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Angolas Erdöl
- Chance oder Hindernis für die Entwicklung des Landes?
https://jungle.world/artikel/2017/33/geht-runter-wie-oel
Gliederung
1. Verortung
2. Demographie
3. Infrastruktur
4. Wirtschaft
5. Staatsausgaben
6. Korruption
7. Chancen und Risiken
8. Angolas Zukunft
9. Fazit
10. Quellen
1. Verortung
Liegt im Südwesten Afrikas
Küste am Atlantischen Ozean
Nachbarländer: Republik Kongo,
dem. Rep. Kongo, Sambia und Namibia
Fläche: 1.246.700 km²
Hauptstadt: Luanda
https://www.goruma.de/laender/afrika/angola/landk
arte-geografie
1.1 Physische Geographie
Natur teilt sich in Küstenregion, Hochland
und Savanne
Höchster Berg Moco mit 2.619m
Gute Vorraussetzungen für Landwirtschaft
im Norden
https://www.landkartenindex.de/weltatlas/?p=2472
1.2 Klima
Angola hat ein wechselfeuchtes, tropisches Klima
mit einer Regenzeit (November bis März)
Durchschnitts Temperatur: 23-26
Lässt sich in 3 Klimazonen unterteilen:
Der Norden und Küste ist tropisch heiss
Hochland und Süden ist tropisch-gemässigt
Südosten ist ein Wüstenklima
https://de.climate-data.org/afrika/angola/luanda/luanda-498/
2. Demographie
Bevölkerung: 34 Mio.(2021)
Bevölkerungsdichte: 26,39 pro km²
HDI: 0.581 (2019)
Anteil städtische Bevölkerung: 68%
Fertilitätsrate: 5.37 Kinder pro Frau (2020)
Kindersterblichkeit: 6,8%
Bevölkerungsentwicklung: 3,2% (2021)
50% der Bevölkerung lebt in Armut
Lebenserwartung: 62 Jahre
https://de.statista.com/statistik/daten/studie/325114/umfrage/gesamtbevoelkerung-vo
n-angola/
http://www.geo-ref.net/de/ago.htm
Flagge der MPLA (Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola - Volksbewegung zur Befreiung Angolas)
3. Infrastruktur
Zerstörung der Infrastruktur durch
Bürgerkriege
Wiederherstellung der Infrastruktur
Ärzte je 1000 Einwohner: 0,2
Schüler je Lehrkraft: 50
Schienennetz: 2852 km
Straßennetz: 14000 km
Gütertransport über LKW
Candongas als ÖPNV
https://www.dena.de/fileadmin/dena/Dokumente/P
df/3090_Laenderprofil_Angola_REG.pdf
Ein Candonga
4. Wirtschaft
BIP: 75 Mrd. USD (2021)
BIP pro Kopf: 2352 USD
Import: 12.7 Mrd. USD
Export: 39 Mrd. USD
Handelsbilanz: 26,4 Mrd USD
BIP Angola Preisentwicklung der OPEC*-Rohöle
Quelle: de.statista * (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries)
5. Staatsausgaben
Schuldenabbau
Gesundheitsausgaben(% des BIP):
2,7% (2010)
2,5% (2019)
Bildungsausgaben(% des BIP):
3,4% (2010)
1,9% (2019)
Diversifizierung der Wirtschaft
6. Korruption
Hat beim *CP Index: 71 Punkte
Platz: 135
GINI-Index: 51 Punkte (2018)
Folgen:
Soziale Disparitäten
Stagnation des Nichtölsektors
Kein fairer Wettbewerb gegeben
Abschreckung ausländischer Investoren
*Corruption Perceptions Index (Korruptionswahrnehmungsindex)
Tochter des Ex-Präsidenten Dos Santos
7. Chancen und Risiken
Chancen:
Wiederherstellung der Infrastruktur
Wachstum des BSPs
Schuldenabbau
Schaffung von Arbeitsplätzen
Stabilisierung des politischen Systems
Risiken:
Abhängigkeit von Öl
Wirtschaftswachstum ist regional
Fehlende Investitionen
Korruption
Naturschädlich
8. Angolas Zukunft
Szenario a)
Integration und Förderung anderer
Sektoren → Diversifizierung der
Wirtschaft
→ Investitionen in Infrastruktur und
Bildung
Gerechte Einkommensverteilung
Kampf gegen Korruption
Szenario b)
Fortgehende Abhängigkeit der Ölwirtschaft
Fehlendes politisches Interesse
Stagnation anderer Sektoren
Korruptes Beamtentum und Staatsapparat
Niedriges BIP pro Kopf
9. Fazit
Grundsätzlich Ressourcenvorkommen bedeutenden Wettbewerbsvorteil und
Grundlage für Wirtschaftswachstum
Öl hindert indirekt die Entwicklung auf ökonomischer und sozialer Ebene
Angolas Schicksal liegt in Händen der Regierung
https://www.destatis.de/DE/Themen/Laender-Regionen/Internationales/Laenderprofile/angola.pdf?__blob=publicationF
ile#page6
https://wko.at/statistik/laenderprofile/lp-angola.pdf?
_gl=1*1vct5df*_ga*MTUwMDE5ODE3MC4xNjcwNzkwMTgz*_ga_4YHGVSN5S4*MTY3MDc5MDE4My4xLjEuMTY3M
Dc5MDIzNi43LjAuMA..&_ga=2.46701092.205997270.1670790191-1500198170.1670790183#page6
https://www.google.com/search?q=%C3%B6lpreisentwicklung&sxsrf=ALiCzsZVbWp54Po-bszYy2753jHza49XJw:1670
685823693&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwi4s7XYre_7AhXsSfEDHVcDCCYQ_AUoAnoECAMQBA&bi
w=1200&bih=674&dpr=2#imgrc=d12vKKkO3dOtqM
https://www.africa-business-guide.de/de/maerkte/angola
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3b/Angola_on_the_globe_%28Africa_centered%29.svg/620
px-Angola_on_the_globe_%28Africa_centered%29.svg.png
http://www.geo-ref.net/de/ago.htm
https://de.theglobaleconomy.com/Angola/Education_spending/
https://wirtschaftinafrika.de/korruption-in-angola/
https://www.deutschlandfunkkultur.de/luanda-leaks-ueber-korruption-in-angola-im-dilemma-von-100.html

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Angola Erdöl Chance oder Risiko