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Realists support formal ways of teaching, and although they see such objectives as self- realization as valuable, realists maintain that self-realization best occurs when students are knowledgeable about the external world.Realists insists that whatever the method used, it should be characterized by the integrity that comes from systematic, organized and dependable knowledge.Many realists support competency, accountability, and performance-based teaching.
Major philosophies in education
MajorPhilosophiesin EducationPrepared by: Gilbert De CastroFor: CIN 501
IDEALISM• system of thought that emphasizes the importance of mind, soul or spirit.• Idealism believes in refined wisdom.• As a result, schools exist to sharpen the mind and intellectual processes. Students are taught the wisdom of past heroes.
NATURE• One of the oldest schools of thoughts with its origin traced back to Plato’s ideas.• Stresses the mental, moral and spiritual nature of an individual and his universe.• Advocates that education is both a basic right of man.
ASSUMPTION God is the absolute ideal and all positive values are fully realized and enjoyed through Him. Every individual is born good, and is capable to sense, perceive, and think. The self is the ultimate reality of individual experiences The individual self has all the freedom for self- determination One’s perception of the world is rooted in his existence Values depend on how individual persons pass and enjoy them in their experiences Social values are realized when an individual recognizes that he is a part of the total society.
EDUCATIONAL AIM CURRICULAR EMPHASIS Todevelop the individual Literature spiritually, mentally and History morally. Philosophy Religion Mathematics Arts In Education
TEACHING METHODS CHARACTER DEVELOPMENT Lecture-Discussion Imitating examples of Method heroes Excursion Question Method Project Method
ROLE OF TEACHERS ROLE OF SCHOOL Chief source of An agency of the society inspiration Thinking institution Creator of educational environment
Realism education should be based on essential and practical knowledge that exists independent of the knower education is the process of developing rational powers to their fullest so that the good life can be achieved
Aims of Education:Realists put great emphasis on the practical side of education & that includes education for moral and character development. John Locke, Johann Herbart, & Herbert Spencer held that the chief aim of education should be moral education.
Methods of Education: understanding of facts and ways of ordering and classifying knowledge. teach fundamental facts about the universe, and a good school program will present material in interesting and enjoyable ways emphasis on critical reason aided by observation and experimentation.
CURRICULUMRealists agree that studies should be practical and useful:John Locke - approved of practical studies such as reading, writing, drawing, geography, astronomy, arithmetic, history, ethics, and law – with supplementary studies in dancing, fencing, and riding.John Amos Comenius – first to introduce an extensive use of pictures in the educational process. The proper kind of education should be based on a curriculum to perfect one’s natural powers by training the senses.
CURRICULUMJohann Pestalozzi – sense impression; promoted skills as spinning and gardeningFroebel – “object studies” – focused on gifts, songs and games.Herbart – system of “ correlation and concentration”, whereby each subject would bear on and Integrated with other related subjects.Maria Montessori – use of objects, provides all sorts of experiences with blocks, cylinders, and Geometric patterns.
ROLE OF THE TEACHER The teacher should present material in a systematic and organized way and should promote the idea that one can used clearly defined criteria in making judgments about art, economics, politics, and science. Realists educators would like teachers to take a critical look at what they are doing. It is hoped that When they see the negative effects that trends in contemporary education may be having, they will return to more basic subject matter.
