3. Sdlc models
SDLC(Softwaredevelopment lifecycle) is a framework that
describes the activities performed
at each step of a software
SDLC models are following
5. Prototype model
proposals and try them out before
A prototyping model suggest that before carrying out the
development of the actual software, a working prototype of
system should be built.
A prototype is a toy implementation of the system.
Prototype is a working model of software with some
Prototyping is used to allow the users evaluate the developer
6. How does the prototype model look?
according to the
Implement Test Maintain
7. Steps of the prototype model
Requirements gathering and Analysis:
A prototype model begins with requirementsanalysis, and the
requirements of the system are define in detail. The user is
interviewed in order to know the requirementsof the system.
When requirementsare known, aquick design for the system
is created. It is nota detailed design , it includes the
importantaspectsof the system, which gives an idea of the
system to the user.
8. Build prototype:
Information gathering from quick design is modified to form a
prototype .It represents a ‘rough’ design of the required system.
Customerevaluation of prototype:
The build prototype is presented to the customer for
Once the user evaluate the prototype, it is refined according to the
requirements . When the user is satisfied to the developed
prototype a final system is developed based on the final prototype
, which is developed by the iterative method means we design the
system according to the final prototype , after that implement , test
the product to find the errorand at last we maintain the system.
9. Need of the prototype model:-
Prototype provides a method to examine design
and evaluating solutions.
“…Prototypes are not self explanatory….Clarifying what
aspects of a prototypecorrespond to the eventual artifact─
and what don’t─ is a key part of successful prototyping.”
The developmentof the prototype model is expensive but
a good model because it satisfy all the requirements of the
10. Advantages of the prototype model:-
It provides a working model to the user early in the process ,
enabling early assessment and increasing the user confidence.
The developer gains the experience and insight by developing
prototype , thereby resulting I better implementation of the
It helps in reducing the risk associated to the
The prototyping model serves to clarify requirements , which
not clear, hence ambiguity and improving communication
between developer and user.
11. There is a great involvementof the users in software
development. Hence the requirements of the users are met
to the greatest extent.
12. Disadvantages of the prototype model
If the user is not satisfied with developed prototype,
then a new prototype is developed . This process goes on
until a perfect prototype evolves. Thus this model is time
consuming and expensive.
The developer loses focus of the real purpose of the
prototype and compromiseson the quality of the product.
Forexample:- he/she may apply some of the inefficient
algorithms or inappropriate programming languages used
in developing the prototype.
13. Prototype model can lead to the false expectations. It
often creates a situation where the user believes that the
development of the system is finished when it is not.
The primary goal of the prototype model is rapid
development. Thus, the design of the system may suffer
as it built in a series of layers without considering
integration of all the othercomponents.