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Leadership theories

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Leadership theories

  1. 1. MEANING & THEORIES Presented by: Manal Manalody (Roll No.: 25) Sreena R. (Roll No.: 52)
  2. 2. WINTER 02 Template WHAT IS LEADERSHIP? • “Leadership maybe defined as the ability to exert interpersonal influence by means of communication towards the achievement of a goal.” -Koontz and O’Donnel • “Leadership is the lifting of man’s vision to higher sights, the raising of man’s performance to higher standards, the building of man’s personality beyond its normal limitations.” -Peter F. Drucker
  3. 3. 03 MANAGERS V/S LEADERS • Managers have employees, leaders have followers. • Managers react to change, leaders create change. • Managers have good ideas, leaders implement them. • Managers communicate, leaders persuade. • Managers direct groups, leaders create groups. • Managers take credit, leaders take responsibility. • Managers exercise power over people, leaders develop power with • people. MANAGER LEADER
  4. 4. LEADERSHIP THEORIES 04 • Trait Theories • Behavioural Theories • Contingency and Situational Theories
  5. 5. TRANSITION IN LEADERSHIP 05 THEORIES 1930s 1940/50s 1960/70s 1980s TRAITS SKILLS FOLLOWERS CONTEXT ETHICAL STYLES/TYPES OF LEADERS
  6. 6. TRAIT THEORY 06 •Based on the idea that people are born with certain character traits. It assumes that people are born as leaders. •Studies identified certain personal characteristics that appear to differentiate leaders from followers.
  7. 7. 6 TRAITS ASSOCIATED WINTER 07 Template WITH LEADERSHIP • Ambition and energy • Desire to lead • Honesty and integrity • Self-confidence • Intelligence • Job-relevant knowledge
  8. 8. WHOM DO YOU PREFER? 08 CANDIDATE A - Associates with crooked politicians, and consults with astrologists. He's had two mistresses. He also chain smokes and drinks quite a few martinis a day. FFrraannkklliinn RRoooosseellvveelltt CANDIDATE B - He was kicked out of office twice, sleeps until noon, used opium in college and drinks a great deal of whisky every evening. WWiinnssttoonn CChhuurrcchhiillll CANDIDATE C - He is a decorated war hero. He's a vegetarian, doesn't smoke, drinks an occasional beer and hasn't had any extramarital affairs. AAddoollff HHiittlleerr
  9. 9. 09 BEHAVIOURAL THEORIES • They look at what the leaders actually do. • It is based upon the belief that great leaders are made , not born. • Some of the most popular behavioural theories are: Kurt Lewin’s studies at the University of Iowa. The Ohio State group. The University of Michigan studies. Managerial Grid.
  10. 10. KURT LEWIN’S STUDIES AT THE 10 UNIVERSITY OF IOWA • Focused on identifying the best leadership styles. • It identified the following three leadership styles: Autocratic: Centralise authority, dictate work methods and limiting participation. Democratic: Involve employees in decision-making, delegating authority, encourages participation, and uses feedback to train employees. It is further divided into: Democratic-consultative leader seeks input but he himself makes the final decision. Democratic-participative leader often allows employees to put their suggestions. Laissez-faire: The leader generally gives employees complete freedom in decision-making.
  11. 11. 11 THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY STUDY • Identified 2 dimensions of leader behaviour: Initiating structure: The extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of sub-ordinates in the search for goal attainment. Consideration: The extent to which a leader is likely to have job relationships characterized by mutual trust, respect for subordinate’s ideas, and regard for their feelings. • The primary concern of leaders with considerate and employee-centered style is the employee’s welfare. The primary concern of leaders with initiating structure and production-centered style are achieving goals. • High-high leaders achieved high employee performance and satisfaction more frequently than one who rated low but enough exceptions were found to indicate that situational factors needed to be integrated into the theory.
  12. 12. 12 THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN STUDIES • Identified 2 dimensions of leader behaviour: Employee-oriented: Leaders emphasized interpersonal relations, took a personal interest in employees’ needs, and accepted individual differences among members. Production-oriented: Leaders emphasized the technical aspect of the job, focused on accomplishing group tasks, and regarded group members as a means to that end. • The Michigan researchers strongly favoured leaders who were employee-oriented. • Leaders who are employee oriented are strongly associated with high group productivity and high job satisfaction.
