The M.Ed project is related to Curriculum Development. Government Girls Urdu
Secondary School was selected. There were 16 curricula found at Elementary level
and 25 at Secondary level. It was found that there is no horizontal curriculum in any
school. There are subject curriculum having different aim and objectives.
1.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
Government Girls Urdu school is a secondary school which is situated near main road
Qazi Mohallah. First it was named as government Sindhi school because in this
school was only Sindhi medium. Now this school facilitating local area girls with
1.2 THE PRINCIPAL AND STAFF
Ms...Zainab Fatima is serving as a Principal in this school. The lady is highly
qualified and striving her best to make her school one of the best school of Thatta.
She is running the schools magnificently since last 5 years. There are 25 teachers in
school. They all are professionally qualified. All the teachers are well qualified,
putting their heart and soul for the better of future of their students.
1.3 THE EXTERIOR
The School has got a big beautiful building painted white and green ,designed in a
square in shape ,having the hug iron gate imposing a brass plate, bearing the school
name above it. However as the saying goes as beauty lie within here too real contents
of the package are yet to be revealed. And indeed upon entering the premise one is
transfixed by the beautiful school ground having rows of nice green plant proving air
condition air rose and much more.
1.4 THE INTERIOR
There are 27 class rooms in total. All are well lit and airy decorated by beautifully
prepared soft board conveying heart touching messages. There is a head mistress
office, a staff room, a clerk office, only one laboratory which is used as physics,
chemistry and biology laboratory simultaneously.
The strength of students in class is up to 40 to 50 students there is a small library and
canteen is there. For drinking water, water color is keep that provide with cold water.
Washrooms are also built but there is no any check and balance of cleanness.
1.5 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This research would analyze the implementation of curriculum of biology of class IX.
1.6 OBJECTIVES F THE STUDY
The objectives of my study are:
1. To review critically implementation of curriculum of biology at Secondary
level nationally and internationally.
2. To identify the learning difficulties in biology at Secondary level.
3. To analyze the effecting factors in cognitive development of students through
curriculum of biology at Secondary level.
4. To recommend how students can make improvements on curriculum of
biology Secondary level.
The term curriculum refers to the lessons and academic content taught in a
school or in a specific course or program. In dictionaries, curriculum is often defined
as the courses offered by a school, but it is rarely used in such a general sense in
schools. Depending on how broadly educators define or employ the term, curriculum
typically refers to the knowledge and skills students are expected to learn, which
includes the learning standards or learning objectives they are expected to meet; the
units and lessons that teachers teach; the assignments and projects given to students;
the books, materials, videos, presentations, and readings used in a course; and the
tests, assessments, and other methods used to evaluate student learning.
1.9 IMPLEMENTATION OF CURRICULUM OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
This research would analyze the implementation of curriculum of biology at
Secondary level. Biological sciences have become an essential part of living in
current era. Developments in the field of biological sciences have influenced many
aspects of human life including education.
In order to make students skillful in this filed a subject of biological sciences is
offered at secondary school level. Major purpose of introducing biological sciences at
secondary level was that students of this age are more motivated to learn new
discoveries and research. The second reason was high dropout rate, where almost half
of them enter in job market, keeping in view this trend it was necessary to develop
new discoveries and research literate workforce. Now as the new discoveries and
research has flooded in and new generation is exposed to it from birth so it is
necessary to know perceptions about curriculum of biological sciences.
1.10 IMPLEMENTATION OF CURRICULUM OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
The past ten years brought in Pakistan a revolutionized, biological sciences oriented
approach which stretched to the educational system as well. Introducing the subject
merely was not considered the only pathway to achieving this milestone, but the
whole stream of teaching saw an evolution in which the traditional learn-it-off-the-
book strategy was downsized by integrating the concept of extensive and
comprehensive research. From primary to high school, such approach was what the
Ministry of Education aimed to achieve. Recently I thought I’d spend some time to
see how far they’ve gotten.
However, unfortunate as it may seem but this milestone is yet to be achieved.
Biological sciences labs have been introduced, yet the implementation process is
inadequate; the new discoveries are outdated- and mostly the systems fail to work.
Lack of proper maintenance and upgrading of the systems portends an outdated
approach of the students towards biological sciences education. Awareness about this
discipline cannot be spread just by setting up biological sciences labs.
Proper updating of the labs should take place; leading biological sciences institutions
should come to schools’ help including counseling sessions. The children of today
have to be educated about new discoveries and research, about biotechnology and
artificial intelligence. This should be done right from the elementary classes and not
when they enter university.
