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Strategies for promoting Health * What strategies help to promote the health of individuals?
What is health promotion?      Health promotion is the process that enables people to improve or have greater control over their health.      The aim of health promotion is to help an individual or group reach a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being. It involves an individual or group being able to: • identify and realise aspirations • satisfy needs • change with the environment.      Health promotion makes it possible for people to increase control over the determinants of  health and thereby improve their health.
Community-based Work  e.g. community transport Environmental health e.g. Reusable bags Preventative Health services e.g. breast cancer screening Organisational  Development e.g. health promoting schools Health education e.g. Sexual health and drug education in schools Health  Promotion Public Policies e.g. Banning smoking in restaurants, pubs and clubs Economicregulatory activities e.g. Restrictions on the sale of alcohol Figure 3.1 Health promotion encompasses a range of activities
Responsibility for health promotion      Health promotion is not just the responsibility of the health   sector. The responsibility is shared among individuals, community groups/schools, health professionals, health service institutions and governments. They must work together to provide a health care system that promotes health.
Individuals    Health is created and experienced by people within the settings of their everyday life; where they learn, work, play and love.  Health promotion includes and encourages individual responsibility and action.
Community groups/schools Community health programs may have targets on varying scales. They may be directed at     individuals, local communities, states or the entire country. Health information is provided to the general public through the mass media. Architects, engineers and urban planners also contribute to health. Schools have an important role in health promotion with  health education and personal development  important parts of the school curriculum eg. sun protection in the playground.
Non-government organisations     Non-government and professional organisations play an important role in community education, providing health services, research, workforce development and political advocacy.Non-governmentorganisations (NGOs) include large national and state bodies, such as the National Heart Foundation and the state Cancer Councils.
Government All levels of government—local, state and federal—have a key role to play in health promotion. Examine how local, state and federal levels of government affect health promotion.
International organisations     To assist and guide countries in achieving the best health for their citizens, a number of international health organisations have been established. The United Nations, World Health Organization and United Nations Children’s Fund are three such organisations. All three bodies are involved in promoting global health.
International organisations The United Nations (UN) maintains international peace and security; develops friendly relations between countries based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples; cooperates in solving international economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems; and promotes respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. Within the UN are administrative bodies that play a key role in health promotion, including the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). The websites of the UN, WHO and UNICEF can be accessed at www. oup.com.au/pdhpe11
Health promotion approachesand strategies Health promotion is aimed at improving the health of an individual or community or changing behaviour that may have a negative influence on health. Health promotion approaches and strategies range from individually focused interventions (such as posters providing positive health messages) through to the Development of a national health promoting policy (such as the National Mental Health Strategy).
Figure 3.4 A framework for health promotion 				Health promotion 			Focus                Strategies                                                               Outcomes Illness or health                                                                                                                                                                                              Risk	                                                                                                         Impact Behavioural adaptations: changes to behaviour that will improve health ,[object Object]
Preventative medical
Public Health
Individuals
Groups
PopulationsBetter health and well-being Quality of life Environmental adaptations: Changes to the environment that promote health
Lifestyle/behavioural approaches Lifestyle/behavioural approaches are concerned with individuals or groups whose behavioural or social situations place them at greater risk of developing unhealthy lifestyles. 		These approaches target smaller ‘at-risk’ groups within a population to change their behaviour. This is based on the theory that a change in behaviour of a small percentage of the whole population results in significantly more people changing behaviours. 	Lifestyle/behavioural approaches are directed at improving the health of groups whose behaviours put their health at risk, such as people who smoke, have poor nutrition, are physically inactive or misuse substances. These approaches use health education, social marketing, put their health at risk, such as people who smoke, have poor nutrition, are physically inactive or misuse substances. These approaches use health education, social marketing,
self-help,             self-care Self-help is the use of strategies to manage one’s own health problems rather than seeking professional help. Self-care is caring for oneself or a friend or family member rather than using the care traditionally provided by professional health care providers.
