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Tenses
An aspect of verb which tells the time of an action is called tense.
Tenses have certain rules, according to which ...
Tenses
Sohail Ahmed Page 1
Tense
An aspect of verb which tells the time of an action is called tense. Tenses have certain ...
Tenses
Sohail Ahmed Page 2
Simple Present Tense (Present Indefinite)
It is used to express an action in present time, habi...
Tenses
Sohail Ahmed Page 3
Examples.
Do I write a letter?
Does he get up early in the morning?
Does sun rise in east?
Note...
Tenses
Sohail Ahmed Page 4
Negative Sentence
• Subject + auxiliary verb + not + main verb-ing (Present participle) + objec...
Tenses
Sohail Ahmed Page 5
Structure of Sentence
Positive Sentence
• Subject + Auxiliary verb + main verb (past participle...
Tenses
Sohail Ahmed Page 6
Present Perfect Continuous tense
It is used to express a continued or ongoing action that start...
Tenses
Sohail Ahmed Page 7
To make negative sentence, the word “not” is written between the auxiliary verbs, so it
becomes...
Tenses
Sohail Ahmed Page 8
• Subject + 2nd form of verb (past simple) + object
Examples
I killed a snake
He ate a mango.
N...
Tenses
Sohail Ahmed Page 9
Structure of sentence
Positive sentences
• Subject + auxiliary verb + Main Verb (present partic...
Tenses
Sohail Ahmed Page 10
For example,
I had lived in America. (The sense of time in this sentence refers to a completed...
Tenses
Sohail Ahmed Page 11
started in past and continued till some time in past. Such time reference or sense of referenc...
Tenses
Sohail Ahmed Page 12
Future simple tense
It is used to express an action which has not occurred yet and will occur ...
Tenses
Sohail Ahmed Page 13
Interrogative sentence
• Auxiliary verb + subject + main verb (present participle) + object
• ...
Tenses
Sohail Ahmed Page 14
Examples.
I will/Shall not be waiting for you.
You will not be feeling well tomorrow.
Interrog...
Tenses
Sohail Ahmed Page 15
I will/Shall have left for home by the time he gets up.
You will not have started a job.
Inter...
Tenses
Sohail Ahmed Page 16
Examples.
I will/Shall not have been waiting for him for one hour.
She will not have been play...
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Tenses by sohail ahmed solangi

  1. 1. Tenses An aspect of verb which tells the time of an action is called tense. Tenses have certain rules, according to which a sentence is made. 1/29/2015 Sohail Ahmed asohail24@yahoo.com
  2. 2. Tenses Sohail Ahmed Page 1 Tense An aspect of verb which tells the time of an action is called tense. Tenses have certain rules, according to which a sentence is made. There are mainly three kinds of tenses.  Present tense  Past tense  Future tense Each of present, past and future tense is further divided into four kinds.  Simple (Indefinite)  Continuous (progressive)  Perfect  Perfect Continuous (Perfect progressive) In this way, there are 12 kinds of tense, which are explained in detail as below PRESENT TENSE  Present simple tense  Present Continuous tense  Present Perfect tense  Present Perfect Continuous tense PAST TENSE  Past simple tense  Past Continuous tense  Past Perfect tense  Past Perfect Continuous tense FUTURE TENSE  Future simple tense  Future Continuous tense  Future Perfect tense  Future Perfect Continuous tense
  3. 3. Tenses Sohail Ahmed Page 2 Simple Present Tense (Present Indefinite) It is used to express an action in present time, habitual or usual actions or daily event or universal fact. It is used to express an action in present time which is usually done on a regular basis. For example a student says, “I go to school”. It is a daily activity of a student to go to school, so such actions are expressed by present simple tense. Another example is, “I work in a factory”. It tells about a usual action of a person that he works in a factory on regular basis. Rules. 