Putting aside the supposedly superficial short coming of the biological sciences labs
in schools, let me focus your attention to the curriculum that is being followed. The
general outlay of the curriculum fails to provide a gradual acquaintance of the
students with the subject. Biological sciences education is not confined to learning the
definition of biology and cell; biological education is a vast subject and such a vast
subject requires the proper breakup of its components, in a gradual grade by grade
process. Mostly in their SSC, students are exposed to experimentation, when
previously their approach was confined to perform experimentation or creating
presentations and make more researches in the field of biology for their cognitive
development. The fact that experimentation is such a cosmic stream, there is a
component out there for every student; if only they are exposed to it at the right time
in the right manner.
1.11 IMPLEMENTATION OF CURRICULUM OF BIOLOGICAL
SCIENCES IN CHINA
In China three major areas of study in the revised biological sciences syllabus
together with their time allocation in percentages are as follows:
Molecular Biology (25%)
Cell Biology (17%)
As the aim of this subject is to provide an opportunity for students to understand
• A scientific understanding of the living world
• Mental and motor abilities appropriate to the acquisition and use of biological
• An appreciation of the products and influences of science and technology, balanced
by a concern for their wise application
• An understanding of the nature and limitations of scientific activity
• An ability to apply biological understanding to appropriate problems (including
those of everyday life) and to approach those problems in rational ways
• Respect for evidence, rationality and intellectual honesty
• Capacities to express themselves coherently and logically, both orally and in
writing, and to use appropriately modes of communication characteristic of scientific
• An ability to work effectively with others.
The experimentation may help motivate students and enliven the learning atmosphere
in the classroom. For teaching Cell Biology, teachers are recommended to adopt a
student-centered approach. The experimentation and activities should be taught
through the process of guided discovery into the nature of a situation or problem. It is
therefore essential for teachers to provide their students with an environment which
allow them to explore and discover which help in their cognitive development. For
teaching biological sciences information, it is generally accepted that the
understanding of these topics could be best derived from hands-on experience in using
To achieve this goal, practical lessons should be appropriately organized so as to
allow sufficient time for students to try out the programs with relevant daily life tasks.
However, teachers should bear in mind that basic concepts involved in the use of
application packages to complete the tasks are the theme for this section. Students
should not be required to memorize the factual statements and commands used in the
application packages. Follow-up discussions on the contemporary development of
teaching biological sciences information are also considered valuable. The order of
presentation of topics in the models of this syllabus should not be interpreted as a
rigid teaching sequence. Teachers may choose modules that best suited to the abilities
of their student, but the proportion of time allocated to the major areas as mentioned
above should be maintained.Based on feedback from teachers, notes on teaching on
specific topic(s) would be up-dated and issued from time to time in the form of
supplementary information to schools in due course.
S.NO Standard achievements Response from
Do you use technology in the classroom?
(computer, mobile, multimedia etc)
Every student can pay attention your voice easily?
Do you know about objectives of topic which you
Do students easily understand the topics?
Do you complete your subject course at the end of
Do you nurture student self-confidence?
Are you satisfied with your schools physical working
Do you have command on your subjects?
Do you assign homework?
Have you polite behavior in the class?
S.NO Standard achievements Response from
Does school have a well experienced teacher for the
biological sciences subject?
Is there any availability for good biological sciences books
in the school beside course book?
Does the school time table allow the complete credit hours
for the subject?
Instead of course book, does the teacher use any other
biological sciences equipment to introduce it to the students?
Practical Skills (Experimentation)
Are the students able to perform experiments on different
Do the students have knowledge about cell biology and
Can student practically use lab apparatus according to the
2.3 Physicalfacilities checklist
Sr No. Physical Facilities Available Not available Comments
1. School is situated at commercial area
2. Office of the Principal
3. School furniture
4. Teachers staff room
7. Audiovisual center
9. Biology lab
10. Computer lab
12. Drawing/ Art room
13. Black boards
14. First Aid Box/ Kit
15. Medical clinic
19. Parents Meeting Room
20. Experimental Instruments
2.4 Laboratories facilities checklist
Sr No. Physical Facilities Available Not available Comments
2. Biology lab
3. Computer lab
4. Experimental Instruments
5. First Aid Box/ Kit
6. Black board
9. Dissecting boxes
11. Petri dishes
12. Lab furniture
15. Lab oven
16. Lab incubator
2.5 Human resources
Sr# Standard achievement Yes No 1-not achievable
1 Are there H.M and Enough staff
available in school?
