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Designing the Enterprise for Manufacturing

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Britain has a long history of manufacturing, and whilst the decline of the sector is well documented, applying the basic principles of traditional manufacturing to the “whitecollar” office environment is the new manufacturing. This talk will take you through the basic building patterns of manufacturing, looking at vendor selection/audits, the QA process, understanding of basic costings, discovering if the “products” are low volume, High mix, or low mix high volume and what the implications of design for manufacture would be in such an environment. Also, how to apply these basic patterns to the modern software driven “Office ” world. This is part one of a two part talk, the second one being “Preparing the Enterprise for Manufacturing”.

Britain has a long history of manufacturing, and whilst the decline of the sector is well documented, applying the basic principles of traditional manufacturing to the “whitecollar” office environment is the new manufacturing. This talk will take you through the basic building patterns of manufacturing, looking at vendor selection/audits, the QA process, understanding of basic costings, discovering if the “products” are low volume, High mix, or low mix high volume and what the implications of design for manufacture would be in such an environment. Also, how to apply these basic patterns to the modern software driven “Office ” world. This is part one of a two part talk, the second one being “Preparing the Enterprise for Manufacturing”.

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Designing the Enterprise for Manufacturing

  1. 1. Designing the enterprise for manufacturing Scott Russell 13 April 2015 Duration: 30 minutes
  2. 2. It is officially designated an “Enterprise project” when……. There are more developers than end users After 2 years, €8million in spend, the project is canned the day before go-live The contract sysadmin, who installed and configured Nagios has her contract terminated with immediate effect. The project goes back to <corporatemonitoringtool>. One week later, the sysadmin is asked back
  3. 3. the Manufacturing is dead Long Live the Manufacturing Long Live the Manufacturing Long Live the Manufacturing
  4. 4. Agenda •  Dejavu •  Basic Tools •  The 3 Idle factories, that you already maintain. •  Low Volume high mix, OR High Volume low mix •  Jobbing shops ( workcentre ) v’s production lines •  Queuing it works in theory •  Changeover and setup time •  Know your Key process points/Throughput Analysis •  Difference between QA and QC •  Prevention, not cure •  Utilisation, not capacity. •  Cost reduction •  Design of experiments
  5. 5. Knowing where to look •  http://www.amazon.co.uk/dp/0471102156/ref=rdr_ext_tmb •  http://www.amazon.co.uk/Burn--Engineering-Approach-Analysis-Procedures/dp/ 0471102156/ref=sr_1_12? s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1428872423&sr=1-12&keywords=reliability+burn-in •  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_stress_screening
  6. 6. All the Tools you will ever need • Stopwatch • Ladder • + - / * • 4R’s Reading, wRiting, aRithmetic, IT
  7. 7. The 3 idle factories, that you built • Standard office, hours, 9-5, 5 days a week • 40 hours of actual work time/week • But there are 168 hours in a week • So, you have x3 times more capacity than you actually need. • Ie 40 + 40 + 40 + 40 + 8 = 168
  8. 8. Understand the Product mix • High volume, low mix • Low volume, high mix • Both? • 80/20? • Where do you specialise?
  9. 9. Design your production line, but which type? 1. Jobbing shop ( workcentre ) – The Phoenix Project Has random flow across the workcentres Normally reserved for high value machinery Subject to uncontrolled queuing/bottlenecking 2. Continuous flow ( has velocity ) Identify key process stages/place in a STRAIGHT line. Control queuing via defined length connections
  10. 10. Production Flow – Airports don’t do Devops…
  11. 11. Workcentres and The travelling salesman problem •  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Travelling_salesman_problem Small workcentre Large workcentre
  12. 12. Traditional Motherboard Factory Layout Finished product store Wip Temporary storage Rework area SMT lines PIH linesTest/Repair Incomingmaterial ß
  13. 13. Modern Motherboard Factory LayoutFinnishedproduct truck/store SMT lines PIH linesTest/Repair Incomingmaterial Test/Repair
  14. 14. Changeover and setup time. • How long to switch between products? • How long to switch from one variant to another eg, from dev to test build? • How long to reconfigure the line? • Is it even possible with the current schedule? • Do you have available downtime? • Is there enough stock? • Have you checked the BOM( Bill Of Materials )– do you have all the things?
  15. 15. The effects of queuing • Supermarkets checkouts are the best place to learn • Amhdal’s Law • Universal Scaliability Law/PDQ - Gunther 2008 • Anandtech article on queue depth on testing of SSD’s •  http://www.anandtech.com/show/8104/intel-ssd-dc-p3700-review-the-pcie-ssd- transition-begins-with-nvme/2
  16. 16. Know and measure key process points • Identify key points in the process flow • Measure flow at these points/hour? • Review flow on a 24 hour basis • Establish input flows • Measure output flows
  17. 17. Know your metrics • Example of number of simultaneous users • Q: 5 simultaneous users? What does it mean to a manager? • A: Well it is not a big number so let’s make it bigger. • A: Let’s improve it, we need 100 simultaneous users? Now that is a big number • A: What do you mean you need a use case? JFDI.
  18. 18. Know your metrics • 30 second use case, 5 simultaneous users • 10 users/minute ( 60 secs / 30 secs * 5 users ) • 600 users/hour ( 3600 secs /30 secs * 5 users ) • 14400 users/day ( 3600 secs*24 hours/30 secs*5 users )
  19. 19. Difference between QC and QA • Quality Control, measures in-line process , promotes pass/fail, scrap rework mentality – don’t use it. Effectively policing the process. • Quality Assurance, checks that procedures/work instructions are being followed, it’s key indicator is that you should be able to remove all QA from the production line, and the line will still function, generating good product. Over time ( days/weeks ) the process will drift into non-conformity. Don’t remove it.
  20. 20. Time series statistics – The ford book 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
  21. 21. Prevention not Cure
  22. 22. Utilisation not Capacity
  23. 23. C o s t R e d u c t i o n
  24. 24. Design of Experiments •  Employ a statistician •  Design your experiments statistically •  Identify unforeseen relationships •  Only applicable for more complex processes
  25. 25. Summary • Use statistical methods, save time and resources • Use straight lines, human beings like those • Use basic tools, stopwatches, ladders, arithmetic, IT • Design/build/destroy production lines, no jobbing shops • Invest in prevention, not cure • Be aware the effects of queuing on throughput/ utilisation • Be conscious of building idle factories • Utilisation not capacity • Old methods, still apply, Manufacturing is alive and well

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