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Waste to Energy

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WASTE TO ENERGY
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Waste to Energy

  1. 1. WASTE TO ENERGY
  2. 2. WASTE TO ENERGY W2E Group Members Saira Sehzadi (11-Env-06) Maryem Javed (11-Env-73) Sundas khursheed (11-Env-82)
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION
  4. 4. Need for waste to energy The amount of solid waste generated each year has been increasing much faster than population growth. Growing demand of energy is also increases. Today, we face numerous environmental & economic challenges: •Population growth and associate waste disposal needs •Global Warming •Dependence on fossil fuels There is a common solution for all of these challenges. Energy-from-Waste (EfW) provides: •Safe, economic waste disposal •Greenhouse gas reduction •Renewable energy
  5. 5. In waste management there are several methods:
  6. 6. Best method
  7. 7. Waste to Energy Waste-To-Energy (WTE) technologies recover the energy from the waste. Waste can include: •Residential •Industrial • Commercial • Institutional • Construction and demolition All of the above included as †œmunicipal solid waste(MSW). • Agriculture
  8. 8. Waste-to-Energy Municipal Solid Waste 1 ton Power: up to 750 kWh Ash: 10% of original volume
  9. 9. CASE STUDY European nations rely on waste-to-energy as the preferred method of waste disposal. According to the Confederation of European Waste-to- Energy Plants (CEWEP), Europe currently treats 50 million ton of wastes at waste-to-energy plants each year, generating an amount of energy that can supply electricity for 27 million people or heat for 13 million people
  10. 10. TYPES OF ENERGY FROM WASTE Thermal conversion: •Combustion •Gasification •Pyrolysis Biochemical conversion •Anaerobic Digestion Landfill Gas
  11. 11. TECHNOLOGY SELECTION CONSIDERATIONS ECONOMY ENVIRONMENT ENERGY • CO2 Control • DXNs Control • Emission Control • Landfill Control • Cost Control • Profit • Growth • Energy Recovery • High Efficiency • Utilization / Sale Waste characteristics • waste type • waste quality • waste contents
  12. 12. Technologies Overview
  13. 13. Thermal Conversion: Gasification • Gasification is a process that uses high temperatures (without combustion) to decompose materials to produce synthetic gas. Temperature > 1300oF • It takes place in the presence of limited amounts of oxygen
  14. 14. Thermal Conversion: Pyrolysis • It is defined as the thermal decomposition of carbon- based materials in an oxygen-deficient atmosphere using heat to produce syngas.No air or oxygen is present and no direct burning takes place. The process is endothermic. • Lower temperature than gasification (750 – 1500oF)
  15. 15. Syngas Main product of gasification and pyrolysis Caloriific Value: approx. 13 MJ/kg, half of natural gas It is used as a fuel to generate electricity or steam It is used to produce synthetic diesel
  16. 16. Syngas
  17. 17. Thermal Conversion: Combustion • Thermal conversion of a feedstock utilizing excess air or oxygen as oxidant to generate heat.
  18. 18. Biochemical conversion: Anaerobic Digestion • “An anaerobic digester is an air tight, oxygen‐free container that is fed an organic material, such as animal manure or food scraps. • A biological process occurs to this mixture to produce methane gas, commonly known as biogas, along with an odor‐reduced effluent. Microbes break down manure into biogas and a nutrient‐rich effluent.”
  19. 19. Anaerobic Digestion
  20. 20. Benefits Of AD Reduce Environmental Impacts: • Odors • Pathogens • Greenhouse gases Create value‐added products: • renewable energy (biogas) (heat, electricity, CHP, compressed gas for vehicles, pipeline gas) • fertilizer • fibers(bedding, mulch, hydroseeding, potting soil amendment)
  21. 21. Landfill Gas • Landfill gas (LFG)-to-energy is a form of anaerobic digestion and is a biological treatment method of WTE. • LFG is created during the decomposition of organic substances in MSW when it is dumped, compacted, and covered .
  22. 22. • LFG-to-energy as a method of WTE conversion does not require new technology, but instead depends on harnessing the methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrogen (N2) that is and always has been created by MSW • LFG-to-energy is economically attractive because unlike other WTE conversion technologies, it does not require a new facility. Gas can be collected from an existing landfill and either used as is, upgraded to a higher quality gas, or converted to energy through combustion, a gas turbine, or a steam turbine
  23. 23. Landfill Gas Process Flows
  24. 24. Waste-to-Energy Plant
  25. 25. Criteria For Selection of WTE
  26. 26. Criteria for Selection of WTE

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