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Pedagogical Approaches

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Pedagogical Approaches

  1. 1. Pedagogical Approaches sheryl.pacheco@deped.gov.ph PEDAGOGICAL APPROACHES
  2. 2. Section 5 (e) RA 10533 “The curriculum shall use pedagogical approaches such as constructivism, inquiry- based, reflective, collaborative, and integrative.”
  3. 3. • The aim of AP 10 is not only to answer the question: “Who are we?”. • More importantly, AP 10 aims to immerse ourselves (you and your students) in the process of finding out who we are and what we want to become based on shared experiences of contemporary issues.
  4. 4. Experiential learning (praxis) as the core pedagogical approach Why? Because political knowledge is best acquired, retained and deepened when it impacts people’s personal and communal lives – often leading to involvement in public affairs.
  5. 5. Constructivism • We construct meaning based on prior knowledge and experience • Meaning-making • Learning is social • Learning as active
  6. 6. In a constructivist approach, it is important that we know where our students are coming from but NOT to judge them, but to be able to provide the most suitable learning environment for them to discover what needed to be learned and un-learned.
  7. 7. CONSTRUCTIVIST APPROACH • ANECDOTAL RECORDS • CELEBRATION OF LEARNING • EXIT CARD • GRAPHIC ORGANIZER • JOURNAL • ORAL PRESENTATION • PEER ASSESSMENT • PORTFOLIOS • RUBRICS • SIMULATION • PROJECT BASED LEARNING ASSESSMENT IN A CONSTRUCTIVIST CLASSROOM
  8. 8. Approaches that promote constructivism in the AP 10 classroom • Integrative teaching – cutting across disciplinal lines (interdisciplinary) and learning styles • Reflective – stepping back and analyze their experience to improve future learning • Collaborative – not only among students but more importantly between students, teachers, and their respective community • Inquiry-based – raising questions, posing problems or scenarios and let student discover the answer
  9. 9. CONTEN T-BASED INSTRUC TION INQUIRY THEMATIC TEACHING GENERIC COMPETE NCY MODEL IT AIMS TO CONNECT WHAT IS LEARNED IN SCHOOL TO REAL LIFE SITUATIONS, THUS IT IS MORE ON DEVELOPING PROBLEM SOLVING AND DISCUSSIONS OF ISSUES IN THE REAL WORLD. Make connections of learning across curricula; focuses on connections rather than isolated facts. Integrative Approach
  10. 10. Integrative Teaching •THEMATIC TEACHING- THEME HELPS STUDENTS SEE THE MEANINGFUL CONNECTIONS ACROSS DISCIPLINES OR LEARNING AREAS
  11. 11. REFLECTIVE APPROACH -TEACHERS ANALYZE THEIR OWN PRACTICE AND UNDERLYING BASIS TO CONSIDER ALTERNATIVE MEANS FOR ACHIEVING THEIR ENDS.
  12. 12. Strategies- Reflective Approach 1. MULTIMEDIA PRESENTATION EFFECTIVE USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS THAT UTILIZE A WIDE RANGE OF ELECTRONIC MEDIA, ALLOWING LEARNERS TO REFLECT AFTER THE TEACHING LEARNING PROCESS.
  13. 13. 2. Drill and Practice Strategies-Reflective Approach GIVES EMPHASIS ON REPETITION AFTER THE LEARNERS REFLECT ON THEIR SKILL OR LEARNING.
  14. 14. collective learning, learning communities, peer teaching, peer learning or team learning LEARNERS WORK TOGETHER TOWARDS A COMMON GOAL • TEACHERS MUST FULLY UNDERSTAND LEARNERS PREFERRED LEARNING STYLES. Collaborative Approach
