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CONSTRUCTIVIST DESIGN MODEL (CDM) Assist. Prof. Dr. Sevinc KURT CYPRUS INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY Department of ArchitectureFIFTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON DESIGN PRINCIPLES & PRACTICES SAPIENZA UNIVERSITY OF ROME
CONSTRUCTIVIST DESIGN MODEL (CDM) The methods of architectural education should be renewed by considering the contemporary technologies, and progressive attitudes in educational sciencesAssist. Prof. Dr. Sevinc KURT
CONSTRUCTIVIST DESIGN MODEL (CDM) Studio is the core element of architectural design education● There is a strong bond between the design process and theinstructional design in the studio.In this context, It is inevitable to transform existent instructionaltradition to the innovative one:The structure of the studio must be modified by its ● content, ● methods, ● spatial characteristics, ● hardware, ● software, ● progressive attitudes and so on.In the process of designing the learning environment, the uniquelearning characteristics of individuals must be considered.Assist. Prof. Dr. Sevinc KURT
CONSTRUCTIVIST DESIGN MODEL (CDM) Constructivism is a set of assumptions about the nature of human learning that guide constructivist learning theories and teaching methods. ► Constructivist learning theory tries to explain how learners learn by constructing understanding for themselves. Learning Cycle Step by step learningAssist. Prof. Dr. Sevinc KURT Knowledge Construction
CONSTRUCTIVIST DESIGN MODEL (CDM) ►The constructivist epistemology emphasized that people generate their own “rules” and “mental models,” which they use to make sense of their experiences. ► Learning, therefore, is accepted as the process of adjusting their mental models to accommodate new experiences.Assist. Prof. Dr. Sevinc KURT
CONSTRUCTIVIST DESIGN MODEL (CDM)Constructivist Learning Strategies1. Generative Learning2. Situated Learning3. Cognitive Apprenticeship4. Cognitive Flexibility5. Anchored instruction6. Learning in social and/or multiple contexts7. Learning through multiple perspectivesAssist. Prof. Dr. Sevinc KURT
CONSTRUCTIVIST DESIGN MODEL (CDM) 1. Generative Learning the brain is not just an information processing unit ● generates knowledge by building ● operates through processes of generating meaningful relations 2. Situated Learning ● learning is not the transmission of abstract and de- contextualized knowledge from one individual to another ● Learning is a social process whereby knowledge is co-constructed; ● within a particular social and physical environment.Assist. Prof. Dr. Sevinc KURT
CONSTRUCTIVIST DESIGN MODEL (CDM) 3. Cognitive Apprenticeship ● the pedagogic strategy at the core of situated learning ● It is similar to craft apprenticeship, ● authentic practices through activity and social interaction“ ● the real world contexts are used for problem solving, 4. Cognitive Flexibility Conceptually, Cognitive Flexibility model is based on cognitive learning theory for designing learning environments. Spiro and Jehng (1990, p. 169) defined cognitive flexibility as “the ability to adaptively re- assemble diverse elements of knowledge to fit the particular needs of a given understanding or problem-solving situation” (p. 169). According to Nickel (2004) Instructions should avoid oversimplification and earning activities must use multiple representations of the content.Assist. Prof. Dr. Sevinc KURT
CONSTRUCTIVIST DESIGN MODEL (CDM)● constructivist education approach +the information technology together● positive impact of technological developments hybrid educational systems● unification of traditional and constructivist attitudes in studio environment.Assist. Prof. Dr. Sevinc KURT
As seen in Figure 1, in creating theoretical framework of CDM, the area of concentration is the full scope of constructivism which requires using Constructivist Learning Strategies as a whole in the design process. The instructional design should encourage the student to explore on his/her own in student centered design processes by using virtual environment in an interactive way. Information access via internet and design opportunity from any workplace is suggested compulsory for investigation, exploration, participation and collaboration phases of the design processAssist. Prof. Dr. Sevinc KURT
CONSTRUCTIVIST DESIGN MODEL (CDM) Instructional Goals and Objectives of CDM Aim: to design learning environment as constructivist design studio ● Studio processes are designed to enable students to deal with -real world problems -in student centered practices. ● two kind of support is needed: -support for technical framework and -support for learning design. ● The key points of these needed supports are emphasized basic principles of constructivist strategy ● This structure make possible for the students to evaluate and to reflect on the design process.Assist. Prof. Dr. Sevinc KURT
CONSTRUCTIVIST DESIGN MODEL (CDM)Assist. Prof. Dr. Sevinc KURT
CONSTRUCTIVIST DESIGN MODEL (CDM)Instructional Principles of CDM● Development of Critical thinking ability● Learning by doing.● Collaboration, participation, teamwork● Learning Based on Experience● Exploration and discovery● Provision of opportunities for synthesis, organizationand restructuring of information.● Declarative and procedural knowledge guidance notprescription.● Inductive learning● Instructors goals and evolving learner goalsnegotiated between student and instructor● Emphasis on learning not teaching● Multi-media use●Hyper texts● Constructing prior knowledgeAssist. Prof. Dr. Sevinc KURT
CONSTRUCTIVIST DESIGN MODEL (CDM) Instructional Principles of CDM● Favors higher-order skills●Learnercontrol● Multiple paths to learning.● Student centered / high learner control.● Learning environments.● Previous knowledge, skills, attitudes and motivations used innew situations● Instructors design goals and learner’s objectives.● Cases / examples / multiple perspectives.● Flexible Structures used● Authenticity and contextual learning, real world problems andtasks.● Utilization of resources, e.g. search engines, online database,digital studio.● Active learning, action feedback cycle.● Learner reflection on achievement of objectives. Self evaluation.● Problem solving.● Discursive > adaptive > interactive > reflective design processes.Assist. Prof. Dr. Sevinc KURT
CONSTRUCTIVIST DESIGN MODEL (CDM) Assumptions of CDM ●Constructivist learning environments in architectural education involve design studios with its content and physical structure. ● A new curriculum should be arranged to increase the creative thinking and to make possible the students being dominant in design process. ● Students are the most active party through design process ● Since the design process is supported by learning not teaching, the instructors’ roles are taken as coaches/facilitator ● Multi media use; communication via internet; virtual reality experiences; online participation and collaboration are encouraged in architectural design process.Assist. Prof. Dr. Sevinc KURT
Assumptions of CDMCDM suggest the following assumptions are veryimportant in design process.●Constructivist learning environments in architecturaleducation involve design studios with its content andphysical structure.● A new curriculum should be arranged to increase thecreative thinking and to make possible the students beingdominant in design process.● Students are the most active party through designprocess whilst constructing knowledge and questioningthe design process by Meta cognitive reflectiontechniques.● Since the design process is supported by learning notteaching, the instructors’ roles are taken ascoaches/facilitator and guidance is recommended ratherthan prescription.● Multi media use; communication via internet; virtualreality experiences; online participation and collaborationare encouraged in architectural design process.