1st form of verb or base verb is used as main verb in sentence. Structure of sentence – Rules Positive Sentence • Subject + Main verb + Object • Subject + 1st form of verb (or base verb) + Object Note: If the subject in a sentence is “he, she, it, singular or proper noun” then “s” or “es” is added to the first form of verb or base form in the sentence. Examples. I write a letter. He gets up early in the morning. Sun rises in east. Negative Sentences • Subject + auxiliary verb +NOT + Main verb +object • Subject + Do not/Does not + 1st form of verb (or base form) + object Examples. I do not write a letter. He does not get up early in the morning. Sun does not rise in east. Note: In negative sentence auxiliary verb “do or does” along with “not” is used. If the subject in a sentence is “he, she, it, singular or proper noun”, then “Does not” is used after subject in sentence. If subject is “I, we, they, you or plural” then “Do not” is used after subject in sentence. “s” or “es” is not added to main verb in negative sentence Interrogative Sentence • Auxiliary verb + Subject + Main verb + Object • Do/Does + Subject + 1st for of verb (or base verb) + Object
  4. 4. Tenses Sohail Ahmed Page 3 Examples. Do I write a letter? Does he get up early in the morning? Does sun rise in east? Note: If the subject in a sentence is “he, she, it, singular or proper noun” the sentence is started with Auxiliary verb “Does”. If the subject in a sentence is “I, we, they, you or plural” the sentence is started with auxiliary verb “Do”. “s” or “es” is not added to main verb in Interrogative sentence Present Continuous Tense It is used to express a continued or ongoing action at present time. It expresses an action which is in progress at the time of speaking. For example, a person says, “I am writing a letter”. It means that he is in the process of writing a letter right now. Such actions which are happening at time of speaking are expressed by present continuous tense. Present Continuous tense is also called Present progressive tense. Rules. Auxiliary verb “am or is or are” is used in sentence. 1st form of verb or base verb + ing (present participle) is used as main verb in sentence. Structure of sentence Positive Sentence • Subject + auxiliary verb + main verb-ing (Present participle) + object • Subject + am/is/are + (1st form of verb or base verb + ing) + object If the subject is “I” then auxiliary verb “am” is used after subject in sentence. If the subject is “He, She, It, singular or proper name” then auxiliary verb “is” is used after subject in sentence. If subject is “You, They or plural” then auxiliary verb “are” is used after subject in sentence. The participle “ing” is added to the 1st form of verb i.e. going (go) writing (write) Examples I am playing cricket. He is driving a car They are reading their lessons.
  5. 5. Tenses Sohail Ahmed Page 4 Negative Sentence • Subject + auxiliary verb + not + main verb-ing (Present participle) + object • Subject + am/is/are + not + (1st form of verb + ing) + object Rules for using auxiliary verbs (am or is or are) after subject in negative sentences are same as mentioned above. Examples. I am not playing cricket. He is not driving a car They are not reading their lessons. Interrogative Sentences • Auxiliary verb + Subject + main verb-ing (Present participle) + object • Am/is/are + Subject + (1st form of verb or base verb + ing) + object For making interrogative sentences, the sentence is started with auxiliary verb rather than putting auxiliary verb inside the sentence. If the subject is “I” the sentence starts with auxiliary verb “am”. If the subject is “He, She, It, singular or proper name” the sentence starts with auxiliary verb “is”. If subject is “You, They or plural” the sentence starts with auxiliary verb “are”. Examples. Am I playing cricket? Is he driving a car? Are they reading their lessons? Present Perfect Tense It is used to expressed an action which happened or completed in past but usually the action which happened or completed at a short time before now (near past) not a very long time before now. Specific time such as two years ago, last week or that day is usually not used in the sentences of in this tense. It means that this tense expresses the action whose time when it happened, is not exactly specified but it sounds to refer to some action that happened or completed in near past. Rules: Auxiliary verb “has or have” is used in sentence. 3rd form of verb (past participle) is used as main verb in sentence.
