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Niedersächsisches Landesamt
für Verbraucherschutz und
Lebensmittelsicherheit
Dr. Ursula Gerdes
Dr. Josef Diekmann
Dipl.-Ing. Rainer Thomes
Lower Saxony state office for consumer protection and food safety
Practical experiences in the culling
of poultry in Germany
2
Niedersächsisches Landesamt
für Verbraucherschutz und
Lebensmittelsicherheit
Practical experiences in Germany
1. Container cap with carbon dioxide (CO2)
2. Electrocution with mobile units
3. Stable gassing with CO2
4. Backyard flocks units
3
Niedersächsisches Landesamt
für Verbraucherschutz und
Lebensmittelsicherheit
1. Container cap with carbon dioxide (CO2)
4
Niedersächsisches Landesamt
für Verbraucherschutz und
Lebensmittelsicherheit
1. Container cap with CO2
Netherland, 8th March 2003
5
Niedersächsisches Landesamt
für Verbraucherschutz und
Lebensmittelsicherheit
1. Container cap with CO2
6
Niedersächsisches Landesamt
für Verbraucherschutz und
Lebensmittelsicherheit
1. Container cap with CO2
7
Niedersächsisches Landesamt
für Verbraucherschutz und
Lebensmittelsicherheit
• Capacity: 1.500 to 3.000 birds / h per cap
• 13 caps are owned by rendering plants in Lower Saxony
• Total capacity with an estimated effectiv number of 1.500
birds / h (included setup time) and a 16 hour working period
⇒ about 312.000 birds / day
1. Container cap with CO2
8
Niedersächsisches Landesamt
für Verbraucherschutz und
Lebensmittelsicherheit
Advantages
• low costs in production and storage
all technique is located in the cap, cap is service free, standard
container stay unchanged
• supplying of birds to the cap can be done with boxes, by
hand, with elevators, conveyor belts etc.
• can be used for laying hens (laying battery, free run
stables) and chicken, also for peking ducks (geese?)
1. Container cap with CO2
9
Niedersächsisches Landesamt
für Verbraucherschutz und
Lebensmittelsicherheit
Disadvantages
relativ high carbon dioxide consumption
needs a well rehearsed logistic :
1. gas bottle bundles, no single 37-kg-bottles!
2. fittings (compressed gas regulator, metal tubes, gas heatings),
3. large pick up crew (10 - 20 persons)
4. Lift, stairs, elevators upon the cap neccessary
1. Container cap with CO2
10
Niedersächsisches Landesamt
für Verbraucherschutz und
Lebensmittelsicherheit
2. Electrocution with mobile units
11
Niedersächsisches Landesamt
für Verbraucherschutz und
Lebensmittelsicherheit
2. Electrocution with mobile units
12
Niedersächsisches Landesamt
für Verbraucherschutz und
Lebensmittelsicherheit
hooks – positive electrode
water bath – negative electrode
transformer (250 V)
motor (< 1 kW)
2. Electrocution with mobile units
13
Niedersächsisches Landesamt
für Verbraucherschutz und
Lebensmittelsicherheit
2. Electrocution with mobile units
14
Niedersächsisches Landesamt
für Verbraucherschutz und
Lebensmittelsicherheit
• Capacity: 2.500 to 6.000 birds / h
• 5 mobile units located in Lower Saxony,
service contract with producer
• total capacity with an estimated effectiv number
of 3.000 birds per hour and a 16 hour working day:
⇒ 240.000 birds / d
2. Electrocution with mobile units
15
Niedersächsisches Landesamt
für Verbraucherschutz und
Lebensmittelsicherheit
Geese culling with mobile electrocution unit
16
Niedersächsisches Landesamt
für Verbraucherschutz und
Lebensmittelsicherheit
Disadvantages
• Expensive: about € 40.000,-
• birds have to be hooked in still living (animal welfare)
• not adequate for small birds -
birds below 800 grams fall through the hooks
2. Electrocution with mobile units
17
Niedersächsisches Landesamt
für Verbraucherschutz und
Lebensmittelsicherheit
Advantages
• no stand by contract needed = low running costs
• no complex logistics, very short setup-time
• Inside use
• electrical parameters easy to measure
