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Anatomy and physiology of female reproductive system

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Female reproductive system
Female reproductive system
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Anatomy and physiology of female reproductive system

  2. 2.  The female reproductive system is designed to carry out several functions.  4 is the normal pH of the vagina.  40 weeks is the normal gestation period.  400 oocytes released between menarche and menopause.  400,000 oocytes present at puberty.  28 days in a normal menstrual cycle.  280 days (from last normal menstrual period) in a normal gestation period.
  3. 3.  OOGENESIS- The development of the egg ovum in the ovary.  OOGONIA: during fetal growth the oogonia (2n) divide to form primary oocytes (2n), at puberty these will form secondary oocytes (n) and later eggs (n) each month.  GRANULOSA CELLS: nourish the developing egg cells
  4. 4.  Diploid (2n)-human cell contains 46 chromosomes and is called diploid (2n).  Haploid (n). sex cells, called gametes, contain only 23 chromosomes, haploid (n).  VAGINA: canal that connects the uterus to the environment  CERVIX: muscular ring of tissue at mouth of uterus separating it from the vagina, holds the fetus in place
  5. 5.  Formation of ova  Reception of spermatozoa  Provision of suitable environment for fertilization and fetal development  Parturition  Lactation, the production of breast milk, which provides complete nourishment for the baby in its early life.
  6. 6. External genitalia Internal genitalia Accessory reproductive organs
  7. 7.  To enable sperm to enter the body  Protect the internal genital organs from infectious organisms.
  8. 8. The internal genital organs form a pathway (the genital tract). This pathway consists of the following functions:  Vagina (part of the birth canal), where sperm are deposited and from which a baby can emerge  Uterus, where an embryo can develop into a fetus  Fallopian tubes (oviducts), where a sperm can fertilize an egg  Ovaries, which produce and release eggs
  9. 9.  Mons pubis  Labia majora  Labia minora  Clitoris  Vestibule Urethral opening Vaginal orifice and Hymen Bartholin's glands Skene’s gland  Vestibular bulbs  Vagina  Uterus  Fallopian tubes  Ovaries
  10. 10. MONS PUBIS  A region of adipose tissue above the vagina that is covered with hair. LABIA – Rich in nerve endings and blood vessels – Protects internal organs against pathogens – Functions in sexual arousal
  11. 11.  Has two folds of adipose tissue that border each side of the vagina.  The labia majora enclose and protect the other external reproductive organs.  Literally translated as "large lips," the labia majora are relatively large and fleshy,  It contain sebaceous glands . After puberty, the labia majora are covered with hair.
  12. 12.  The labia minora are smaller folds (forchette) of skin that lie inside the labia majora.  Contains no hair follicles or sweat glands.  The folds contain connective tissues,numerous sebaceous gland, erectile muscle fibers and numerous vessels and nerve endings  surround the openings to the vagina (the canal that joins the lower part of the uterus to the outside of the body) and urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body).
  13. 13.  It is small cylindrical erectile body  Measuring about 1.5 to 2cm  Situated in the most anterior part of the vulva  The two labia minora meet at the clitoris,  A small, sensitive protrusion.  The clitoris is covered by a fold of skin, called the prepuce, richly supplied with nerves.  The clitoris is very sensitive to stimulation and can become erect.
  14. 14.  The vestibule is formed by the labia minora.  It encloses Urethral opening, Vaginal orifice and hymen, Ducts from the greater vestibular
  15. 15.  Situated in midline just infront of the vaginal orifice  About 1-1.5 cm below the pubic arch
  16. 16.  Lies in the posterior end of the vestibule  It completely enclosed by a septum of mucous membrane called hymen  Hymen Located just inside the vaginal Opening  No known function; not always present  It is usually ruptured at the consummation of marriage
  17. 17. Bartholin's glands:  There are two bartholin’s glands  One on each side  Each gland has a duct which measures about 2 cm and open into vestibular outside  Close to the posterior end of the vestibular bulb  During sexual excitement it secretes abundant alkaline mucus which helps in lubrication.
  18. 18. Skene’s gland  The largest paraurethral gland.