  15. 15. 1.ONLINE-COLLABORATIVE LEARNING- ACTIVITIES REFLECT CURRENT AND FUTURE NEEDS RESPONSIBLE INDIVIDUALS IN A TECHNOLOGICALLY ADVANCED SOCIETY
  16. 16. 2. JIGSAW METHOD LEARNERS WORK IN A SMALL GROUP ALLOWS INTERACTION WORK INDEPENDENTLY DEVELOP LISTENING , ENGAGEMENT AND EMPATHY SKILLS EFFICIENT WAY TO LEARN CONTENT Strategies- Collaborative Approach
  17. 17. Strategies- Collaborative Approach 3. THINK-PAIR-SHARE COOPERATIVE DISCUSSION STRATEGY WITH 3 STAGES OF ACTION THINK •PONDERS PAIR • GETS A PAIR SHARE •PARTAKES KNOWLEDGE
  18. 18. INQUIRY-BASED APPROACH-LEARNERS ACQUIRE KNOWLEDGE BY INVESTIGATION. FORMULATE QUESTIONS INVESTIGATE BUILD UNDERSTANDING CREATE MEANING/NEW KNOWLEDGE
  19. 19. • PLACED IN A SITUATION • INTERACT SIMULATION ROLE PLAYS  GAMES MODE Strategies
  20. 20. Strategies- Inquiry-based Approach DEMONSTRATION •LESSENS TEACHERS’ ACTIVE ROLE •ALLOW LEARNERS TO RESPECT DIVERSITY •PROVIDES A CONCRETE/VISUAL WAY OF EXPLAINING THE TOPIC
  21. 21. Where do we start? Techniques in probing student’s understanding: 1. Predict-observe-explain 2. Graphic organizer, KWLH Chart 3. Mind Mapping and Concept Mapping 4. Concept Cartoons Each module in the LM should have at least one or two of these activities. Can you find them?
  22. 22. How do we know that they now know? • Learning takes place when what we know is being challenged by new ideas brought about by contemporary experiences. • Cognitive dissonance – a necessary precursor of learning
  23. 23. Why are we doing this? • meaningful lesson vs meaningful classroom A lesson is meaningful if it provides learners with facts and empirical data and explain how these relate with each other. But if the learner does not find any relevance in learning for learning’s sake, then the classroom is not a meaningful one.
  24. 24. Therefore, a lesson is meaningful in so far as it effectively provides conceptual knowledge. A classroom is a meaningful when learners see its value beyond what the lessons provide.
  25. 25. We must offer the AP 10 learners the experience of a meaningful classroom – that coming to class is not pointless but a value in itself. This means that we have to convert our classroom from a theoretical to a more practical one.
  26. 26. Paulo Freire (1921-1997)
  27. 27. The educational system is one of the major instruments for the maintenance of the culture of silence (education as a practice of domination).
  28. 28. Therefore, the education process CANNOT be neutral. It either functions as an instrument to facilitate the integration of younger generation into the logic of the present system and bring about conformity to it. or It becomes the practice of freedom, the means by which men & women deal critically and creatively with reality & discover how to participate in the transformation of the world.
  29. 29. AP 10 provides a safe and inclusive space where critical and honest conversations can happen. AP 10 uses relevant experiences that can excite our students to find meaning inside the classroom and eventually ignite them to engage in the political outside.
  30. 30. Implication to you as a teacher...
  31. 31. “It is what teachers think, what teachers do, and what teachers are at the level of the classroom that ultimately shapes the kind of learning that young people get.” - Andy Hargreaves and Michael Fullan- Pedagogical Approaches sheryl.pacheco@deped.gov.ph