  6. 6. Tenses Sohail Ahmed Page 5 Structure of Sentence Positive Sentence • Subject + Auxiliary verb + main verb (past participle) + Subject • Subject + has/have + 3rd form of verb or past participle + subject If the subject is “He, She, It, singular or proper name” then auxiliary verb “has” is used after subject in sentence. If subject is “You, They or plural” then auxiliary verb “have” is used after subject in sentence. Examples I have eaten meal She has learnt a lesson Negative Sentence • Subject + Auxiliary verb + NOT + main verb (past participle) + Subject • Subject + has/have + NOT + 3rd form of verb or past participle + subject Rules for using auxiliary verb “has or have” in negative sentence are same as mentioned above. Examples I have not eaten meal. She has not learnt a lesson. Interrogative Sentences • Auxiliary verb + Subject + main verb (past participle) + Subject • Has/have + Subject + 3rd form of verb or past participle + subject Interrogative sentence starts with auxiliary verb. If the subject is “He, She, It, singular or proper name” then the sentence starts with auxiliary verb “has”. If subject is “You, They or plural” then the sentence starts with auxiliary verb “have”. Examples Have I eaten meal? Has she learnt a lesson?
  7. 7. Tenses Sohail Ahmed Page 6 Present Perfect Continuous tense It is used to express a continued or ongoing action that started in past and is continued until now. There will be a time reference, such as “since 1980, for three hours etc” from which the action has been started. A sense of time reference is found in these sentences which gives an idea that action has been continued from some time in past till now. Such time reference or sense of time reference is the identity of Present perfect continuous tense because it tells that action has started from a particular time in past. For example, “He has been reading in this school since 2005”, so the it means that he has started his education in this school in 2005 and he is studying in this school till now. Note: If there is not time reference or sense of time reference then it is not Present perfect continuous tense because there is no hint about the time of action when it started in past and it seems just an ongoing action at present time which resembles “present Continuous tense. So the reference of time differentiates between Present perfect continuous tense and Present continuous tense. Structure of sentence Positive Sentence. • Subject + Auxiliary verb + main verb (Present participle) + Object + Time reference • Subject + has been/have been + (1st form of verb or base verb + ing) + object + time reference If the subject is “He, She, It, singular or proper name” then auxiliary verb “has been” is used after subject in sentence. If subject is “You, They or plural” then auxiliary verb “have been” is used after subject in sentence. Examples. He has been watering the plants for two hours. I have been studying since 3 O’clock Negative Sentence. • Subject +”Not” between the Auxiliary verb + main verb (present participle) + Object + Time reference • Subject + has not been/have not been + (1st form of verb or base verb + ing) + object + time reference
  8. 8. Tenses Sohail Ahmed Page 7 To make negative sentence, the word “not” is written between the auxiliary verbs, so it becomes like “has not been or have not been”. The rule for using auxiliary verb “has been or have been” in negative sentences is as same as mentioned above. Examples. He has not been watering the plants for two hours. I have not been studying since 3 O’clock. Interrogative Sentence. • Auxiliary verb + Subject + Auxiliary verb + main verb (present participle) + object + time reference • Has/have + Subject + been + (1st form of verb or base verb+ing) + object + time reference Interrogative sentence starts with auxiliary verb. If the subject is “He, She, It, singular or proper name” then the sentence starts with auxiliary verb “has” and auxiliary verb “been” is used after subject If subject is “You, They or plural” then the sentence starts with auxiliary verb “have” and “been” is used after subject Examples. Has he been watering the plants for two hours? Have I been studying since 3 O’clock? Past Simple Tense It is used to express an action that happened or completed in past, usually a very little time before speaking, or action which is just completed. Time of action is not specified in terms of long time ago or short ago but it make a sense that the action has done a little time ago. For example, a person says, “I watched a movie”, it means the speaker of this sentence watched a movie a little time ago or little time ago in the same day, but it has no connection with present tense. Rules: 2nd form of verb (past simple) is used as main verb in the positive sentences and base form is used in negative and interrogative sentences. Structure of sentences Positive Sentence • Subject + main verb (past simple) + object
