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Curriculum and supervision

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Curriculum and supervision

  1. 1. Professor: Charles H. Nillos, Ph. D. Reporters: Abesar, Ramonito N. Paril , Rodel T.
  2. 2. Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world. -Nelson Mandela
  3. 3.  a particular set of ideas about knowledge, truth , the nature and mening of life.
  4. 4.  the field of study that deals mainly with methods of teaching and learning in school
  5. 5.  Derived from Latin word “ currere” means to run  In education , the course of race with time came to stand for course of study.  A set of course constituting an area of specialization.
  6. 6.  Philospohy and Education are two sides of the same coin.they are two flowers of one stem.
  7. 7.  It is the active aspect and practical means of realizing the ideals of life.  Education renews and re-builds the social structure in the patterns of philosphical ideals. Relationship of Philosophy and Education:
  8. 8.  Education who deals with the real facts of life,while philosophy is the arm chair theorist who is busy in speculations. Relationship of Philosophy and Education:
  9. 9.  Education as the modification of behavior, the direction in which modification to be carreid out is determine by philosophy. Relationship of Philosophy and Education:
  10. 10. Relationship of Philosophy and Education:
  11. 11. 1. Philosophy is central to curriculum. 2. Studying philosophy allows us to better understanding school and its curricula. 3. Philosophy is the beginning point in curriculum decision making. 4. Philosophy reflects one’s background and experiences. 5. Philoosophy may be defined as general theory of education. It is a way of thinking that gives meaning to our lives( Dewey) •Philosophy provides education, teachers and curriculum planners with, implementing and evaluating curriculum in shool. •It helps in answering what school are for, what subjects are important, how students should should learn , materials and methods should be used.
  12. 12.  Content of what is taught along with an overall process of how that content is to be taught, and instruction being the more detailed plans and the way those plans are implemented in order to teach the curriculum content, it becomes easy to understand that the two must be compatible in order to maximize student learning.
  13. 13.  The realistics idealism are spiritual , moral or mental unchanging  Approach that haas its central tenets that ideas are the only true reality.  Truth can be found through reasoning , intuition and religiuos revelation.  Teachers’ role is to bring latent knowledge and ideas to consciousness.  Teaching methods focus on handling ideas through lecture, discussion, and socratic dialogue.  Learning is an intellectual process that involves recalling and workin with ideas.
  14. 14.  In Idealism, the aim of education is to discover and develop each individual’s abilities and full moral excellence in order to better serve society.  Curriculum is knowledge based and subject based.  The most important subjects are philosophy, theology and mathematics because they cultivate abstract thinking.
  15. 15.  It based on natural laws, objectives and composed of matter.  People can come to know the world through thier senses and their reasons.  Aristotle believed that everything had a purpose and human’s purpose is to think.  Teachers’ role: is to be moral and spiritual leader and to be an authority.  Learning is just exercising the mind, and logical thinking are highest form.
  16. 16.  The realist curriculum emphasizes the subject matter of physical world, particularly science and math.  Teaching methods focus on the mastery of facts and basic skills through demonstration and recitation.  Curriculum is knowledge based abd subject based.  Most important subject are humanistic and scientific subject.
  17. 17.  It is based on change, process and relativity.  Learning occurs as the person engage in problem solving.  Bothe learners and environment are constantly changing.  Teachers’ role is to focus on critical thinking.  Teaching is more exploratory than explanatory.  Curriculum was based on childs’ experience and interest and also problem solving activities.
  18. 18.  The nature of reality for Existintialsist is subjective and his within the individual.  A philosophy concerned with finding self and the meaning of the life through freewill, choice, and personal responsibility.  Teachers’ role is to cultivate personal choice and individual self-definition.  Teacher’s view the individual as an entity within a social context in which the learners must confornt other view to clarify his or her own..
  19. 19.  The oldest and most conservatitive educational philosophy.  It is rooted in realism and lies on the past and stresses traditional value.  The aim of education is to ensure that students acquire understandings about the great ideas of western civilization.  The focus is to teach ideas that are everlasting, to seek enduring truth which are constant, and are not changing.
  20. 20.  The demanding curriculum focuses on attaining cultural literacy, streesing students grwoth in enduring disciplines.  Curriculum is subject centered and constant..  It emphasizes the great works of literature and art, the laws or principle of science.
  21. 21.  Traditional and conservatives philosophy based on idealism and realism.  This approach was in reaction to progressivist appraches.  Believe that there is a common core of knowledge that needs to be transmitted to students in a systematic ,disciplined way.  The core of the curriculum is essential knowledge and skills and academic rigor.  Essentialist accept the idea that this core curriculum may change.