  19. 19.  Arteries – Branch of internal pudendal artery – Branch of femoral artery  Veins – Internal pudendal vein – Vesicle or vaginal venous plexus – Long saphenous vein
  20. 20. Bilateral somatic nerve Posteroinferior part  Pudental branch from posterior cutaneoys nerve Anterosuperior part  Cutaneous branch from ilioinguinal  Genital branch from genitofemoral nerve Between 2 groups the vulva – Pudental nerve
  21. 21.  Superficial inguinal nodes  Intermediate groups of inguinal lymph nodes  External and internal iliac lymph nodes
  22. 22. • Vagina = “birth canal” • A tube like, muscular but elastic organ • About 4 to 5 inches long in an adult woman. • PH- 4 acidic • It is the passageway for sperm to the egg and for menstrual bleeding • Organ of copulation and forms the birth canal of parturition
  23. 23.  Posterior wall of vagina is 10 c m long  Anterior wall is only 7.5 cm length  The upper end of the vagina is known as the vault  Pink in appearance  It connects the external genital organs to the uterus. the organ of sexual intercourse in women.
  24. 24. Formed at the top of vagina due to projection of the uterine cervix Four fornics are there One anterior – front of cervix One posterior – behind Two lateral – either side of cervix
  25. 25.  Anterior to the vagina – lie the bladder and the urethra which are closely connected to the anterior vaginal wall  Posterior to the vagina – lie the pouch of douglas, the rectum and the perineal body; each occupying one third of the posterior vaginal wall  Laterally – on the upper two third are the pelvic fascia and the ureters, which pass beside the cervix  Superior to the vagina – lies the utreus  Inferior to the vagina – lies the external genitalia
  26. 26.  Arteries – cervico vaginal branch of uterine artery – vaginal artery-anterior division of internal iliac - Internal pudendal  Veins – Internal iliac vein – Internal pudendal vein
  27. 27.  Internal iliac group  Superficial inguinal group
  28. 28.  Sympathetic and parasympathetic from the pelvic plexus  Lower part is supplied by the pudendal nerve
  29. 29.  Girls are born with over a million egg cells, but only about 400 are released during a lifetime of menstrual cycles.  No new eggs develop after birth.
  30. 30.  The uterus is a thick-walled, muscular, pear-shaped organ  Located in the middle of the pelvis, behind the bladder, and in front of the rectum. The uterus is anchored in position by several ligaments.  The uterus consists of the cervix and the main body (corpus).
  31. 31.  The cervix is the lower part of the uterus, which protrudes into the upper part of the vagina. It can be seen during a pelvic examination. Like the vagina, the cervix is lined with a mucous membrane, but the mucous membrane of the cervix is smooth.  Sperm can enter and menstrual blood can exit the uterus through a channel in the cervix (cervical canal).
  32. 32.  The cervical canal is usually narrow, but during labor, the canal widens to let the baby through.  The cervix is usually a good barrier against bacteria, except around the time an egg is released by the ovaries (ovulation), during the menstrual period, or during labor..
  33. 33.  The main function of the uterus is to sustain a developing fetus.  It prepare for this possibility for each month  At termination of pregnancy it expels the uterine contents
  34. 34.  Anterior – the uterovesical pouch and the bladder  Posterior – the rectouterine pouch of the douglas  Laterally – the broad ligament, the uterine tubes  Superior – the intestine  Inferior – the vagina
  35. 35.  Measures 8 cm long, 5 cm wide ,1.25 cm thick  Weight 50 gms  Parts  The body of corpus  The fundus  The cornua  The isthumus  The cervis  Internal and external os  Cervical canal
  36. 36.  Endometrum  Myometrium  Perimetrium
  37. 37.  ENDOMETRIUM: inner lining of uterus, nourishes developing embryo, built up each month for pregnancy, if not, shed during menstruation  MYOMETRIUM: muscular, supports fetus, contracts at birth and to shed the endometrium during menstruation.
  38. 38. PERIMETRIUM  The perimetrium is a serous membrane that lines the outside of the uterus.