Individual lifestyle approach       The individual lifestyle approach to health promotion is based on the principles that the major causes of morbidity and mortality within Australia are diseases resulting from poor lifestyle behaviour choices. This approach tends to blame individuals for their poor health.       It presumes that, with relevant information, people will change their actions and way of thinking to improve their health. However, the individual lifestyle approach to health promotion does not explain why people make unwise health choices in the first place and fails to recognise the factors that influence an individual’s behaviour, such as social,  economic and environmental factors.  Smoking has been identified as one of the most significant causes of avoidable death and disease. Describe some health promotion programs that have been developed to reduce the impact of smoking.
Socio-environmental approach        The socio-environmental approach promotes health by addressing the social determinants of health, such as access to food, housing, income, employment, transport and education and factors such as addiction, social isolation and early life experiences.        Health promotion actions commonly used in the socio-environmental approach include: • creating environments that support health (for         example, a school providing trees and sheltered         areas to protect students and staff from the         Sun’s rays) • working with communities to strengthen their development (for example, a school developing         a nutrition policy to promote healthy eating and         selling nutritious food in the canteen)     • advocating for public policy (for example, a school        becoming a health promoting school).
Harm-minimisation approach 		The harm-minimisation approach accepts that, 		despite our best efforts, some people will choose to 		engage in risk-taking behaviour, such as drug use 		or unsafe sexual activity. The harm-minimisation 		approach aims to reduce the adverse health, 		social and economic consequences of risk-taking 		behaviours by minimising or limiting the harms and 		hazards for both the community and the individual 		without necessarily eliminating use. A harm-minimisation approach to drug use, for example, involves a   	range of strategies. These include demand reduction, supply control, 		controlled use, safer drug use and abstinence. (Describe what is involved in demand reduction, supply control and harm reduction)
Zero-tolerance approach Zero tolerance is a term commonly associated with strict policing measures. When these approaches are used in connection with wider drug use issues or sexual health practices, for example, they may potentially lead to increased victimisation. It does not consider a particular behaviour, such as drug use, to be a health issue. Rather, it is viewed as a legal issue. Key Word:  victimisation (define) Harm-minimisation versus zero-tolerance approaches to drug use       The zero-tolerance approach can be at odds with alternative approaches to responding to drug problems. Harm-minimisation strategies are a fundamental part of Australia’s drug strategy. They include strategies to promote abstinence and programs to encourage people not to commence drug use and to assist users to stop drug use. To avoid possible confusion
preventative medical approaches      Preventative medical approaches are the traditional approaches of the health sector, which regards health as the absence of illness and disease. These approaches are directed at improving physiological risk factors; that is, those relating to the way living things function. Examples are high blood pressure and lack of immunisation. These approaches also      focus on the treatment and prevention of disease.    What are the 3 stages of the preventative medical approach?
public health approaches Public health approaches aim to provide the maximum benefit for the largest number of people. They are concerned with preventing disease or injury from occurring or reoccurring, promoting health, and returning health to populations and communities following natural or man-made disasters.  Describe the key steps and settings for the public health approach.
Health promotion strategies Types of strategies Three main types of strategies are employed in the implementation of health promotion. These are: • enabling • creating environments that are supportive of health • advocating to create the essential conditions for health. Write a description of these 3 strategies.

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Promoting Health Through Individual and Community Strategies

  • 1. Strategies for promoting Health * What strategies help to promote the health of individuals?
  • 2. What is health promotion? Health promotion is the process that enables people to improve or have greater control over their health. The aim of health promotion is to help an individual or group reach a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being. It involves an individual or group being able to: • identify and realise aspirations • satisfy needs • change with the environment. Health promotion makes it possible for people to increase control over the determinants of health and thereby improve their health.