  22. 22.  Schooling should be practical, preparing students to become valuable members of society.  Teachers are to help students keep their non –productive instinct in check, such as aggression or mindlessness.  Student should be taught hard work, rspect for authority and discipline.
  23. 23.  It developed from pragmatism philosophy.  Progressivist believe that education should focus on the whole child rather than on the content or the teacher.  The learner is a problem solves and thinker who makes meaning through his or her individual experience in the physical and cultural context.  It emphasizes how, to think, not what to think.  Curriculum content is derived from student interest and questions
  24. 24.  John Dewey was its foremost proponents .  One of his tenets was that the school should improve the way of life of a citizen through expriencing freedom and democracy in schools.  Shared decision making, planning of teachers with students, students selected topics are all aspects. Books are tools rather than authority.
  25. 25.  It is opposed to: 1. Rote learning 2. Authoritarian teaching 3. Over reliance on textbook methods 4. Intimidation or corporal punishment.
  26. 26.  Based on socialist ideas.  Reconstructiovist educators focus on the curriculum that highlights social reform as the aim of education.  According to Brameld, the founder of social reconstructiovism,students and teacher must improve society.  Curriculum must be transformed in keepin with a new social-economic-political education.  Society is always changing and the curriculum has to cahnge.
  27. 27.  For social reconstructiovist, critical theorist curriculum focuses on students experience and taking social action on treal problems, such as violence, hunger, international terroirsm and inflation.
  28. 28.  Curriculum as a field of study with its own methods, theories, and ways of solving problemm has influenced by history and philosophy.  We believe that no single philosophy,old or new, should guide decision about shool and curriculum  Curriculum planners need to help improve and design school practices in harmony with history of curriculum and philosopy of the school and community.
  29. 29. PERENNIALISM IDEALISM REALISM PRAGMATISM (EXPERIMENTALISM) Reality (ONTOLOGY) A world of reason and God A world of the mind A word of things A wordl of experience. Truth or Knowledge (Espitemology) Reason and revelation Consistency of ideas Correspondence and sensation ( as we see it) What works , what is Goodness (Axiology) Rationality Imitation of ideal self, person to be emulated. Laws of Natue The public test. Teaching reality Disciplinary subjects and doctrine Subject of the mind-literary, philosophical, religiuos Subject of physical world- math, science Subject matter of social experiences- special studies.
  30. 30. PERENNIALISM IDEALISM REALISM PRAGMATISM (EXPERIMENTALISM) Teaching truth Discipline of the mind via drill. Teaching ideas via lecture, discussion. Teaching for mastery of information- demonstrate, recite Problem-solving, project methods Teaching goodness (values) Discplining behavior (to reason) Initating hereos and other exemplars Training in rules of conduct. Making group decision is light of consequences Whys school exist? To reveal reason and God’s will To sharpen the mind and intellectual processes To reveal the order of the world and universe To discover and expand the society we live in to share expereices.
  31. 31. PERENNIALISM IDEALISM REALISM PRAGMATISM (EXPERIMENTALISM) What should be Taught? Eternal truth Wisdom of the ages Laws of physical reality Group inquiry into social problems and social science, methods and subject together Role of the Teacher Interprets, tells Reports, person to be emulated Display, impart knowldge Aids, consultant Role of the students Passive reception Receives, memorizes Manipulates, passive participantion Active participaton, contributes. School’s Attitude towrads changes Truth is eternal,no real change Truth to be prererved, antichange Always coming towards perfection ,oredrly change Change is ever- present , a process.
  32. 32. 1. Make People Healthy: Each extra year of a mothers schooling reduce the probability of infant mortality by 05 to 10%. 2. Increase Incomes: Extra year of schooling increase an individual person earning by 10% 3. Save Children Lives: A child whose mother can read its 50% more likely to live past 5 ages.
  33. 33. 4. Reduce Poverty in society: Educated persons earn money more so we can reduce poverty. With the basic reading skills 171million people could be lifted out of poverty. 5. Promotes Girls And Women Rights: Educated women and girls know About their social rights and increase women visibility in society. 6. Boost Economic Growth: Educated person thinks about country. Apply new ideas in economic So GDP (Gross Domestic Product) surely Increase
  34. 34. 7. Raises Crop Yields: Agriculture is very important part of human life. Population day by day increase and agriculture growth slowdown. Educated person apply new ideas to raise crop yields. 8. Fosters Peace: Educated persons always think about country development they don’t think about war. Improving higher education in middle areas we can reduce 30% risk of wars.
  35. 35. 1. Raises Crop Yields: Agriculture is very important part of human life. Population day by day increase and agriculture growth slowdown. Educated person apply new ideas to raise crop yields. 2. Fosters Peace: Educated persons always think about country development they don’t think about war. Improving higher education in middle areas we can reduce 30% risk of wars.