower commitment
Whether the followers “buy into” the organization's goals
Whether there is likely to be conflict among followers over solution
Whether the followers have the necessary information to make a good
Time constraints on the leader that any limit follower involvement
Whether costs to bring geographically dispersed members together is
Importance to the leader of minimizing the time it takes to make the
Importance of using participation as a tool for developing follower decision
This model identifies five different styles
(ranging from autocratic to consultative to
group-based decisions) on the situation &
level of involvement. They are:
•Autocratic Type 1 (AI)
•Autocratic Type 2 (AII)
•Consultative Type 1 (CI)
•Consultative Type 2 (CII)
•Group-based Type 2(GII)
Autocratic Type 1 (AI) – Leader makes his own decision using
information that is readily available to him at that time. This
type is completely autocratic.
Autocratic Type 2 (AII) – Leader collects required
information from followers and then makes decision alone.
Problem or decision may or may not be informed to the
followers. Here, followers’ involvement is just providing
Consultative Type 1 (CI) – Leader shares the problems with
relevant followers individually and seeks their ideas &
suggestions and makes decision alone. Here followers’ do not
meet each other & leader’s decision may or may not have
followers’ influence. So, here followers’ involvement is at the
level of providing alternatives individually.
• Consultative Type 2 (CII) – Leader shares the
problems with relevant followers as a group and seek
their ideas & suggestions and make decisions alone.
Here followers’ meet each other and through
discussions they understand other alternatives. But
leader’s decision may or may not have followers’
influence. So, here followers involvement is at the level
of helping, as a group, in decision-making.
• Group-based Type 2(GII) – Leader discusses the
problems & situations with followers as a group and
seek their ideas & suggestions through brainstorming.
Leader accepts any decision & will not try to force his
idea on the followers. Decision accepted by the group is
the final one.
• Stephen P. Robbins and Timothy A. Judge,
Organizational Behavior, 12th edition.
• Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behavior:
Concepts, Controversies, Applications, 8th
Hinweis der Redaktion
Leader – Someone who can influence others and who has managerial authority What leaders do; the process of influencing a group to achieve goal The 3 imp parts: interpersonal means between persons. Thus, a leader has more than one person to lead. Influence is the power to affect others Goal is the end one attempts to attain Leadership is actually a process not a position.you don’t have to hold the formal leadership role to be a leader .good leadershp is the use of key skills and practices correctly applied at the ryt tym to help the org reach the hghest potential.
What makes a leader different from manager ? (Warren Bennis and Peter Drucker) “Management is doing things right, leadership is doing the right things”
Effective leadershp is a func of the chara of the leader,the style of leadership, the chara of folllowers, and the situation whch exist in the org. There are many leadershp theories and they mainly belong to the categories trait behavioural and contingency .
TRAIT:evolution of gr8 man theory,these are older theories wer idea was that men were leaders exclusivelyy and that certain men were born leaders and they had characteristics that made them natural born leaders. UNIVERSAL personality traits that leaders possess. 2d approach tried to explain leadership in terms of behaviour that person engaged in. Erroneous and oversimplified conception of ledership, 3rd approach explained the inadequates of the previous theories Limitations in t b and c introduced some recent advances in leadership theories.
Margaret tatcher pm of great britain ,she was regularly singled out for her leadership. Confident,iron willed determined decisive
1.High desire for achievement and show initiative 2.influnce and lead 3.Build trustin relationship 4.Convince followers of the rightness of their goals and decisions 5,create vision,solve problems, make correct decisions 6.High degree of know abt comp .this helps take btr decisions and understnd the implications of these decisions
If trait theory was successful it wud hav provided a basis for selecting the ryt person but twas proved wrong. Limitations of trait : overlooks the needs of the followers facts to clarify the relative imp of various traits doenst separate cause from effect ignores situational factors
Researches wondered if there was sumthn unique in the way leaders behave, Robert crandall chairman of american airlines and paul b kazarian former chairman of sunbeam oster Tough talkin, intense and autocratic
In 1939 psychologist KL led a study that iDentified 3 core leadership styles and outlined the effect that each style had on team members. Research findings: mixed results Laissez faire was ineffective on every aspect of performance criteria. No specific style was consistently better for producing better performance Employees were more satisfied under a democratic leader than an autocratic leader. Make decisions without consulting team members. Slowdown decision making process and can lead to missed oppurtunity.
High in initiating structure is described as someone who assigns group members to particular task, expects workers to maintain definite standards of performance and emphasizes on meeting the deadline High in considerate is described as someone who helps subordinates with personal problems, is friendly, approachable and treats all subordinates as equals
9 possible position on both axis creating 81 position
What seems to be missing in behavioural theroy is the situational factors that influence success or failure. Situation change and leadership styles also change with them
Fiedler created the LPC questionnaire whether a person is task or relationship oriented. It contains 16 contrasting adjectives (such as pleasant-unpleasant, efficient-inefficient, open-guarded, supportive-hostile) wherein de respondents r asked to rate their co-worker on the scale of 1 to 8. if it is high: relationship motivated. If it is low: task motivated.
Task structure refers to the degree to which the tasks r procedurized (i.e., structured or unstructured). Position power refers to the degree of influence the leader has over power variables such as hiring, firing, discipline, promotions, and salary increases.
LPC and situational favourableness r put together to achieve maximum leadership effectiveness. Task oriented perform better in favourable and unfavourable situations whereas relationship oriented perform better in moderate/ intermediate situations.
Frm this diagram u can easily say that when faced with category I, II, III, VII and VIII situation, task oriented perform better whereas in IV, V and VI situations, relationship oriented performed better. In the recent years, fiedler has cut short these 8 categories into 3, which are favourable, moderate and unfavourable.
SLT has been incorporated into 400 of the fortune 500 companies. It is the followers who accept the leader. Regardless of what the leader does, effectiveness depends on the actions of the followers. This is an imp. Dimension that has been overlooked or underemphasized in most leadership theories. The term readiness refers to the extent to which people have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task.
S1: high task and low relationship: telling/ directing model. R1 : low readiness S2 : high task and high relationship: selling/ coaching model. R2: moderate readiness S3 : low task and high relationship : participating model. R3 : moderate readiness S4 :low task and low relationship: Delegating model. R4 : high readiness
This theory mainly focuses on the point that leaders do not treat all members of the group equally.
Few followers would want to be outside the inner circle of the leader. There is a danger being a part of the inner circle though. As a part of the inner circle ur fortunes may rise and fall with that of the leader’s. Eg: when the CEO of tyco was forced to leave the company, the CFO too had to leave the company due to his close association with the earlier, despite the fact that the CFO was thought to be one of the best executives of the company.
House identified 4 leadership behaviours: directive, supportive, participative and achievement oriented. Directive: followers know what is expected of them, schedules the work to be done, and gives specific guidance as to how to accomplish the tasks. Supportive: friendly and shows concern for the needs of the followers. Participative: consults with followers and uses their suggestions be4 making a decision. Achievement oriented: sets challenging goals and expects followers to perform at their highest level.
d.l.: leads to greater satisfaction when tasks r ambiguous or stressful than when they r highly structured and well laid out. s. l. :results in high employee performance and satisfaction when employees r performing structured tasks. Employees with an internal locus will be highly satisfied with a participative style. A-o. L. : vil increase employee expectancies that effort will lead to high performance when tasks r ambiguously structured. d. L. Is likely to be perceived as redundant among employees with high perceived ability or with considerable experience.
This model was normative- it provided a set of rules that should be followed in determining the form and amount of participation in decision making, as determined by differnt types of situations.
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