  • 3. Community-based Work e.g. community transport Environmental health e.g. Reusable bags Preventative Health services e.g. breast cancer screening Organisational Development e.g. health promoting schools Health education e.g. Sexual health and drug education in schools Health Promotion Public Policies e.g. Banning smoking in restaurants, pubs and clubs Economicregulatory activities e.g. Restrictions on the sale of alcohol Figure 3.1 Health promotion encompasses a range of activities
  • 4. Responsibility for health promotion Health promotion is not just the responsibility of the health sector. The responsibility is shared among individuals, community groups/schools, health professionals, health service institutions and governments. They must work together to provide a health care system that promotes health.
  • 5. Individuals Health is created and experienced by people within the settings of their everyday life; where they learn, work, play and love. Health promotion includes and encourages individual responsibility and action.
  • 6. Community groups/schools Community health programs may have targets on varying scales. They may be directed at individuals, local communities, states or the entire country. Health information is provided to the general public through the mass media. Architects, engineers and urban planners also contribute to health. Schools have an important role in health promotion with health education and personal development important parts of the school curriculum eg. sun protection in the playground.
  • 7. Non-government organisations Non-government and professional organisations play an important role in community education, providing health services, research, workforce development and political advocacy.Non-governmentorganisations (NGOs) include large national and state bodies, such as the National Heart Foundation and the state Cancer Councils.
  • 8. Government All levels of government—local, state and federal—have a key role to play in health promotion. Examine how local, state and federal levels of government affect health promotion.
  • 9. International organisations To assist and guide countries in achieving the best health for their citizens, a number of international health organisations have been established. The United Nations, World Health Organization and United Nations Children’s Fund are three such organisations. All three bodies are involved in promoting global health.
  • 10. International organisations The United Nations (UN) maintains international peace and security; develops friendly relations between countries based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples; cooperates in solving international economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems; and promotes respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. Within the UN are administrative bodies that play a key role in health promotion, including the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). The websites of the UN, WHO and UNICEF can be accessed at www. oup.com.au/pdhpe11
  • 11. Health promotion approachesand strategies Health promotion is aimed at improving the health of an individual or community or changing behaviour that may have a negative influence on health. Health promotion approaches and strategies range from individually focused interventions (such as posters providing positive health messages) through to the Development of a national health promoting policy (such as the National Mental Health Strategy).
  • 12.
  • 17. PopulationsBetter health and well-being Quality of life Environmental adaptations: Changes to the environment that promote health
  • 18. Lifestyle/behavioural approaches Lifestyle/behavioural approaches are concerned with individuals or groups whose behavioural or social situations place them at greater risk of developing unhealthy lifestyles. These approaches target smaller ‘at-risk’ groups within a population to change their behaviour. This is based on the theory that a change in behaviour of a small percentage of the whole population results in significantly more people changing behaviours. Lifestyle/behavioural approaches are directed at improving the health of groups whose behaviours put their health at risk, such as people who smoke, have poor nutrition, are physically inactive or misuse substances. These approaches use health education, social marketing, put their health at risk, such as people who smoke, have poor nutrition, are physically inactive or misuse substances. These approaches use health education, social marketing,
  • 19. self-help, self-care Self-help is the use of strategies to manage one’s own health problems rather than seeking professional help. Self-care is caring for oneself or a friend or family member rather than using the care traditionally provided by professional health care providers.
  • 20. Individual lifestyle approach The individual lifestyle approach to health promotion is based on the principles that the major causes of morbidity and mortality within Australia are diseases resulting from poor lifestyle behaviour choices. This approach tends to blame individuals for their poor health. It presumes that, with relevant information, people will change their actions and way of thinking to improve their health. However, the individual lifestyle approach to health promotion does not explain why people make unwise health choices in the first place and fails to recognise the factors that influence an individual’s behaviour, such as social, economic and environmental factors. Smoking has been identified as one of the most significant causes of avoidable death and disease. Describe some health promotion programs that have been developed to reduce the impact of smoking.