  13. 13. WINTER 13 Template MANAGERIAL GRID • Developed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton in the early 1960s. It is also called Leadership Grid. • It is based on 2 behavioural dimensions: Concern for people: Degree to which a leader considers the needs of team members, their interests, and areas of personal development when deciding how best to accomplish a task. Concern for production: Degree to which a leader emphasizes discrete objectives, organisational efficiency and high productivity when deciding how best to accomplish a task. • The 5 leadership styles include: 1.Impoverished leadership 2.Country Club leadership 3.Task leadership 4.Team leadership 5.Middle-of-the-road leadership
  14. 14. LEADERSHIP STYLES14
  15. 15. 15 CONTINGENCY AND SITUATIONAL THEORIES TTrraaiittss BBeehhaavviioo rrss SSiittuuaattiioo nn Based on the idea that the leader’s ability to lead is contingent upon various situational factors, including the leader’s preferred style, the capabilities and behaviour of followers and also various other situational factors.
  16. 16. 16 IMPORTANT CONTINGENCY THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP
  17. 17. 17 FIEDLER’S CONTINGENCY •Developed by Fred MODEL E. Fiedler. •This theory states that there is no best way for managers to lead. Situations will create different style requirements for a manager. •Proposes that effective group performance depends upon the proper match between the leader’s style of interacting with followers and the degree to which the situation allows the leader to control and influence. •Fielder uses the following devices to determine leader personality and the situation: Least Preferred Co-Worker Scale Situational Favourableness Leader-Situation Match and Mismatch
  18. 18. WINTER 18 Template LEAST PREFERRED CO-WORKER SCALE • It is used to measure a leader’s motivation. • HIGH LPC SCORE: It means that the respondent is primarily interested in good personal relations with this co-worker. • LOW LPC SCORE: It means that the respondent is primarily interested in productivity. • About 16% of the respondents score in the middle range. Such individuals cannot be classified as either relationship oriented or task oriented and thus fall outside the theory’s predictions. The rest 84% fall either into the high or low range of the LPC.
  19. 19. 19 SITUATIONAL FAVOURABLENESS •There are 3 factors that determine the favourableness of a situation: Leader-Member Relations, referring to the degree of mutual trust, respect and confidence between the leader and sub-ordinates. Task Structure, referring to the degree to which the task at hand is low in multiplicity and high in verifiability, specificity, and clarity. Leader-Position power, referring to the power inherent in the leader’s position itself. •The leader-member relationships are either good or poor, task structure is either high or low and position power is either strong or weak. •Fiedler states that the better the leader-member relationship, the more highly structured the job, the stronger the position power, the more control the leader has.
  20. 20. 20 LEADER-SITUATION MATCH AND MISMATCH • Task motivated leader has a match either with very favourable situation or very unfavourable situation. • Relationship motivated leader has a match with intermediate favourable situation. • If there is match between motivation type and the situation then leaders can lead efficiently. • If there is no match then the leader should move to a better matched situation. This is called “job engineering”.
  21. 21. Findings from Fiedler Model 21
  22. 22. 22 HERSEY AND BLANCHARD’S SITUATIONAL THEORY • It was developed by Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard (1977). • Argues that successful leadership is achieved by selecting the right leadership style which is contingent on the level of the followers’ readiness: Acceptance: Leadership effectiveness depends on whether followers accept or reject a leader. Readiness: The extent to which followers have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task. • The 2 leadership dimensions are task behaviour and relationship behaviour.
  23. 23. Hersey Hersey and and Blanchard’s Blanchard’s Situational Situational Leadership Model Leadership Model Template 22 Willing Unwilling Able MMoonniittoorriinngg// SSeelllliinngg// CCooaacchhiinngg SSuuppppoorrttiivvee// PPaarrttiicciippaattiivvee Unable DDiirreeccttiivvee// DDeelleeggaattiinngg TTeelllliinngg// DDiirreeccttiinngg Follower Readiness LLeeaaddeerrsshhiipp SSttyylleess
  24. 24. 24 LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE THEORY • Leaders create in-groups and out-groups, and subordinates with in-group status will have higher performance ratings, less turnover, and greater job satisfaction.
  25. 25. LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE 25 THEORY (contd.) •One of the things you may have noticed in your work and study groups is the tendencies of leaders to develop “special” relationships with some team members. •This tendency is central to leader-member exchange theory, or LMX theory as it is often called. •The theory basically recognizes that in most, or at least many, leadership situations not everyone is treated the same by the leader. •Instead, people fall into “in” groups and “out” groups in relationships with their leaders. Obviously, the group you are in can have quite a significant influence on your experience with the leader.
  26. 26. 26 LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE THEORY (contd.)
  27. 27. 27 PATH GOAL THEORY • Developed by Robert House to make leadership more effective. It focuses on leader behaviour rather than leader personality traits. • The theory states that it is the leader’s job to assist followers in attaining their goals and to provide them the necessary direction and/or support to ensure that their goals are compatible with the overall objectives of the group or organization.
