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Architecting Semantic Process Mining-Driven
Optimization and Adaptation of Business
Workflows for the Mobility Industry
Tu...
Safety Critical Applications  Processes are also safety critical!
SIEMENS Rail Automation Applications
Business Processes in Rail Automation
• Complex business processes described in natural language
– Conventional documents ...
Agenda
• Introduction
– Mission/safety-critical business processes in the railway domain
• Challenges of Process Automatio...
Challenges of Process Automation and
Optimization
• Extracting semantic process models from unstructured data
– handbooks,...
Example Process
• Siemens Mobility
– Process for rail automation plant
• CIRCE
• AUTOCAD
• Excel, CSV, PDFs
• File Lists, ...
Task
Approach: A Three-Process Model
Task
Task
Adapted
task
Adapt
Suspend and
modify
Process
Input &
Output
Task
Require
+...
Process Mining and Adaptation
• Mining process
– Runs in parallel with the productive business processes
– Its main task c...
Example insight
• Mining task:
– Mining GIT (versioning system) logs produced by the process
• Result: Reverse engineered ...
Implementation: Camunda Suite
• Pros
+ Addresses all aspects of process management & execution
+ High-quality documentatio...
The Adaptation Process
• Uses insights to optimize and adapt the main process
• Adaptation is realized without interruptin...
What about recovery in case of failures?
• Ad hoc software/process updates may introduce latent
software faults
– Obvious ...
Forward Recovery for Safety/Mission-
Critical Processes
• Challenge
– The root of software faults is complexity
• But: cos...
Subprocess Adaptation Example
Task automation
14
Forward Recovery
• Detect faulty behavior using an acceptance test or safe output
region check
• Keep/derive an analytic r...
Demo
• saFiddle
– Web-based tool for editing and managing requirements and design
decisions  Integrates into the adaptati...
Conclusion
• Process adaptation and optimization is a desideratum 
Reduces costs
• In safety/mission-critical contexts
– ...
Acknowledgements
• This work has been funded by the Austrian Research
Promotion Agency (FFG) under grant 845638 (SHAPE).
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Tudor B. Ionescu: Architecting Semantic Process Mining-Driven Optimization and Adaptation of Business Workflows for the Mobility Industry

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Tudor B. Ionescu: Architecting Semantic Process Mining-Driven Optimization and Adaptation of Business Workflows for the Mobility Industry