Naturalism Is a doctrine denying anything in reality that has supernatural significance Truth can be discovered only through nature
Synthesis of Naturalism: There is only one reality, and that reality is nature.- Leucippus, Democritus, Epicurus, Lucretius and Spencer Reality is composed of bodies moving in space.- Democritus, Epicurus, Lucretius and Hobbes Force or energy is the ultimate reality.- Spencer
4. Keeping close to the dominant and peaceful ways of nature is the most acceptable way of adhering to the demands of day-to-day life.- Leucippus, Democritus, Epicurus and Rousseau 5. Cosmic reason is the governing principle of all things.- Epictetus
Educational Aims ofNaturalism To develop the individual in accordance with ◦ laws of nature ◦ human developmentCurricular Emphasis Physical Education Natural Sciences
Contents Studied: History was taught as biography Astronomy and geography were learned through observation Counting and weighing things, measuring distances, drawing and singing Women were taught only singing, dancing, embroidery and home chores to please their men
Implications to Education Education is, first of all, for the benefit of the child, not for the sake of any conception, however hallowed, of the function of the teacher, or the curriculum, or the school.- Rousseau Education should be a practical preparation for life.- Rousseau
3. All knowledge should be evaluated in terms of evolutionary naturalistic principles of education which must conform to them.- Spencer The method of instruction should be based upon the psychological principles governing the development of the child.- Rousseau Education teaches the moral primacy of the will.- Epictetus
6. Education must provide first-hand contact with the child’s physical environment.- Rousseau 7. The knowledge that the individual acquires through experience and verifies and uses to solve his life problems, is utterly superior to that knowledge supplied by traditional sources.- Spencer
ESSENTIALISM It is a theory that asserts that education properly involves the learning of the basic skills, arts, and sciences that have been useful in the past and are likely to remain useful in the future It focuses on INTELLECTUAL DISCIPLINES
It is the educational theory that sees the primary function of the school to be the preservation and transmission of the basic elements of human culture It opposes catering to childish whims or transitory fads that will cause schools to degenerate into mindless and irrelevant institutions
CURRICULUM Core skills like reading, writing and arithmetic Teaching essential facts and concepts on Science, Literature, Health and PE Hard Sciences, technical and vocational courses Arts for aesthetic expression Values of discipline, hard work, and perfect authority
It is not to take on nonessential functions such as “social adjustment”, career education, consumer education, cooking classes and the like It’s primary mission is ACADEMIC It opposes using the school as experimental laboratories to test curricular or institutional innovations It has a well-defined CURRICULAR ORIENTATION
It asserts that the curriculum should provide students with a differentiated and organized learning experience rather than with an undifferentiated experience that students must organize themselves The teacher is an academic authority figure
METHODS OF TEACHING Deductive Method Recitation Assignments Analysis and synthesis “Race and Social Heritage” over experiences
ROLE OF TEACHERS Provide stimulating activities for learning Prepare well-organized lessons to prove he is an authority of instruction Authoritative and Disciplinarian
THE ROLE OF SCHOOL cultural transmitter provide a standard of intellectual training in the fundamental disciplines geared to the needs of serious students and to the capacities of the upper two-thirds of the school population diversify its offering to include certain areas of vocational training, physical education, extracurricular activities
The most effective and efficient mode of providing a differentiated educational experience is the subject- matter curriculum in which each subject or intellectual discipline is organized separately from other subjects
EXISTENTIALISM Man has no fixed nature and he shapes his being as he lives. The philosophy that places emphasis on individual existence, freedom, and choice. Sees the world as a personal subjectivity, where goodness, truth and reality are individually defined. Reality is a world of things, truth subjectivity chosen, and goodness comes from group decisions.
Existentialism is about being saint without God; being your own hero, without all the sanction and support of religion or society. Existentialism, broadly defined, is a set of philosophical systems concerned with a free will, choice, and personal responsibility. There are no “universal” guidelines for most decisions.
Soren Kierkegaard-(1813-1855) – Father of Existentialism. His philosophy can be seen in his doctrine that there are three stages of life experience: ◦ Aesthetic ◦ Ethical ◦ Religious
NATURE Focuses on the experiences of the individuals. Offers individuals a way of thinking about the meaning of life.
ASSUMPTION Existence precedes essence. -in other words, you need existence to have essence. There is no predetermined “true” thing, it has to already exist in order to become what it is.
EDUCATIONAL AIM To train individual for significant and meaningful existence. Synthesis and Implications to Education: ◦ The classroom is a free market of ideas and as such it must guarantee complete freedom of thought for the individual. ◦ The student is encouraged to make independent decisions to guarantee authentic existence.
CURRICULAR EMPHASIS Subject-centered Literature History Arts for Aesthetic expression Humanities for ethical values