  9. 9. Tenses Sohail Ahmed Page 8 • Subject + 2nd form of verb (past simple) + object Examples I killed a snake He ate a mango. Negative sentences • Subject + (auxiliary verb + not) main verb (base form) + object • Subject + did not + 1st form of verb or base form + object In negative sentence “did not” is written and the 1st form of verb (base verb) is used instead of using 2nd form (or past simple verb). Examples. I did not kill a snake He did not eat a mango Interrogative sentences • Auxiliary verb + subject + main verb (base verb) + object • Did + subject + 1st form of verb (or base verb) + object Interrogative sentence starts with “did” and the 1st form of verb (base verb) is used instead of using 2nd form (or past simple verb). Examples Did I kill a snake? Did he eat a mango? Past Continuous tense It is used to express a continued or ongoing action in past, an ongoing action which occurred in past and completed at some point in past. It expresses an ongoing nature of an action in past. For example, “he was laughing.” This sentence shows ongoing action (laughing) of a person which occurred in past. Past continuous tense is also called past progressive. Rules: Auxiliary verb “was or were” is used in sentence. 1st form of verb or base verb + ing (present participle) is used as main verb in sentence.
  10. 10. Tenses Sohail Ahmed Page 9 Structure of sentence Positive sentences • Subject + auxiliary verb + Main Verb (present participle) + object • Subject + was/were + (1st form of verb or base verb +ing) +object If the subject is “he, she, It, I, singular or proper noun” then auxiliary verb “was” is used. If subject is “you, we, they or plural” then auxiliary verb “were” is used. Examples. She was crying yesterday. They were climbing on a hill. Negative sentences • Subject + auxiliary verb + NOT + Main verb (present participle) + object • Subject + was/were + NOT + (1st form of verb or base verb +ing) +object Rules for using auxiliary verb after subject are same as mentioned above. Examples. She was not crying yesterday. They were not climbing on a hill. Interrogative sentences • Auxiliary verb + Subject + Main verb (present participle) + object • Was/were + Subject + (1st form of verb or base verb +ing) +object The interrogative sentence starts with the auxiliary verb. If the subject is “he, she, It, I, singular or proper noun” then the sentence starts with auxiliary verb “was”. If subject is “you, we, they or plural” then the sentence starts with auxiliary verb “were”. Examples. Was she crying yesterday? Were they climbing on a hill? Past perfect tense It is used to express an action which has occurred in past (usually, a long time ago) and action which has occurred in past before another action in past.
  11. 11. Tenses Sohail Ahmed Page 10 For example, I had lived in America. (The sense of time in this sentence refers to a completed action in past and especially a long time ago) Rules. Auxiliary verb “had” is used in sentence. 3rd form of verb (past participle) is used as main verb in sentence Structure of sentence Positive sentence • Subject + auxiliary verb + main verb (past participle) + object • Subject + had + 3rd form of verb or past participle + object Examples. He had taken the exam last year A thief had stolen my watch. Negative sentence • Subject + auxiliary verb + NOT + main verb (past participle) + object •Subject + had + not + 3rd form of verb or past participle + object “Not” is written after auxiliary verb in negative sentence. Examples. He had not taken the exam last year A thief had not stolen my watch. Interrogative sentence • Auxiliary verb + subject + main verb (past participle) + object • Had + subject + 3rd form of verb or past participle + object Interrogative sentence starts with auxiliary verb “had” Examples. Had he taken the exam last year Had a thief stolen my watch? Past Perfect continuous tense It is used to express a continued or ongoing action that started in past and continued until sometime in past. (Remember, an ongoing action in past which continued till some time in past) There will be a time reference, such as “since 1980, for three hours etc” from which the action had started. A sense of time reference is found in these sentences which shows that action had