  1. 1. Architecting Semantic Process Mining-Driven Optimization and Adaptation of Business Workflows for the Mobility Industry Tudor B. Ionescu Software Architect @SIEMENS
  2. 2. Safety Critical Applications  Processes are also safety critical! SIEMENS Rail Automation Applications
  3. 3. Business Processes in Rail Automation • Complex business processes described in natural language – Conventional documents (MS Word, PDF) – Process execution logs – Emails, meeting minutes, ... • Business process = Unstructured data + Tacit knowledge + Workflows • Safety, reliability, certifiability, and standard compliance  Key to the success of products and projects • Fulfilling these non-functional requirements is extremely costly and time-consuming  Automation and optimization desired 3
  4. 4. Agenda • Introduction – Mission/safety-critical business processes in the railway domain • Challenges of Process Automation and Optimization • A Three-Process Model for Automation and Optimization • Implementation in Camunda • Process Recovery • Conclusion 4
  5. 5. Challenges of Process Automation and Optimization • Extracting semantic process models from unstructured data – handbooks, logbooks, execution logs of tools and past projects • Enacting the automation and optimization of business processes according to the mined semantic models • Seamlessly and dynamically adapting running processes whenever – Unexpected potentially harmful situations occur – New insights are gained by means of process mining – New safety compliance requirements become available • Architecting reliable process architectures for mission/safety- critical applications 5
  6. 6. Example Process • Siemens Mobility – Process for rail automation plant • CIRCE • AUTOCAD • Excel, CSV, PDFs • File Lists, signal tables, … • Email and other communication means • Legacy technologies (SAMBA, X25 …) • People • Standards & Constraints  Verification – Goal • Automate & optimize (some of) these tasks – Success criteria • The automated process is really used • The automated process makes life easier not harder 1) Service Tasks = Facades for external resources 2) Notifications from external services and actors (e.g., emails) 3) Which patterns (e.g., publish- subscribe, polling) 4) Interfaces (REST or legacy?) 5) Data flow 6) Deployment 7) Process recovery 6
  7. 7. Task Approach: A Three-Process Model Task Task Adapted task Adapt Suspend and modify Process Input & Output Task Require + Design + Decide Inform Security Problem Optimization potential Business Process(es) Mining Process(es) Monitor + Learn Adaptation Process(es) KB 7
  8. 8. Process Mining and Adaptation • Mining process – Runs in parallel with the productive business processes – Its main task consists of mining the unstructured process data – Results (insights) are given in • Natural language  Expert-driven adaptation (for safety and/or mission critical processes) • RDF format (JSON-LD)  Automated adaptation (for non-critical processes) – Insights are used to inform the adaptation process • Adaptation process – Uses insights to optimize and adapt the main process – Adaptation is realized without interrupting the main process – Must ensure recovery in case of failures caused by adaptations 8
  9. 9. Example insight • Mining task: – Mining GIT (versioning system) logs produced by the process • Result: Reverse engineered Gantt chart (Ref…) – BALA, S., CABANILLAS, C., MENDLING, J., ROGGE-SOLTI, A., POLLERES, A. (2015). Mining Project-Oriented Business Processes. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 9253, 425-440. • Insight: Process can be optimized  How?  See Gantt Chart • Requirement: Adapt the processes accordingly 9
  10. 10. Implementation: Camunda Suite • Pros + Addresses all aspects of process management & execution + High-quality documentation + Sound software architecture (high design pattern density) + Uses state of the art technology (JAX-RS, AngularJS, Spring, jQuery, etc.) + Many supported environments (Tomcat, JBOSS, Glassfish …) + Flexibility, extensibility (Community extensions) • Cons? - Is it really lightweight? • A constellation of tools  Temptation to use them all  Complexity - Infrastructure needs  Web servers, database servers  Administrators + Programmers - Real flexibility or exhaustiveness? • Bottom line + Pros seem to dominate cons from a software architecture perspective 10
  11. 11. The Adaptation Process • Uses insights to optimize and adapt the main process • Adaptation is realized without interrupting the main process • Must ensure recovery in case of failures caused by adaptations 11
  12. 12. What about recovery in case of failures? • Ad hoc software/process updates may introduce latent software faults – Obvious errors are corrected early (e.g. during development and testing)  subtler errors remain in the code and are more difficult to detect – The more complex the process  the harder it is to make it reliable and safe – There is a finite amount of ressources to be spent on testing  Safety/mission-critical processes must have means for recovery at runtime (switch to reliable process) • Idea  Use forward recovery mechanism – Sha, L. (2001). Using simplicity to control complexity. IEEE Software, (4), 20-28. 12
  13. 13. Forward Recovery for Safety/Mission- Critical Processes • Challenge – The root of software faults is complexity • But: cost reduction and optimization can only be achieved through process adaptation, which may lead to more complex processes • Design Tactic – Use a simple and reliable core process that provides the essential service – Decompose the process in adaptable subprocesses – Adapt one subprocess at a time  version_1 (core), version_2 (adapted) – Keep core version in stand-by in case adapted version fails • Prerequisite: You need a simple and reliable core process – But: if you can‘t develop a simple and reliable process  there are chances you will not be able to develop an optimized reliable process 13
  14. 14. Subprocess Adaptation Example Task automation 14
  15. 15. Forward Recovery • Detect faulty behavior using an acceptance test or safe output region check • Keep/derive an analytic relationship between the outputs of the core and adapted versions of the subprocesses, e.g. – DIFF: the modified process should only produce an output that is measurable and differentiable with respect to the old version of the process • Camunda @runtime subprocess deployment mechanism 15
  16. 16. Demo • saFiddle – Web-based tool for editing and managing requirements and design decisions  Integrates into the adaptation process – Uses concept linkage between architectural elements and concepts (e.g. requirements, quality attributes, design patterns and tactics, etc.) 16
  17. 17. Conclusion • Process adaptation and optimization is a desideratum  Reduces costs • In safety/mission-critical contexts – Adaptation & optimization cannot be automated – Non-functional requirements such as safety and reliability must be fulfilled at all times – Means for process recovery must be in place • The three-process model is able to fulfill these requirements • The integration into the adaptation process of web-based tools for – Designing safe and reliable adaptations of subprocesses – Creating traceable requirements and design decisions – Linking faults and errors to design decisions  Enable a learning process 17
  18. 18. Acknowledgements • This work has been funded by the Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG) under grant 845638 (SHAPE). 18

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