• sufficient for water fowl
• fixed chain speed: culling depends NOT on working speed
of crew
2. Electrocution with mobile units
18
Niedersächsisches Landesamt
für Verbraucherschutz und
Lebensmittelsicherheit
3. Stable gassing with CO2
without thermal evaporator
19
Niedersächsisches Landesamt
für Verbraucherschutz und
Lebensmittelsicherheit
3. Stable gassing with CO2
• Capacity: 5 - 10 stables per road tanker (20 tons) and day
⇒ 2 - 3 turkey farms each with 3 to 5 stables
• Total capacity depends on number of available CO2 road tankers,
estimated 8 to 16 in Germany
• Stand by contracts in Germany with Air Liquide and LINDE Gas,
each with 1 - 3 teams available after 48 hours
20
Niedersächsisches Landesamt
für Verbraucherschutz und
Lebensmittelsicherheit
Stable gassing turkey – „Lousiana stable“
21
Niedersächsisches Landesamt
für Verbraucherschutz und
Lebensmittelsicherheit
Stable gassing turkey – „Lousiana stable“
22
Niedersächsisches Landesamt
für Verbraucherschutz und
Lebensmittelsicherheit
carbon dioxide outlets
(6 mm, one left, one right)
coated fire hoses
Stable gassing turkey – „Lousiana stable“
23
Niedersächsisches Landesamt
für Verbraucherschutz und
Lebensmittelsicherheit
Stable gassing turkey – „Lousiana stable“
24
Niedersächsisches Landesamt
für Verbraucherschutz und
Lebensmittelsicherheit
carbon dioxide overflow
at the curtains when
about 30 volume percent
of carbon dioxid
concentration is reached
Stable gassing turkey – „Lousiana stable“
25
Niedersächsisches Landesamt
für Verbraucherschutz und
Lebensmittelsicherheit
birds are laying in the same position as
they were standing before discharging
of carbon dioxide –
no shortening reaction to be seen
Stable gassing turkey – „Lousiana stable“
26
Niedersächsisches Landesamt
für Verbraucherschutz und
Lebensmittelsicherheit
birds adopted a relaxed position –
only a few animals show ophistotonus
Stable gassing turkey – „Lousiana stable“
27
Niedersächsisches Landesamt
für Verbraucherschutz und
Lebensmittelsicherheit
• technique of gass supply very expensive and available only in small
amounts (road tankers)
• Good skilled team necessary (provided by company)
• Needs partitioning at very large stable volumes
• Has not been tested on water fowls (ducks, geese)
3. Stable gassing with CO2 - disadvantages
28
Niedersächsisches Landesamt
für Verbraucherschutz und
Lebensmittelsicherheit
• Very fast culling of a flock in accordance with animal welfare principles
(1 hour / stable house)
• team size 5 to 6 persons (2 to 3 by gas supplying company)
• Also applicable to multi-level cagings
• no requirements to stable sealings –
• CO2 good available, cheap, (0,20 € / kg)
• no need to handle still living birds
3. Stable gassing with CO2 - advantages
29
Niedersächsisches Landesamt
für Verbraucherschutz und
Lebensmittelsicherheit
• Container cap: 312.000 birds / d
• electrocution mobile units: 240.000 birds / d
• stable gassing: 200.000 birds / d
(rough estimate for the first weeks:
2 road tanker each with 20 tons CO2,
each 5 chicken fattening stables with 20.000 chickens
• theoretical total capacity: about 752.000 birds / d
Total capacity in Lower Saxony
30
Niedersächsisches Landesamt
für Verbraucherschutz und
Lebensmittelsicherheit
4. Small container – 1.000 litres
31
Niedersächsisches Landesamt
für Verbraucherschutz und
Lebensmittelsicherheit
4. Small container
standpipe
carbon dioxide
bottle bundle
1.000 litres
stainless
steel
container
(standard
in slaughter
houses)
carbon
dioxide
analyzers
revolver
drum
opening
carbon
dioxide
„snow
pipe“
32
Niedersächsisches Landesamt
für Verbraucherschutz und
Lebensmittelsicherheit
5. Dry ice method – dust bin and snow pipe

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Laves presentation practical experiences in the culling of poultry in germany