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ASSIGNMENT PRESENTATION OF
LIMNOLOGY
TOPIC- PLANKTONIC ORGANISMS
AND
CLASSIFICATION
PLANKTONIC ORGANISMS & CLASSIFICATION
• What are planktons?
• Diverse group of organisms living in large water
bodies.
• Unable to swim against water currents.
• They provide a crucial source of food to large aquatic
organisms.
• Includes bacteria ,algae, archaic, protozoans &
drifting or floating organisms.
• Found in pelagic zone of water bodies.
• Essentially, they are defined by their ecological niche.
• They are of wide ranges of sizes, including some
microscopic organism & large organisms such as jelly
fishes.
CLASSIFICATION
PLANKTONS are classified into following group on
The basis of their origin-
• PHYTOPLANKTON
• ZOOPLANKTON
PHYTOPLANKTONS
• Derived from Greek word ‘python’ meaning plant.
• Commonly are algae.
• They are eukaryotic or prokaryotic algae.
• They live near water surface where there is sufficient
amount of light energy for photosynthesis.
• Among the more important groups are diatoms, cyan
bacteria, dinoflagellates and coccolithophores.
• Inhabit upper sunlit layers of water bodies called
euphotic zone.
• They are coloured due to presence of chlorophyll &
acessory pigments such as phycobilliproteins &
xanthophylls.
• They are agents for "primary production” in aquatic
food web.
• Phytoplankton productivity is affected by changes in
the vertical stratification of the water column, the rate
of temperature-dependent biological reactions, and
the atmospheric supply of nutrients .
PHYTOPLANKTONS AND
AQUACULTURE
• They are a key food item in aquaculture &
mariculture.
• Planktons are used as a food stock for the production
of rotifers which are in turn used to feed the
organisms.
• The production of phytoplankton under artificial
condition is itself a form of aquaculture.
• The majority of cultured plankton is marine.
ZOOPLANKTONS
• They are hetrotrophic sometimes detritivorus
plankton.
• The word zooplankton is derived from the Greek
zoon meaning animals & planktons meaning
wanderer.
• Although they are transported by water
currents,many have locomotion, used to avoid
predators.
• They are both holoplanktons & meroplanktons.
• Zooplanktons feed on bacterioplanktons or
phycoplanktons.
• They are found in surface water where food
resources are abundant.
• The physical factor that influences zooplankton
distribution the most is mixing of water column that
affects nutrient availibility & in turn phytoplankton
production.
• EXAMPLE
• Rotifers, krills , radiolarians & pteropods.
CLASSIFICATION
• On the basis of their cell size they are classified into
following groups-
• Bacterioplanktons
• Nanoplanktons
• Microplanktons
• Macroplanktons
BACTERIOPLANKTONS
• They are less than two microns.
• Smallest phytoplanktons are represented by this
group.
• Example-
• Bacillus , micrococus & bacterium.
NANOPLANKTONS
• Size ranges from 2-20 microns.
• Smaller phytoplanktons belong to this group.
• They are flagellates.
• Example-
• Cocolithus & Gymnodium.
MICROPLANKTONS
• Size ranges from 20 to 200 microns.
• Large phytoplanktons & small zooplanktons belong
to this group.
• Example
• Dinoflagellates- Ceratium & Dinophysis.
• Diatoms- Chaetocerus
MACROPLANKTONS
• Size ranges from 200 to 2000 microns.
• Visible by naked eyes.
• They includes copepods.
• Example-
• Calamus , Euphasia Superba (Antartic krills)
• Antartic krills are food for whales.
Euphasia superba (Antartic krill)
MEGAPLANKTONS
• They are exceptionally large organisms.
• They are larger than 2000 microns.
• Body posses tentacles which are quite long
(15 m).
• Example
• Physalia
PLANKTONIC ORGANISMS AND CLASSIFICATION
PLANKTONIC ORGANISMS AND CLASSIFICATION

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PLANKTONIC ORGANISMS AND CLASSIFICATION

  • 1. ASSIGNMENT PRESENTATION OF LIMNOLOGY TOPIC- PLANKTONIC ORGANISMS AND CLASSIFICATION
  • 2. PLANKTONIC ORGANISMS & CLASSIFICATION • What are planktons? • Diverse group of organisms living in large water bodies. • Unable to swim against water currents. • They provide a crucial source of food to large aquatic organisms. • Includes bacteria ,algae, archaic, protozoans & drifting or floating organisms.
  • 3. • Found in pelagic zone of water bodies. • Essentially, they are defined by their ecological niche. • They are of wide ranges of sizes, including some microscopic organism & large organisms such as jelly fishes.
  • 4. CLASSIFICATION PLANKTONS are classified into following group on The basis of their origin- • PHYTOPLANKTON • ZOOPLANKTON
  • 5. PHYTOPLANKTONS • Derived from Greek word ‘python’ meaning plant. • Commonly are algae. • They are eukaryotic or prokaryotic algae. • They live near water surface where there is sufficient amount of light energy for photosynthesis. • Among the more important groups are diatoms, cyan bacteria, dinoflagellates and coccolithophores. • Inhabit upper sunlit layers of water bodies called euphotic zone.
  • 6. • They are coloured due to presence of chlorophyll & acessory pigments such as phycobilliproteins & xanthophylls. • They are agents for "primary production” in aquatic food web. • Phytoplankton productivity is affected by changes in the vertical stratification of the water column, the rate of temperature-dependent biological reactions, and the atmospheric supply of nutrients .
  • 7. PHYTOPLANKTONS AND AQUACULTURE • They are a key food item in aquaculture & mariculture. • Planktons are used as a food stock for the production of rotifers which are in turn used to feed the organisms. • The production of phytoplankton under artificial condition is itself a form of aquaculture. • The majority of cultured plankton is marine.
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  • 9. ZOOPLANKTONS • They are hetrotrophic sometimes detritivorus plankton. • The word zooplankton is derived from the Greek zoon meaning animals & planktons meaning wanderer. • Although they are transported by water currents,many have locomotion, used to avoid predators. • They are both holoplanktons & meroplanktons.
  • 10. • Zooplanktons feed on bacterioplanktons or phycoplanktons. • They are found in surface water where food resources are abundant. • The physical factor that influences zooplankton distribution the most is mixing of water column that affects nutrient availibility & in turn phytoplankton production. • EXAMPLE • Rotifers, krills , radiolarians & pteropods.
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  • 12. CLASSIFICATION • On the basis of their cell size they are classified into following groups- • Bacterioplanktons • Nanoplanktons • Microplanktons • Macroplanktons
  • 13. BACTERIOPLANKTONS • They are less than two microns. • Smallest phytoplanktons are represented by this group. • Example- • Bacillus , micrococus & bacterium.
  • 14. NANOPLANKTONS • Size ranges from 2-20 microns. • Smaller phytoplanktons belong to this group. • They are flagellates. • Example- • Cocolithus & Gymnodium.
  • 15. MICROPLANKTONS • Size ranges from 20 to 200 microns. • Large phytoplanktons & small zooplanktons belong to this group. • Example • Dinoflagellates- Ceratium & Dinophysis. • Diatoms- Chaetocerus
  • 16. MACROPLANKTONS • Size ranges from 200 to 2000 microns. • Visible by naked eyes. • They includes copepods. • Example- • Calamus , Euphasia Superba (Antartic krills) • Antartic krills are food for whales.
  • 18. MEGAPLANKTONS • They are exceptionally large organisms. • They are larger than 2000 microns. • Body posses tentacles which are quite long (15 m). • Example • Physalia