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • People generally remember only 10% of what they read and 20% of what they hear. 90% of the time they learn from what they do.
  • We understand the world through experiencing things and reflecting on those experience
    Meaning-making: we generate new knowledge by making sense of our world
    Learning is social – it is not detached from one’s environment and culture, it does not happen in a vacuum, we learn from each other
    We are therefore active participants in the learning process

    Paiget, Bruner, Vygotsky, Dewey
  • In a constructivist approach, it is important that we know where our students are coming from NOT to judge them, but to be able to provide the most suitable learning environment for them to discover what needed to be learned.
  • In a constructivist approach, it is important that we know where our students are coming from NOT to judge them, but to be able to provide the most suitable learning environment for them to discover what needed to be learned.
  • If you notice, AP 10 is divided into themes rather than topics – a topic is more narrow and the approach to teaching and learning is theoretical; a theme is broader and invites both students and teachers to identify and explore the interconnectedness between topics, theories and experiences
    This necessitates reflection or the stepping ---
    Collaborative learning is also useful in a constructivist classroom. But here I place emphasis on collaborative work between you, your students, and your respective communities
    Inquiry-based
  • If you notice, AP 10 is divided into themes rather than topics – a topic is more narrow and the approach to teaching and learning is theoretical; a theme is broader and invites both students and teachers to identify and explore the interconnectedness between topics, theories and experiences
    This necessitates reflection or the stepping ---
    Collaborative learning is also useful in a constructivist classroom. But here I place emphasis on collaborative work between you, your students, and your respective communities
    Inquiry-based
  • If you notice, AP 10 is divided into themes rather than topics – a topic is more narrow and the approach to teaching and learning is theoretical; a theme is broader and invites both students and teachers to identify and explore the interconnectedness between topics, theories and experiences
    This necessitates reflection or the stepping ---
    Collaborative learning is also useful in a constructivist classroom. But here I place emphasis on collaborative work between you, your students, and your respective communities
    Inquiry-based
  • If you notice, AP 10 is divided into themes rather than topics – a topic is more narrow and the approach to teaching and learning is theoretical; a theme is broader and invites both students and teachers to identify and explore the interconnectedness between topics, theories and experiences
    This necessitates reflection or the stepping ---
    Collaborative learning is also useful in a constructivist classroom. But here I place emphasis on collaborative work between you, your students, and your respective communities
    Inquiry-based
  • If you notice, AP 10 is divided into themes rather than topics – a topic is more narrow and the approach to teaching and learning is theoretical; a theme is broader and invites both students and teachers to identify and explore the interconnectedness between topics, theories and experiences
    This necessitates reflection or the stepping ---
    Collaborative learning is also useful in a constructivist classroom. But here I place emphasis on collaborative work between you, your students, and your respective communities
    Inquiry-based
  • If you notice, AP 10 is divided into themes rather than topics – a topic is more narrow and the approach to teaching and learning is theoretical; a theme is broader and invites both students and teachers to identify and explore the interconnectedness between topics, theories and experiences
    This necessitates reflection or the stepping ---
    Collaborative learning is also useful in a constructivist classroom. But here I place emphasis on collaborative work between you, your students, and your respective communities
    Inquiry-based
  • If you notice, AP 10 is divided into themes rather than topics – a topic is more narrow and the approach to teaching and learning is theoretical; a theme is broader and invites both students and teachers to identify and explore the interconnectedness between topics, theories and experiences
    This necessitates reflection or the stepping ---
    Collaborative learning is also useful in a constructivist classroom. But here I place emphasis on collaborative work between you, your students, and your respective communities
    Inquiry-based
  • If you notice, AP 10 is divided into themes rather than topics – a topic is more narrow and the approach to teaching and learning is theoretical; a theme is broader and invites both students and teachers to identify and explore the interconnectedness between topics, theories and experiences
    This necessitates reflection or the stepping ---
    Collaborative learning is also useful in a constructivist classroom. But here I place emphasis on collaborative work between you, your students, and your respective communities
    Inquiry-based
  • Give the participants 2 minutes to browse through the LM.
  • Piaget – cognitive disequilibrium

    When critical questions are raised by your students, or if they made comments that were unexpected, or when an unplanned lively debate ensues in the classroom – these are manifestations that the window of opportunity for learning is wide open.

    As a teacher, when I experience this in the classroom, what I do is SHUT MY MOUTH and let THEM TALK. At the end of the day, students will find these exchanges more meaningful than a boring lecture.
  • \
  • We must offer the AP 10 learners the experience of a meaningful classroom – that coming to class is not pointless but a value in itself.

    This means that we have to convert our classroom from a theoretical to a more practical one – a classroom that helps them understand their vulnerabilities and manage risks during times of disasters, a classroom that allows them to address concretely various forms of discrimination (gender and work), a classroom that enables them to reflect on the impact of globalization on local values, traditions, and practices, a classroom that encourages them to speak up because as citizens in a democratic society, it is their right to do so.
  • Brazilian educator
    He fell behind in school when he was young.
    Took up law & philosophy
    Worked as a teacher in secondary schools teaching Portuguese.
    In 1962, he taught 300 sugarcane workers how to read and write in just 45 days, (Literacy was a requirement for voting in presidential elections.) which led to the creation of “cultural circles” all over Brazil.
    Exiled in Bolivia and then Chile, where he wrote Pedagogy of the Oppressed in 1968.
  • “banking” concept of education as an instrument of oppression
  • AP 10 as a “lived” curriculum.
  • AP 10 as a “lived” curriculum.
  • AP 10 as a “lived” curriculum.

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