  12. 12. Tenses Sohail Ahmed Page 11 started in past and continued till some time in past. Such time reference or sense of reference is the identity of Present perfect continuous tense because it tells that action has started from a particular time in past or for some time period. For example, “He had been studying in this school since 2005”, so the it means that he had started his education in this school in 2005 and he studied in this school till sometime in past. Structure of sentence Positive Sentence. • Subject + Auxiliary verb + main verb (Present participle) + Object + Time reference • Subject + had been + (1st form of verb or base verb + ing) + object + time reference Examples. I had been waiting for him for one hour. She had been playing chess since 7 O’clock. Negative Sentence. • Subject +”Not” between the Auxiliary verbs + main verb (present participle) + Object + Time reference • Subject + had not been + (1st form of verb or base verb + ing) + object + time reference To make negative sentence, the word “not” is added inside auxiliary verb, so it becomes “had not been”. Examples. I had not been waiting for him for one hour. She had not been playing chess since 7 O’clock. Interrogative Sentence. • Auxiliary verb+ Subject + Auxiliary verb + main verb (present participle) + object + time reference • Had + Subject + been + (1st form of verb or base verb+ing) + object + time reference Interrogative sentence starts with auxiliary verb “had” and auxiliary verb “been” is used after subject in sentence. Examples. Had I been waiting for him for one hour? Had she been playing chess 7 O’clock?
  13. 13. Tenses Sohail Ahmed Page 12 Future simple tense It is used to express an action which has not occurred yet and will occur after saying or in future. For example, “I will/shall go to zoo tomorrow”, in this sentence the person intend for tomorrow’s visit to zoo. In short, these sentences express actions which will be done in future. Rules. Auxiliary verb “will” is used in sentence. 1st form of verb or base form is used as main verb in sentence. The traditional rule in standard British English is that shall is used with first person pronouns (i.e. I and we) to form the future tense, while will is used with second and third person forms (i.e. you, he, she, it, they). For example: I shall be late. They will not have enough food. However, when it comes to expressing a strong determination to do something, the roles are reversed: will is used with the first person Structure of sentence Positive sentence • Subject + auxiliary verb + main verb (present participle) + object •Subject + will + (1st form of verb or base form +ing) + object Examples. I will/Shall buy a computer tomorrow. They will come here. Negative sentence • Subject + auxiliary verb+ not + main verb (present participle) + object • Subject + will +not + (1st form of verb or base form +ing) + object To make negative sentence “not” is written after auxiliary verb in sentence. Examples. I will/Shall not buy a computer tomorrow. They will not come here.
  14. 14. Tenses Sohail Ahmed Page 13 Interrogative sentence • Auxiliary verb + subject + main verb (present participle) + object • Will + subject + (1st form of verb or base form +ing) + object Interrogative sentence starts with auxiliary verb “will” Examples. Shall I buy a computer tomorrow? Will they come here? Future Continuous tense It is used to express a continued or an ongoing action in future. For example, “I will be waiting for you tomorrow”, it conveys ongoing nature of an action (waiting) which will occur in future. Rules. Auxiliary verb “will/Shall be” is used in sentence. 1st form of verb + ing (present participle) is used as main verb in sentence. Structure of sentence Positive sentence • Subject + auxiliary verb + main verb (present participle) + object • Subject + will be+ 1st form of verb or base form+ing (present participle) + object Examples. I will/Shall be waiting for you. You will be feeling well tomorrow. Negative sentence • Subject + not between auxiliary verbs+ not + main verb (present participle) + object • Subject + will not be + 1st form of verb or base form+ing (present participle) + object To make negative sentence “not” is written between auxiliary verbs “will and be” in sentence.
