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The case against secularisation
Different evidence
• Resacrilisation (linked to sects/NAMs etc)

• Individuation

• Rise of fundamentalism

• Cultural defence
Resacrilisation
Traditional religions maybe declining but other
religions are growing.

Resacrilisation is a ‘renewal or continuing vitality
of religious beliefs’ (Greeley, 1972).
Resacrilisation
Heelas
- People are shifting from traditional religion to
  a more individualistic spirituality centred on
  the self.
- (see NAMs – self improvement)

- People are blending ‘hybrids’ (postmodernity)
  of religions to suit their own needs.
Brierley (2005)
• Sects have been rising from 2.4% in 2000 to
  3.1% in 2010

• Statistically that’s a healthy jump!
Evaluation
Glendinning & Bruce
 Question Heelas’s data.

 Only 1 in 50 people in the Kendal area were
  engaged with NAMs in a typical week.

 Only half of that figure saw these activities as
  spiritual.
Wilson
• Sees sects etc as ‘irrelevant’
• Members are in their own little enclosed worlds
• Mainly appeal to drop outs or damaged people.
• These religions have very little impact on their
  everyday lives as religions proper would do, ie)
  moral guidance

Berger
• Sects are ‘islands in a secular sea’
2. Individuation
Davie
• Believing without belonging
• Privatised worship

• The rise of ‘vicarious religion’ – people
  experience second hand religion at baptisms
  etc
Evaluation
Voas & Crockett
• Use social trends data to show that since 1983
  there has been a decline in attending and
  believing.

Bruce
• If people are not investing effort in attending
  then this represents a lack of commitment
  and a decline in strength of belief.
3. Growth of Fundamentalism
Many parts of the world have seen a revival of fundamentalist
ideas.

They are committed to religious laws.

Almond
Rise of Fundamentalism amongst:
• Jews in Israel.
• Muslims in Pakistan/Palestine/Egypt/former Soviet Union
• Sikhs and Hindus in India
• Christians in USA
• Buddhists in Sri Lanka
Roof & McKinney
• New Right (USA) – conservative Protestants
• High church attendance/strong morality
Evaluation
Bruce
• Sees New Christian Right have only slowed
  down secularisation in USA.

• These groups only appear significant because
  they are ‘unusual’ – they stand out in a secular
  world.
4. Cultural Defence & Transition
Bruce
• Identifies 2 trends that go against
  secularisation – these are linked to
  high levels of religiosity.

• Cultural defence (religion is a focal point for the
  defence of identities against threats)
  eg) Catholicism in Poland/Islam in Iran 1979.

• Cultural transition (religion provides support and sense
  of community)
  eg) immigration to new country

(this can be linked to Herberg – Protestant, Catholic, Jew)
Evaluation
Bruce
• Religion only survives in these situations
  because it as a focal point for IDENTITY..not
  spirituality.

• Religion will survive where it performs this
  function..not because of a belief in faith
  (hence it does not really prove secularisation
  isn’t happening).
task
Assess the arguments for and against the claim
that contemporary societies are becoming
more secular (33 marks)
• Use the material in this ppt to plan the case
  AGAINST secularisation.
• How would you use it?

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  • 1. The case against secularisation
  • 2. Different evidence • Resacrilisation (linked to sects/NAMs etc) • Individuation • Rise of fundamentalism • Cultural defence
  • 3. Resacrilisation Traditional religions maybe declining but other religions are growing. Resacrilisation is a ‘renewal or continuing vitality of religious beliefs’ (Greeley, 1972).
  • 4. Resacrilisation Heelas - People are shifting from traditional religion to a more individualistic spirituality centred on the self. - (see NAMs – self improvement) - People are blending ‘hybrids’ (postmodernity) of religions to suit their own needs.
  • 5. Brierley (2005) • Sects have been rising from 2.4% in 2000 to 3.1% in 2010 • Statistically that’s a healthy jump!
  • 6. Evaluation Glendinning & Bruce  Question Heelas’s data.  Only 1 in 50 people in the Kendal area were engaged with NAMs in a typical week.  Only half of that figure saw these activities as spiritual.
  • 7. Wilson • Sees sects etc as ‘irrelevant’ • Members are in their own little enclosed worlds • Mainly appeal to drop outs or damaged people. • These religions have very little impact on their everyday lives as religions proper would do, ie) moral guidance Berger • Sects are ‘islands in a secular sea’
  • 8. 2. Individuation Davie • Believing without belonging • Privatised worship • The rise of ‘vicarious religion’ – people experience second hand religion at baptisms etc
  • 9. Evaluation Voas & Crockett • Use social trends data to show that since 1983 there has been a decline in attending and believing. Bruce • If people are not investing effort in attending then this represents a lack of commitment and a decline in strength of belief.
  • 10. 3. Growth of Fundamentalism Many parts of the world have seen a revival of fundamentalist ideas. They are committed to religious laws. Almond Rise of Fundamentalism amongst: • Jews in Israel. • Muslims in Pakistan/Palestine/Egypt/former Soviet Union • Sikhs and Hindus in India • Christians in USA • Buddhists in Sri Lanka
  • 11. Roof & McKinney • New Right (USA) – conservative Protestants • High church attendance/strong morality
  • 12. Evaluation Bruce • Sees New Christian Right have only slowed down secularisation in USA. • These groups only appear significant because they are ‘unusual’ – they stand out in a secular world.
  • 13. 4. Cultural Defence & Transition Bruce • Identifies 2 trends that go against secularisation – these are linked to high levels of religiosity. • Cultural defence (religion is a focal point for the defence of identities against threats) eg) Catholicism in Poland/Islam in Iran 1979. • Cultural transition (religion provides support and sense of community) eg) immigration to new country (this can be linked to Herberg – Protestant, Catholic, Jew)
  • 14. Evaluation Bruce • Religion only survives in these situations because it as a focal point for IDENTITY..not spirituality. • Religion will survive where it performs this function..not because of a belief in faith (hence it does not really prove secularisation isn’t happening).
  • 15. task Assess the arguments for and against the claim that contemporary societies are becoming more secular (33 marks) • Use the material in this ppt to plan the case AGAINST secularisation. • How would you use it?