  39. 39.  Arteries –uterine artery- branch of internal iliac artery  Veins – Internal iliac vein
  40. 40. Deep and Superficial lymph vessels NERVE SUPPLY Parasympathetic and sympathetic
  41. 41.  connect to each ovary, egg will enter through an opening called a FIMBRIA, cilia sweep the egg down towards the uterus  fertilization will occur here, or it will die within 48 hours
  42. 42.  The two fallopian tubes, which are about 4 to 5 inches (about 10 to 13 centimeters) long, extend from the upper edges of the uterus toward the ovaries.  The fallopian tubes are lined with tiny hairlike projections (cilia). The cilia and the muscles in the tube's wall propel an egg downward through the tube to the uterus. The egg may be fertilized by a sperm in the fallopian tube
  43. 43.  Anterior, Posteriorand Superior – the peritoneal cavity and intestine  Laterally – the sidewall of pelvis  Inferior – the broad ligament and the ovaries  Medial – the uterus lies between th euterine tubes
  44. 44.  The intestinal portion  The isthumus  The ampulla  The infundibulum  The intra mural part
  45. 45.  Artery – uterine and ovary  Venous – ovarian vein LYMPHATIC Along with the ovarian vessels to para-aortic nodes NERVE SUPPLY Uterine and ovarian nerves
  46. 46.  The ovaries are usually pearl-colored, oblong, and about the size of a walnut.  They are attached to the uterus by ligaments. In addition to producing female sex hormones ( estrogen and progesterone ) and male sex hormones, the ovaries produce and release eggs.  The developing egg cells (oocytes) are contained in fluid-filled cavities (follicles) in the wall of the ovaries. Each follicle contains one oocyte.
  47. 47.  Anterior to the ovaries are the broad ligaments  Posterior to the ovaries are the intestine  Laterally to the ovaries are the infundibulopelvic ligaments and side walls of the pelvis  Superior to the ovaries lie the uterine tube  Inferior to the ovaries lies the ovarian ligaments
  48. 48.  Medulla  Cortex MEDULLA -supporting frame work Made of fibrous tissue - Has ovarian blood vessels - Lymphatics and nerve travels through it
  49. 49. CORTEX  Functioning part of the ovum  Contains ovarian follicals in different stage
  50. 50.  Artery –ovarian and abdominal aorta  Venous – ovarian vein LYMPHATIC Along the ovarian vessels to para-aortic nodes NERVE SUPPLY ovarian nerves from T10 segment
  51. 51.  Process of releasing one mature ovum each month into that ovary’s fallopian tube  2-300,000 immature ova in ovaries at birth  Hormones from pituitary cause ovaries to begin producing female sex hormones  Ova begin to mature  Ovum can live about 2 days in fallopian tube  One sperm will enter ovum = fertilization/conception
  52. 52.  If the ovum is not fertilized – it doesn’t attach to the uterine lining/endometrium  Muscles of the uterus contract  lining breaks down (“cramps”)  Lining passes through the cervix into the vagina and out of the vaginal opening
  53. 53.  Each month, uterus prepares for possible pregnancy  Hormones cause thickening of endometrium  If ovum is fertilized, it moves into the uterus and may burrow into this lining  Will divide millions of times over 9-10 months
  54. 54. • Process of shedding the lining of the uterus • Usually lasts 4-7 days (may be shorter or longer depending on the female’s individual cycle) • Regulated by hormones • 2-3 tablespoons of blood
  55. 55. • Rest of flow is other tissue that makes up the endometrium –Blood and tissue are not needed, person should not be weak or ill from loss –After period (“menses”), cycle begins again.
  56. 56. The mammary glands are sweat glands specialized for the production of milk. The milk-producing secretory cells form walls of bulb-shaped chambers called alveoli that join together with ducts, in grapelike fashion, to form clusters called lobules.
  57. 57.  Numerous lobules assemble to form a lobe. Each breast contains a single mammary gland consisting of 15 to 20 of these lobes. Lactiferous ducts leading away from the lobes widen into lactiferous sinuses that serve as temporary reservoirs for milk.
  58. 58.  The breasts begin to enlarge in females at the onset of puberty. Proliferating adipose (fat) tissue expands the breast, while suspensory ligaments attached to the underlying fascia provide support. In nonpregnant females (and in males), the glands and ducts are not fully developed.
  59. 59. THANK YOU