  15. 15. Tenses Sohail Ahmed Page 14 Examples. I will/Shall not be waiting for you. You will not be feeling well tomorrow. Interrogative sentence • Auxiliary verb + subject + auxiliary verb + main verb (present participle) + object • Will + subject + be+ 1st form of verb or base form+ing (present participle) + object Interrogative sentence starts with auxiliary verb “will” and auxiliary verb “be” comes after subject in interrogative sentence Examples. Will/Shall I be waiting for you?( Will when it put to other’s choice) Will you be feeling well tomorrow? Future Perfect tense It is used to express an action which will occur in future and is thought to be completed in future. It expresses a sense of completion of an action which will occur in future. For example, “Ayaan will have gone tomorrow”. It shows a sense of completion of an action (go) which will occur in future (tomorrow). Rules. Auxiliary verb “will/Shall have” is used in sentence. 3rd form of verb or past participle form of verb is used as main verb in sentence. Structure of sentence Positive sentence • Subject + auxiliary verb + main verb (past participle) + object • Subject + will have + 3rd form of verb or past participle + object Examples She will have finished the work by Wednesday. I will/Shall have left for home by the time he gets up. You will have started a job. Negative sentence • Subject + Not between auxiliary verbs + main verb (past participle) + object • Subject + will not have + 3rd form of verb or past participle + object Examples She will have finished the work by Wednesday.
  16. 16. Tenses Sohail Ahmed Page 15 I will/Shall have left for home by the time he gets up. You will not have started a job. Interrogative sentence • Auxiliary verb + Subject + auxiliary verb + main verb (past participle) + object • Will + Subject +have + 3rd form of verb or past participle + object Examples Will she have finished the work by Wednesday? Will/Shall I have left for home by the time he gets up? Will you have started a job? Future Perfect Continuous tense It is used to express a continued or ongoing action that will start in future and is thought to be continued till sometime in future. (Remember, an ongoing action in future which will continue till some time in future). There will be a time reference, such as “since 1980, for three hours” from which the action will start in future and will continue. A sense of time reference is found which gives an idea that action will start at some time in future and will continue for some time. Such time reference or sense of time reference is the identity of Future perfect continuous tense because it tells that action will start at a particular time in future. For example, “He will have been studying in this school since 2005”, so the it means that he will start studying in this school in 2005 and will study in this school till sometime in future. Structure of sentence Positive Sentence. • Subject + Auxiliary verb + main verb (Present participle) + Object + Time reference •Subject + will have been + (1st form of verb or base verb + ing) + object + time reference Examples. I will/Shall have been waiting for him for one hour. She will have been playing football since 2015. Negative Sentence. • Subject +”Not” inside Auxiliary verbs + main verb (present participle) + Object + Time reference • Subject + will not have been + (1st form of verb or base verb + ing) + object + Time reference To make negative sentence, the word “not” is added inside auxiliary verb, so it becomes “will not have been”.
  17. 17. Tenses Sohail Ahmed Page 16 Examples. I will/Shall not have been waiting for him for one hour. She will not have been playing football since 2015. Interrogative Sentence. • Auxiliary verb + Subject + auxiliary verb + main verb (present participle) + object + time reference • Will + Subject + have been + (1st form of verb or base verb+ing) + object + time reference Interrogative sentence starts with auxiliary verb “will” and auxiliary verb “have been” is used after subject in sentence. Examples. Will/Shall I have been waiting for him for one hour? Will she have been playing football since 2015? References and For Further Reading n.d. 28 1 2015 <http://www.studyandexam.com/learn-english.html>. Martinet, A v and A J Thomson. A Practical English Grammar. Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2006. oxforddictionaries. 28 1 2015 <http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/words>. Grammarly. Grammarly Handbook. n.d. 28 1 2015 <http://www.grammarly.com/handbook/grammar/verbs/8/simple-present-tense- present-indefinite/>. Murphy, Raymond. English Grammar in use. London: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Quirk, Randolph and Sidney Greenbaum. A Concise Grammar of Contemporary English. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich,, 1978. Wekipedia. n.d. 14 1 2015 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grammatical_tense>
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