  28. 28. PATH GOAL THEORY 28 WINTER (contd.) Template
  29. 29. 29 LEADER-PARTICIPATION MODEL • Developed by Vroom and Yetton in 1973. • A leadership theory that provides a set of rules to determine the form and amount of participative decision making in different situations. • Leadership is all about making decisions, conceiving vision, setting goals, laying paths to reach the goal, and making all efforts with followers in achieving it. • Effective Leadership requires taking situation based decisions. An individual will be accepted as Leader when his ideas, suggestions and advise are more appropriate to the situation. Decision taken under particular situation may not hold good for all situations & it may give different results in different situations.
  30. 30. 30 • Vroom and his associates have provided us with some specific , empirically supported contingency variables that should be considered when choosing your leadership style.  Importance of the decision  Importance of obtaining follower commitment to the decision  Whether the leader has sufficient information to make a good decision  How well structured the problem is  Whether an autocratic decision would receive follower commitment  Whether the followers “buy into” the organization's goals  Whether there is likely to be conflict among followers over solution alternatives  Whether the followers have the necessary information to make a good decision  Time constraints on the leader that any limit follower involvement  Whether costs to bring geographically dispersed members together is justified  Importance to the leader of minimizing the time it takes to make the decision  Importance of using participation as a tool for developing follower decision skills. LEADER-PARTICIPATION MODEL (contd.)
  31. 31. 31 LEADER-PARTICIPATION MODEL (contd.) This model identifies five different styles (ranging from autocratic to consultative to group-based decisions) on the situation & level of involvement. They are: •Autocratic Type 1 (AI) •Autocratic Type 2 (AII) •Consultative Type 1 (CI) •Consultative Type 2 (CII) •Group-based Type 2(GII)
  32. 32. 32 LEADER-PARTICIPATION MODEL (contd.) Autocratic Type 1 (AI) – Leader makes his own decision using information that is readily available to him at that time. This type is completely autocratic. Autocratic Type 2 (AII) – Leader collects required information from followers and then makes decision alone. Problem or decision may or may not be informed to the followers. Here, followers’ involvement is just providing information. Consultative Type 1 (CI) – Leader shares the problems with relevant followers individually and seeks their ideas & suggestions and makes decision alone. Here followers’ do not meet each other & leader’s decision may or may not have followers’ influence. So, here followers’ involvement is at the level of providing alternatives individually.
  33. 33. LEADER-PARTICIPATION WINTER 33 Template MODEL (contd.) • Consultative Type 2 (CII) – Leader shares the problems with relevant followers as a group and seek their ideas & suggestions and make decisions alone. Here followers’ meet each other and through discussions they understand other alternatives. But leader’s decision may or may not have followers’ influence. So, here followers involvement is at the level of helping, as a group, in decision-making. • Group-based Type 2(GII) – Leader discusses the problems & situations with followers as a group and seek their ideas & suggestions through brainstorming. Leader accepts any decision & will not try to force his idea on the followers. Decision accepted by the group is the final one.
  34. 34. REFERENCES 34 • Stephen P. Robbins and Timothy A. Judge, Organizational Behavior, 12th edition. • Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behavior: Concepts, Controversies, Applications, 8th edition.

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • Leader – Someone who can influence others and who has managerial authority
    What leaders do; the process of influencing a group to achieve goal
    The 3 imp parts: interpersonal means between persons. Thus, a leader has more than one person to lead.
    Influence is the power to affect others
    Goal is the end one attempts to attain
    Leadership is actually a process not a position.you don’t have to hold the formal leadership role to be a leader .good leadershp is the use of key skills and practices correctly applied at the ryt tym to help the org reach the hghest potential.
  • What makes a leader different from manager ?
    (Warren Bennis and Peter Drucker)
    “Management is doing things right,
    leadership is doing the right things”
  • Effective leadershp is a func of the chara of the leader,the style of leadership, the chara of folllowers, and the situation whch exist in the org.
    There are many leadershp theories and they mainly belong to the categories trait behavioural and contingency .
  • TRAIT:evolution of gr8 man theory,these are older theories wer idea was that men were leaders exclusivelyy and that certain men were born leaders and they had characteristics that made them natural born leaders.
    UNIVERSAL personality traits that leaders possess.
    2d approach tried to explain leadership in terms of behaviour that person engaged in. Erroneous and oversimplified conception of ledership,
    3rd approach explained the inadequates of the previous theories
    Limitations in t b and c introduced some recent advances in leadership theories.
  • Margaret tatcher pm of great britain ,she was regularly singled out for her leadership.