  • 21. Socio-environmental approach The socio-environmental approach promotes health by addressing the social determinants of health, such as access to food, housing, income, employment, transport and education and factors such as addiction, social isolation and early life experiences. Health promotion actions commonly used in the socio-environmental approach include: • creating environments that support health (for example, a school providing trees and sheltered areas to protect students and staff from the Sun’s rays) • working with communities to strengthen their development (for example, a school developing a nutrition policy to promote healthy eating and selling nutritious food in the canteen) • advocating for public policy (for example, a school becoming a health promoting school).
  • 22. Harm-minimisation approach The harm-minimisation approach accepts that, despite our best efforts, some people will choose to engage in risk-taking behaviour, such as drug use or unsafe sexual activity. The harm-minimisation approach aims to reduce the adverse health, social and economic consequences of risk-taking behaviours by minimising or limiting the harms and hazards for both the community and the individual without necessarily eliminating use. A harm-minimisation approach to drug use, for example, involves a range of strategies. These include demand reduction, supply control, controlled use, safer drug use and abstinence. (Describe what is involved in demand reduction, supply control and harm reduction)
  • 23. Zero-tolerance approach Zero tolerance is a term commonly associated with strict policing measures. When these approaches are used in connection with wider drug use issues or sexual health practices, for example, they may potentially lead to increased victimisation. It does not consider a particular behaviour, such as drug use, to be a health issue. Rather, it is viewed as a legal issue. Key Word: victimisation (define) Harm-minimisation versus zero-tolerance approaches to drug use The zero-tolerance approach can be at odds with alternative approaches to responding to drug problems. Harm-minimisation strategies are a fundamental part of Australia’s drug strategy. They include strategies to promote abstinence and programs to encourage people not to commence drug use and to assist users to stop drug use. To avoid possible confusion
  • 24. preventative medical approaches Preventative medical approaches are the traditional approaches of the health sector, which regards health as the absence of illness and disease. These approaches are directed at improving physiological risk factors; that is, those relating to the way living things function. Examples are high blood pressure and lack of immunisation. These approaches also focus on the treatment and prevention of disease. What are the 3 stages of the preventative medical approach?
  • 25. public health approaches Public health approaches aim to provide the maximum benefit for the largest number of people. They are concerned with preventing disease or injury from occurring or reoccurring, promoting health, and returning health to populations and communities following natural or man-made disasters. Describe the key steps and settings for the public health approach.
  • 26. Health promotion strategies Types of strategies Three main types of strategies are employed in the implementation of health promotion. These are: • enabling • creating environments that are supportive of health • advocating to create the essential conditions for health. Write a description of these 3 strategies.
  • 27. Deciding on a strategy Critical inquiry Propose actions that may improve the health of young people. Figure 3.11 The Breast Screen Australia Program promotes positive health behaviour
  • 28. The Ottawa Charter as an effective health promotion framework The WHO conducted the first International Conference on Health Promotion at Ottawa in November1986. A document, titled the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, was produced as a result of this conference. The charter provides a framework for the implementation of health promotion in five specific areas: • develop personal skills • create supportive environments • strengthen community action • reorient health services • build healthy public policy.
  • 29. WHO designed the logo in Figure 3.12 to represent the approach to health promotionoutlined in the Ottawa Charter. WHO provides the following explanation of the logo: Draw the logo of the Ottawa Charter. Write a description of the 5 areas of the Ottawa Charter.
  • 30. principles of social justice Social justice is concerned with ensuring that every Australian lives free from discrimination and has the means to make choices about how they live. It aims to ensure all people have the opportunity to obtain employment and good health. These principles of social justice can be summarised as equity, diversity and supportive environments. Define Equity, Diversity and Supportive Environments.
  • 31. Social justice for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples The Australian Human Rights Commission (AHRC)supports and promotes human rights for all Australians. It works to: • ensure that human rights values are included in all policies, laws and regulations • educate people about their rights and apply those rights in everyday situations • motivate action by all community members, including individuals, business and government • ensure that government maintains national and international human rights standards • secure an Australian charter of rights. The AHRC also takes responsibility for improving the extreme social and economic disadvantage faced by Indigenous Australians as well as promoting respect and understanding of their rights. List some of the Health differences between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations.