The main objectives of this study are:
To know about Fashion
To know about history of fashion clothing
To know about fashion capitals fashion accessories
To know about factors for creating new fashions
To know about fashion cycle
To know about Evolution and Movement of fashion: Fashion
Theories, fashion leaders and followers, fashion forecasting
To know about Fashion Business: Fashion
Merchandising, Stores, Brands, Retailing
To know about Bangladeshi fashion
3. WHAT IS FASHION?
• The styles that are accepted and used by a particular group of people at a given
• It’s what designers create for a select population which later becomes a trend.
• To be a Fashion, an item must possess
Style: Must be unique and different from the regulars.
Change: Fashion must change over time.
Acceptance: Must be accepted by a group of people at a given time.
Fashion is a current trend. It refers to the styles in Clothes, Cosmetics, Foot
Wear, Lifestyle, Behaviour.
Fashion is like a train, It will come and go…..if you like
it, go with it…..otherwise wait for the next one!
4. History of Fashion Clothes
The Victorian Era (1837–1901)
• Dresses were the social standard for women
• Dresses had a conservative cut
• Corsets were always worn
• Crinolines were used
• Dresses generally had many frills and ruffles
• Dresses were always long
5. History of Fashion Clothes (Cont…..)
• Women liberated themselves by cutting their hair
and no longer wearing Victorian clothing
• Hemlines were shortened dramatically
• Corsets and crinolines were abandoned
• Dresses were flowing and comfortable
• Black became a common color in clothing; it was
no longer used solely for mourning purposes
• Social standards for clothing weren’t as tight
• The Flapper (1920 American silent comedy film,
Starring Olive Thomas), with her bobbed hair and
short skirts, became a 20s style icon
6. History of Fashion Clothes (Cont…..)
1940’s and 1950’s
• Because of rationing, women’s
clothes had to have less fabric
during World War II
• This led to short, skirts jackets
• Sheath dresses replaced flowing
• Women rarely wore pants during
7. History of Fashion Clothes (Cont…..)
• The shorter skirts from the 1940s and
• Clothes came in brighter colors
• In 1966, Mary Quant came up with the idea
of the miniskirt
• Pants become commonplace for women
• The mod and hippie subcultures emerged
• Twiggy (Lesley Lawson) become a fashion
• Hippie style – liberal fashion with influence
from the east, using bright colors, peasant
embroidery, cheesecloth, and safari jackets.
8. History of Fashion Clothes (Cont…..)
• Influence of disco, punk, and feminist movement
included: torn clothing, pant suits for
women, and influence of white, neon and after-
9. History of Fashion Clothes (Cont…..)
• 1980s fashion tended to be rebellious,
colorful, and crazy
• People used fashion to express
• Clothes often did not match
• No conservative fashion here!
• Leggings, legwarmers, and anything
brightly colored was in style
• Lots of glitz!
• Business casual with the power look
and health conscious. High price not
linked to high fashion and more use of
easy to care synthetic fibers.
10. History of Fashion Clothes (Cont…..)
• 1990s fashion was more subtle than 1980s fashion
• It was more minimal (not as much glitz)
• Oversized t-shirts and sweatshirts, overalls, wind
pants, straight-leg jeans, and baggy jeans were popular
• In US dress-down leads the way to informality, comfort
and athletic look override business attire. Grunge – a
style started by youth culture. Messy, uncombed, not too
11. History of Fashion Clothes (Cont…..)
• Uggs, layering, printed clothes, leggings, Bermuda
shorts, and ripped jeans are popular
• It has components from many decades: leggings from
the 1980s, Bermuda shorts from the 1960s, and printed
clothes from the 1960s
• “Green fashion” (clothes made from organic materials)
has also seen an emergence
• Free-spirited: Bohemian Chic and Hipster - mixed
different styles from punk, grunge, hippie, hipsters using
large sunglasses, flowing skirts, boots and loose
12. HOW APPAREL FASHIONS ARE CREATED?
By Using Special
By changing the
way of cutting
Using stripe and
By Modifying Color
13. Top Fashion Cities of World
2012 Rank City 2011 Rank 2011 to 2012 Change
1 London, England 1 0
2 New York, U.S. 2 0
3 Barcelona, Spain 7 +4
4 Paris, France 3 -1
5 Madrid, Spain 12 +7
6 Rome, Italy 13 +7
7 Sao Paulo, Brazil 25 18
8 Milan, Italy 4 -4
9 Los Angeles, U.S. 5 -4
10 Berlin, Germany 10 0
14. FASHION ACCESSORIES
A fashion accessory is an item which is used to contribute, in a secondary manner, to
the wearer's outfit. The term came into use in the 19th century. Accessories are often
used to complete an outfit and are chosen to specifically complement the wearer's
purses and handbags, hand
fans, umbrellas, canes, and
ceremonial swords, Smart
phones, Portable music player
boots and shoes, ties, hats,
belts, gloves, muffs, jewelry,
watches, shawls, socks, and
Flowers, in bouquets and other forms, have long been
used as living fashion accessories. In addition, small
pets, including toy dogs, birds, lizards, snakes, and
chirping crickets have been worn or carried as fashion
accessories. Talking parrots are widely recognized as part
of a pirate outfit. In addition, beautiful women
companions of rich and powerful men have often been
characterized as "arm charms" or "arm candy", and small
children have been called the ultimate luxury fashion
15. Fashion Cycle
• A period of time or life span during which the fashion exists, moving
through the five stages from introduction through obsolescence
• All styles that come into fashion rotate through the fashion cycle.
• Fashion acceptance can be illustrated using a bell-shaped curve
16. Fashion Cycle (Cont....)
• The first stage of the fashion cycle when new styles, colors,
textures, and fabrics are introduced.
• The new style may be accepted by a small number of people called
• Promotional activities include fashion shows and advertising in high
• Fashions are produced in small quantities at high prices.
• Retail buyers purchase limited numbers to see if the style will be
17. Fashion Cycle (Cont....)
• The second stage of the fashion cycle when consumer interest grows
and the fashion becomes more readily accepted by consumers.
• Mass production brings down the price of the fashion, which results
in more sales.
• Styles are manufactured in less expensive materials and in lower
quality construction than the original style.
• Promotional efforts are increased in high fashion magazines to
heighten consumer awareness.
• Retail buyers order items in quantity.
18. Fashion Cycle (Cont....)
Peak (Culmination stage)
• The third stage of the fashion cycle during which a style is at its
height of popularity.
• The fashion is demanded by almost everyone because it is now
within the price range of most consumers and is mass produced in
• Each retailer tries to persuade customers that its version of the
style is the best.
19. Fashion Cycle (Cont....)
• Styles that take a long time to complete the fashion cycle.
• Classics, basics, and/or staple fashions
• Slow introduction, long peak, slow decline
• Styles that are popular for a brief period of time.
• Fads, usually lasting only one season
• Accepted and rejected quickly
• Teenagers’ fashions change the fastest and have the most trends.
• Styles are easy for the manufacturer to produce and are relatively
inexpensive to the consumer.
20. Fashion Cycle (Cont....)
• The fourth stage of the fashion cycle when the market is
saturated and popularity decreases.
• The fashion is overused and becomes dull and boring.
• As the fashion decreases in popularity, retailers mark down their
• Promotions center around major clearance or closeout sales of
• Some styles never become complete obsolete, but interest remain more or less
accepted for an extended period.
• Jeans, A-line kurtha, polo shirt, loafers and sari is a very good example for
• Short lived fashion is called fad.
• They lack the design strength to hold consumers attention for a long time.
Cycles within cycles
• Design elements such as color, texture, silhouette may change even though the
style itself remains popular.
• Jeans is a good example (skin fit, boot cut, low waist, high waist, different
washes, torn jeans)
Fashion Cycle (Cont....)
23. Fashion Leaders and Followers
• Trendsetters who have the credibility and confidence to wear new fashions
and influence the acceptance of new trends.
• The first to purchase new styles
• Desire distinctiveness and uniqueness
• May be innovators and/or influencers.
• Royal families, first families, movie stars, television
personalities, athletes, singers, musicians
• Those who accept and wear a fashion only after it becomes acceptable to
25. Tricle Down Theory
• Trickle-down theory (Downward flow theory): The assumption that fashion trends
start among the upper class or fashion leaders and move down to the masses or
• It is based on the traditional process of copying and adapting trendsetting fashion
from Paris, London, New York designers.
• World’s oldest and most accepted fashion theory described by Veblen in 1899 and
• Asserts that fashions are accepted by people of lower socioeconomic income levels
only after they have been worn by people of upper socioeconomic income levels
• These styles are seen on high-fashion runways.
• Jackie Kennedy’s pillbox hat, Barbara Bush’s pearls, Nancy Reagan’s red, Hillary
Clinton’s pantsuits in the office
26. Tricle Up Theory
• Trickle-up theory (Upward flow theory)/ Bubble-up pattern: The assumption that
fashion trends start among the young or lower income groups and move upward to
older or higher income groups.
• In this theory the innovation is initiated from street, so to speak and adopted from
lower income groups. The innovation eventually flows to upper income groups.
• Style originates with the lower class and gains approval by upper class or the fashion
The popular examples of Trickle Up theory:
• Following World War –II the young discovered Army/Navy surplus stores and began to
wear pea jackets and khaki pants.
• Another category of clothing, the Tee Shirt initially worn by laborers as a functional and
practical undergarment has since been adopted universally as a casual outer garments.
• Ripped jeans, leather jackets are also popular example of Trickle Up theory.
27. Tricke Across Theory
• Members of each social group look at the leaders of
their own group for fashion trends.
• Described by Robinson in 1958, King in and
Blumer in 1969
• A leader within each class influences peers or a leader
of one group affects the other group members.
• Example: Designer fashions are copied quickly for
mass production, providing similar styles at most price
ranges. However, they don’t become popular until the
fashion leaders of each group have accepted them.
28. Fashion Marketing
• Fashions as we know it, developed in Europe during the renaissance period in the
1500's. Textiles and clothing changed slowly until the industrial revolution, which
began in England in the 1700's
• The industrial revolution caused a switch from handmade garments to mass-
produced ready-to-wear clothes. Three factors contributed to this change
Mechanized textile mills were able to make fabrics of better quality in less time.
Sewing machines were invented
Techniques in mass distribution, advertising, and retail selling were developed and
29. Fashion Marketing
• High fashion couture clothes are very fashionable and expensive. Couture design
firms serve the small but influential high-priced market.
• High Fashions began in Paris, France. Paris has been the international cultural
center for hundreds of years. Early designers from over the world went to Paris for
• World War II stopped European exports to the United States, and that helped the
U.S. Designers. After WWII America became recognized as a fashion center.
Hollywood became a vehicle for spreading fashion ideas throughout the country
• Courtiers have branched out to make more money
• Several couturiers add to their income by selling patterns of some of their creations
to commercial pattern companies
Designer patterns: can be seen in designer catalogs at fabric stores where the
patterns are sold.
30. Fashion Marketing
• Successful couture designers and fashion houses create
collections which are all of their designs for a specific
season. Designers and fashion houses will show their
collections twice a year at two major showings. One in July
for fall+winter fashions. One in January for spring+summer
fashions. The showings are glitzy runway extravaganzas.
They show 50-100 outfits by each designer. At the end of the
show, the designer makes a traditional walk down the
• The audiences at a show is made up of wealthy private
customers, press representatives, and commercial buyers.
• Couturiers create small shops at or near the fashion
house, or in fashionable areas of other cities. They feature
accessories designed by the couturier, or a member of the
staff. It bears the designers label.
31. Fashion Marketing
Franchises are arrangements in which the firm such as a couturier, provides
retailers with a famous name and merchandise. In return, the couturier
receives a certain amount of money. Franchise owners do not work for the
couturier directly, they have been granted the right to use the designers name
and trademark to market the goods.
Licensing is an arrangement whereby manufacturers are given exclusive rights
to produce and market goods that bear a famous name as a stamp of
approval. In return, the person or firm whose name is used receives a
percentage of wholesale sales. Licensing is usually where top designers make
32. Retailing systems for fashion apparel
• Apparel outlets: Stores owned by apparel producers that sell seconds and
over-runs to the public at low prices.
• Factory outlets: Store owned by a manufacturer who sells company products
to the public at reduced prices.
• Indirect Selling: Non-personal promotion aimed at a large general audience
• Markup: Monetary amount added to the cost (billed price) of goods to create
the retail selling price.
• Markdowns: Retail price reduction that is made in hopes of selling certain
merchandise, but which lowers profits
• Loss Leaders: Item priced so low that the retail outlet makes little or no profit
on it but uses it to attract shoppers into the store.
33. Retailing systems for fashion apparel
• Department Stores: Retail establishments that offer large varieties of many
types of merchandise placed in appropriate departments. Almost all clothing
and household needs are sold in a wide variety of colors, sizes, and styles.
• Branch Stores: When a well established department store opens a store in
another location, the new one is called a branch. It operates from the original
• Chain Stores: A chain is a group of stores owned, managed, and controlled by
a central office. All of a company’s chain stores look alike. No store is
considered to be the main store.
34. Retailing systems for fashion apparel
• Discount Stores: Sell clothing and other merchandise in large, simple
buildings with low overhead. Large amounts of garments are sold on racks
and shelves. Some items are well-known brands, others are private-label
• Specialty Stores: Might handle only apparel, or they might specialize even
further into a specific kind of apparel. Examples are maternity shops, Shoe
stores, bridal boutiques and children apparel stores. Specialty stores have
fewer products, and therefore must charge a higher price than other stores.
• Mail Order Houses: Sell to consumers through catalogs. They offer shopping
at home for customers who cannot, or prefer not to go out.
35. Promotion of fashion apparel
• Advertising: Advertising is a paid promotional message by an identified
sponsor. It appears in such media as newspapers, magazines, television,
and radio. Locally, retail stores will use the newspaper, and perhaps the
radio to advertise. Nationally, retailers will use more expensive magazine
ads, and national television
• Publicity: Publicity is free promotion. It includes any non-paid messages
to the public about a company’s merchandise, activities, or services.
Some businesses will hold press conferences to promote their products
• Visual Merchandising: Presenting goods in an attractive and
understandable manner. Displays and exhibits are ways that clothing
items are visually promoted. High profile shopping bags are used by
department stores as promotional tools. Stores will have special events,
and have models display merchandise.
• Video Merchandising: Uses videos in retail stores to show new fashion
trends, promote merchandise, and build customer traffic. Videos are set
up in retail store departments near the merchandise they are showing.
They attract the attention of passing customers with sound and
movement. The video’s use soft-sell techniques like flashing a logo, or
having the name of the manufacturer in the background.
36. • Fashion merchandising is where fashion and business meet. Fashion
merchandising involves marketing fashions to various retail stores, boutiques
• The mission of a fashion merchandiser includes connecting different fashions to
consumers and anticipating what your clients will be interested in.
37. Responsibilities of a Fashion Merchandiser
Since the merchandise must appeal to people (or a specific target group), their
job may include
• Attending fashion shows and events around the world
• Purchasing fashions
• Negotiating with suppliers and retail outlets
• Advertising and marketing the latest fashion finds and even creating store
• Doing whatever is necessary to get the goods out there for everyone to see
and, ideally, want to have.
38. Attributes of a Fashion Merchandiser
• Must be able to foresee the fashion trend
• Must have sound knowledge about fashion
• Must be able to analyze the fashion market
• Must have vast knowledge about fashion
• Besides a fashion merchandiser should
possess all the attributes of a general
39. Fashion Forecasting
• Foreseeing fashion trends and predicting those
trends early enough to allow time for production
to meet the consumer demand.
• Because of the time required for textile design
and development, the textile segment leads in
recognizing fashion directions.
• Textile designers work at least 18 months ahead
of the schedule for products to hit the market.
40. Who are involved in fashion forecasting?
41. Fashion Services
• Resources for fashion reporting, forecasting, and consulting that are available for a fee or by
Provide market research, feasibility studies, collection reports, forecasting, consulting, slides,
garments on loan, and/or original designs.
Examples of some fashion services
1. Doneger Creative Services
3. ESP Trendlab
4. Carlin International
42. Color Services
Examples of some color services
1. Association Internationale de la Couleur
2. Pantone, Inc.
3. International Color Authority
4. The Color Marketing Group
6. Color Portfolio, Inc.
Fashion and Textile industry professionals who meet twice a year to pool their knowledge of color cycles and
preferences and to project color trend for the future. Yarn colors or swatches are sent to designers and
merchandisers to plan their color stories and purchase fabrics.
43. Activities in fashion forecasting
1. Making and reporting predictions based on logic, market research, and
2. Coordinating information gathered from fiber, yarn, and apparel
companies, and textile shows worldwide
3. Analyzing the fashion press, visiting the world’s fashion centers, and
observing fashion leaders
4. Conducting marketing research
• Consumer research
• Market research
• Sales research
45. Top Ten Fashion Brands of World
Emporio Armani was formed in 1975 in Italy and is primarily known for its
clean and tailored menswear line. The Italian fashion empire has since
grown to include even belts, bags, fragrances, knitwear, jackets and even
sunglasses. Celebrities like Megan Fox, Rihanna and Cristiano Ronaldo all
swear by the Armani brand and act as its endorsers.
Annual turnover of the company amounts to $1.6 billion. Armani himself
has a net worth of over $7 billion.
Christian Dior established his fashion house way back in 1946, just after
the Second World War had ended. Though it encountered controversy in
the beginning, Dior’s New Look eventually revolutionized women’s
clothing and helped establish Paris as a fashion center. The French brand
is well known for its accessories and fragrances. Hollywood actress Mila
Kunis is the endorser of Dior’s line of female perfume.
46. Top Ten Fashion Brands of World
The House of Gucci was built in 1921 by the Italian fashion designer
Guccio Gucci. Known for its wide influence in the fashion world and its
trendsetting ways, Gucci is almost synonymous to leather goods and
accessories. It has earned billions of revenues over the years and
operates almost 300 stores worldwide..
The Versace fashion company was only established in 1978, but the
Italian grandeur that Gianni Versace showcased brought the brand
instant popularity. The brand has lines in luxury
clothes, accessories, cosmetics and home furnishings. Its shops are
spread all over the world, with focus on fashion centers like New York
City and Milan. The appeal of Versace transcends generations.
47. Top Ten Fashion Brands of World
When one speaks of high fashion and ready to wear clothes,
accessories and luxury goods, the brand of Chanel would
immediately come to mind. The House of Chanel was established in
1909. Will always be remembered for its perfume No. 5, the classic
Chanel suit, and the versatile little black dress. With Karl Lagerfeld
now its chief designer, Chanel has managed to maintain its glory,
earning almost $300 million a year.
Who does not know Victoria’s Secret? Since being established in
1977, women have loved the brand for its lingerie, sleep
attire, swimming outfits and beauty products. Men, on the other
hand, simply love the fashion show that the brand puts up every
48. Top Ten Fashion Brands of World
A real American brand, Calvin Klein was founded in 1968 and
designs everything from top-of-the-line clothing and sporty outfits
to denims and underwear. Calvin Klein is also known for its home
collection, like towels and beddings, and lifestyle items, like
perfumes, watches and jewelries. Dutch supermodel Lara Stone
serves as one of the faces of the fashion brand.
Prada is one of the more popular brands in the fashion world.
Established in 1913 by the Italian fashion designer Mario Prada,
the brand is well known for its ready to wear clothes, leather
accessories, shoes, luggage and even hats for both men and
women. Its brand name shot into the public’s consciousness in
2006 when Hollywood released a movie entitled The Devil Wears
Prada. The movie was received well by the public and even earned
an Academy Award nomination for its lead star, Meryl Streep.
Known for its stylishly simple yet sophisticated designs, Prada last
year recorded a revenue of over $2 billion.
49. Dolce & Gabbana was established in 1985 by Italian fashion
designers Domenico Dolce and Stefano Gabbana. They shot to fame
in the 1990s after both their women’s and men’s perfume won
awards for most feminine flavor of the year in 1996 and best male
perfume in 1996. The brand is well known for its clothing
line, footwear, bags, eyewear and watches.
Founded in 1924 by the German fashion designer Hugo Boss, the
brand has a presence in 110 countries spread over a thousand
stores. Hugo Boss is known for its high fashion
clothing, accessories and footwear. It has recorded revenues of
over a billion dollars.
50. Top Ten Fashion Magazines of the World
Cosmopolitan Marie Claire Elle Vogue Harper's BAZAAR
InStyle Glamour Lucky Allure W
51. Basic Fashion Styles and Terms Basic Dress Styles
• Sheath: Sheath Dresses have no waistline seam. They hang from
the shoulders and have inward shaping at the waist
• Shift or Chemise: Shift or Chemise dresses also have no waistline
seam. They are straight and loose fitting with no inward shaping
at the waist.
• A-Line: A-Line dresses are narrow (fitted) at the shoulders. They
have no waistline seam and become wider at the hemline. The
are named after the “A” shape of their silhouette.
52. Basic Dress Styles
• Tent Dresses: Tent dresses are large and billowy. They
hang loosely from the shoulders. They are often worn
in hot weather because they do not hug the body.
• Empire Dress: Empire (om-peer) dress has a high
waistline. Its opposite, the lowered waistline style has
a long torso. Its waistline seem is down below the
53. Other Dress Styles
• Princess dresses: have seam lines going up and down
their entire length.
• Blouson dresses: has a blousy fullness above the waist.
It is usually belted it most often has a fitted skirt.
• Shirtwaist dresses: like a long, semi fitted, tailored
shirt, it is as long as a regular dress, and has a belt or
sash at the waist
54. Other Dress Styles
• Coatdress: is a heavy dress that usually closes down the front
like a coat. However it is worn as the main garment rather
than over another garment.
• Asymmetrical dress: one side is different than the other. If
divided by a center line, the two halves are not the same.
• Sundress: A sundress is worn in hot weather alone as a dress.
55. Neckline Styles
• Décolleté: the French term for a low neckline. It is
usually used with bare shoulders, such as an
evening gown or sundress. Sometimes the garment
• Jewel (round): Encircles the base of the neck. It is
plain and rounded.
• Boat or Bateau: Goes straight across from
shoulder to shoulder. It is high in the front, and is
wide open on the sides
56. Neckline Styles
• Scoop: lowered and round. It is usually
lower in front than in the back.
• Sweetheart: With a high back and a
low-cut front with two curved edges
resembling the conventionalized shape
of a heart.
• V neck: these are formed by two
diagonal lines from the shoulders that
meet on the chest creating a V shape
57. Neckline Styles
• Surplice: these are similar to how a bathrobe's
neckline is formed by one side of the garment
overlapping the other
• Square: these are characterized by three linear
edges, the bottom edge meeting the side edges
at right angles. The bottom edge cuts across the
figure horizontally and the side edges pass over
• Others: Horseshoe, cowl, keyhole etc.
58. Sleeve Styles
• Set-in Sleeves: sleeves that are stitched to the garment
around the regular armhole. They offer best fit for most
people. They can be tight (fitted), puffy, long or short. In
all cases, there is a seam in the front and back from the
underarm curving up to the shoulder. That seam follows
the natural body line that connects the arm to the body.
• Kimono Sleeves: Are continuous extensions out from
the armhole area with no seam lines connecting to the
garment bodice. Kimono sleeves can be long or short.
Fitted or loose. Fitted kimono sleeves have a gusset. A
gusset is a wedge-shaped piece of fabric added to the
underarm to give more ease of movement to the sleeve.
59. Sleeve Styles
• Raglan Sleeves: have a shaped seam in the garment
originating from the underarm. Sometimes it goes directly to
the neckline. Other times it goes to the center front or into a
bodice princess seam.
• Cap or French sleeves: Cap or French sleeves are very short.
They are like a sleeveless armhole at the underarm and a
short kimono sleeve going out from the shoulder.
• Dropped shoulder: have a horizontal seam around the upper
part of the arm. The lower sleeve can be any length.
60. Skirt Styles
• Straight skirts: have no added fullness at the hem. They
go straight down from the hipline for a very slim
silhouette. They are sometimes called fitted skirts
• A-Line Skirts: have extra width at the hem on each side.
When viewed from the front or back, the silhouette
resembles the letter “A”
• Flared Skirts: have some fullness at the hem all around.
There are soft ripples going upward from the skirt
bottom toward the waist.
• Circular skirts: are very full at the hem. When held out at
the sides during wearing, this style of skirt forms a half
circle. When opened up and laid flat, it forms a circle.
61. Skirt Styles
• Dirndl skirt: A slightly gathered skirt that is not very full
• Gored skirt: have vertical seams all the way from the
waistline to the hem.
62. Skirt Styles
• Umbrella skirt: have many narrow gores. The gores are
pressed to have a narrow silhouette, but when the
wearer walks or moves, the gores spread open and
closed like an umbrella
• Wrap Skirts: wrap around the body and overlap at the
side-back or side-front. They are most often fastened
with a tie or button
All skirt styles have the option of any length
63. Coat and Jacket Styles
• Coats: Coats are warm or waterproof garments that are
worn over a persons regular clothing.
• Capes: Capes are coat-like outer garments that hang from
the neck and shoulders over the back, front, and arms.
• Blazers: Blazers are classic jackets that are always in
fashion. they along with suit jackets are
64. Coat and Jacket Styles
• Single Breasted garments: Single Breasted garments are
held shut with one row of buttons in front
• Double Breasted garments: Double Breasted garments have
a wider overlap and two rows of buttons.
• Poncho: similar to a blanket with a slit or hole in the middle
for the head
65. Miscellaneous Styles and Parts
• Hood: a hood is a head covering that is attached at the
neckline of a garment.
• Tunic: a long blouse or skirt that extends down over
the pants or a skirt. It is a long upper garment that
goes over a lower garment. Tunics are hip-length or
• Caftans: Long flowing robe-like garments.
66. Miscellaneous Styles and Parts
• Vests: sleeveless, close-fitting, jacket-like garments.
They cover just the chest and back.
• Halters: Brief garments worn on the upper
body, usually in hot weather.
• Sweater: A knitted (or crocheted) covering for the
upper body. It is usually worn for warmth.
Sweaters are either Cardigans or Pullovers
• Cardigans: Cardigans open in the front
• Pullovers: Pullovers slip over the head when they are
put on or taken off.
67. Bangladeshi Fashion Leaders: Bibi Russell
• There are many local fashion promoters but internationally
recognized fashion leader is only Bibi Russell
• Bibi was born in Chittagong, Bangladesh, studied in Kamrunnessa
Govt. Girls' High School. Later she earned a graduate degree in
fashion from London College of Fashion in 1975 In the next five
years, she worked as a model for different magazines including
Vogue, Cosmopolitan and Harper's Bazaar. She also worked as a
fashion model in fashion shows until 1994, working with Yves
Saint Laurent, Kenzo, Karl Lagerfeld and Giorgio Armani.Having
returned to Bangladesh in 1994, Bibi opened Bibi Productions, a
fashion house, fusing indigenous Bengali cultural elements into
• With assistance from UNESCO, Bibi organized her first European
fashion show in Paris in 1996. She also organized fashion show,
The Colours of Bangladesh, in Spain in 1997.
68. Bangladeshi Fashion Leaders: Bibi Russell
• Bibi was rewarded Cross of Officer of the Order of Queen Isabella by the
King of Spain.It was presented by Spanish Ambassador to
Bangladesh, Arturo Perez Martinez.
• Bibi is also a Fellow of Bangla Academy
• The Asiaweek magazine highlighted her as "One of the 20 people to watch
in the Millennium".
• She was awarded the Honorary Fellowship of the London Institute in 1999.
• UNESCO awarded her the title Designer for Development in 1999.
• She also got the title of Artist for Peace by the UNESCO in 2001
• Peace Prize by the United Nations Associations of Spain in 2004.
• Now a days everybody wants to be ‘fashionable’. Everyone wants to go with
the latest trends.
• The appeal of fashion apparel will never end.
• Bangladeshi Brands are trying to explore the local market and they are
successful. Now the target should be international market.
• At first zonal market and then the international market can be captured.
• Bangladesh has the potential to succeed in the fashion items as like the