    Confident,iron willed determined decisive
  • 1.High desire for achievement and show initiative
    2.influnce and lead
    3.Build trustin relationship
    4.Convince followers of the rightness of their goals and decisions
    5,create vision,solve problems, make correct decisions
    6.High degree of know abt comp .this helps take btr decisions and understnd the implications of these decisions
  • If trait theory was successful it wud hav provided a basis for selecting the ryt person but twas proved wrong.
    Limitations of trait : overlooks the needs of the followers
    facts to clarify the relative imp of various traits
    doenst separate cause from effect
    ignores situational factors
  • Researches wondered if there was sumthn unique in the way leaders behave,
    Robert crandall chairman of american airlines and paul b kazarian former chairman of sunbeam oster
    Tough talkin, intense and autocratic
  • In 1939 psychologist KL led a study that iDentified 3 core leadership styles and outlined the effect that each style had on team members.
    Research findings: mixed results
    Laissez faire was ineffective on every aspect of performance criteria.
    No specific style was consistently better for producing better performance
    Employees were more satisfied under a democratic leader than an autocratic leader.
    Make decisions without consulting team members.
    Slowdown decision making process and can lead to missed oppurtunity.
  • High in initiating structure is described as someone who assigns group members to particular task, expects workers to maintain definite standards of performance and emphasizes on meeting the deadline
    High in considerate is described as someone who helps subordinates with personal problems, is friendly, approachable and treats all subordinates as equals
  • 9 possible position on both axis creating 81 position
  • What seems to be missing in behavioural theroy is the situational factors that influence success or failure.
    Situation change and leadership styles also change with them
  • Fiedler created the LPC questionnaire whether a person is task or relationship oriented. It contains 16 contrasting adjectives (such as pleasant-unpleasant, efficient-inefficient, open-guarded, supportive-hostile) wherein de respondents r asked to rate their co-worker on the scale of 1 to 8. if it is high: relationship motivated. If it is low: task motivated.
  • Task structure refers to the degree to which the tasks r procedurized (i.e., structured or unstructured).
    Position power refers to the degree of influence the leader has over power variables such as hiring, firing, discipline, promotions, and salary increases.
  • LPC and situational favourableness r put together to achieve maximum leadership effectiveness. Task oriented perform better in favourable and unfavourable situations whereas relationship oriented perform better in moderate/ intermediate situations.
  • Frm this diagram u can easily say that when faced with category I, II, III, VII and VIII situation, task oriented perform better whereas in IV, V and VI situations, relationship oriented performed better. In the recent years, fiedler has cut short these 8 categories into 3, which are favourable, moderate and unfavourable.
  • SLT has been incorporated into 400 of the fortune 500 companies.
    It is the followers who accept the leader. Regardless of what the leader does, effectiveness depends on the actions of the followers. This is an imp. Dimension that has been overlooked or underemphasized in most leadership theories. The term readiness refers to the extent to which people have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task.
  • S1: high task and low relationship: telling/ directing model. R1 : low readiness
    S2 : high task and high relationship: selling/ coaching model. R2: moderate readiness
    S3 : low task and high relationship : participating model. R3 : moderate readiness
    S4 :low task and low relationship: Delegating model. R4 : high readiness
  • This theory mainly focuses on the point that leaders do not treat all members of the group equally.
  • Few followers would want to be outside the inner circle of the leader. There is a danger being a part of the inner circle though. As a part of the inner circle ur fortunes may rise and fall with that of the leader’s. Eg: when the CEO of tyco was forced to leave the company, the CFO too had to leave the company due to his close association with the earlier, despite the fact that the CFO was thought to be one of the best executives of the company.
  • House identified 4 leadership behaviours: directive, supportive, participative and achievement oriented.
    Directive: followers know what is expected of them, schedules the work to be done, and gives specific guidance as to how to accomplish the tasks.
    Supportive: friendly and shows concern for the needs of the followers.
    Participative: consults with followers and uses their suggestions be4 making a decision.
    Achievement oriented: sets challenging goals and expects followers to perform at their highest level.
  • d.l.: leads to greater satisfaction when tasks r ambiguous or stressful than when they r highly structured and well laid out.
    s. l. :results in high employee performance and satisfaction when employees r performing structured tasks.
    Employees with an internal locus will be highly satisfied with a participative style.
    A-o. L. : vil increase employee expectancies that effort will lead to high performance when tasks r ambiguously structured.
    d. L. Is likely to be perceived as redundant among employees with high perceived ability or with considerable experience.
  • This model was normative- it provided a set of rules that should be followed in determining the form and amount of participation in decision making, as determined by differnt types of situations.

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