2 Co-curricular activities held in the
3 Speech, debate and drama competition
held in school.
4 School involves in any competition
with other schools.
5 Teachers try to involve students in
some physical activities in the
classroom or within school premises.
6 Students can talk in English.
7 Lower staff available for cleaning and
8 School celebrates days of Quaid-i-
azam, Allama Iqbal and other
personalities and national days.
9 Teachers are well trained and highly
10 All teachers and other staff working
well together punctually.
11 Participation of students and their
parents highly appreciated in programs
12 Ration of participation of students and
their parents is high.
13 Relation between headmaster and
teachers with lower staff members is
very good and gentle.
14 Relation between staff and parents is
beneficial and progressive for the
15 Co-ordination between teachers is very
attractive, energetic and healthy.
16 Students behavior and response to the
teacher is very energetic and within the
context of the learning and regarding
teaching learning process.
17 The curriculum is helping students to
improve their skills and develop good
behavior and leading them on path of
18 Step for improving human resource
and improving social, moral, cultural
values taken in the context of
curriculum so students can be an
influence for the society.
The study of all the students at Secondary school in district Thatta
3.2 DELIMATION OF STUDY
Total number of curricula in National Curriculum for the Secondary is 25. The major
constraint of the study was that the research attempted only to remain focused on one
subject biological sciences as it was beyond the scope of study to include all the
curricula being taught at Secondary level.
The Students of Government Girls Urdu School Class IX including in the sample
which is consisted of 20 female students.
In this project the research instrument which is used is check list for the collection of
information from Head Mistress, teachers and students. The use of checklist is a
primitive yet remarkably effective strategy for ensuring accuracy in complex tasks.
Checklist for one subject Biology is developed and validated by supervision.
This research is applied. The methodology of this
research was qualitative. The writing style of the research is descriptive and it is
investigating in nature. The researcher visited the school with regular intervals as
when the project started school was officially off, students and teacher were not
available at that time, so this school was visited after vacations also for the accurate
information and thoughts of different individuals about the system and the subject
(biological sciences), as it is most fascinating and rapidly growing subject all over the
Applied research in education is the best characterized by the intention to link
research with action in a form that generates actionable knowledge. This intention is
evidenced in the processes of designing, carrying out, and validating the research
findings. It need not necessarily imply a preference for a particular type of knowledge
or the methodology associated with its production.
We have to learn this subject and learn fast to accomplish the goals and meet with the
challenges of current situations of the world. The researcher dug information from
headmaster, teachers and students also from the other resources like the website of
national bureau of curriculum.
There are more than 40 documents found on the website amongst them 16 curricula
are designed for elementary school level and 25 for secondary school level. But only
9 curricula are implemented which are English, Mathematics, Urdu, Pakistan/social
studies, Chemistry, Computer science, Biology, Physics, Islamiyat and Sindhi.
Amongst these all curricula the researcher selected curriculum of biology science
study and its implementation. A checklist was developed from given objectives of
curriculum of Biology science for the secondary. The whole information collected by
the help of checklist was analyzed by the researcher and recommended the solutions.
Findings of the study were drawn on the data analyzed. The conclusion of the study
was drawn from the findings and finally recommendations were made on the findings
of the study.
QUALITATIVE DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
S.NO Standard achievements Response from Teachers
Do you use technology in the
Every student can pay attention
your voice easily?
Most of the Teachers showed positive
response for it.
Do you know about objectives of
topic which you deliver?
Do students easily understand
Teachers agreed about the objectives of topic.
Collected data shows that teacher do efforts
for this point as much as the availability of
Do you complete your subject
course at the end of session?
Do you nurture student self-
Are you satisfied with your
schools physical working
Most of the Teachers were agreed on this
Do you have command on your
Do you assigning homework?
Have you polite behavior in the
Teachers agreed on this point because they
have taught their students about the basics of
Most of them assigning homework.
Most of them have polite behavior.
Analysis: By considering the above table, it indicates that 60% of teachers use
technology, and 40% teachers don’t use technology. Majority of teachers use
technology because they believe that technology is source of motivation of candidates
during classroom teaching. Technology can be used to help engage students in
thinking critically to promote self regulated learning and improve literacy skills. H.M
believed that our ultimate goal is to contribute to teacher education in the area of
technology integration to improve pre- and in-service training and professional
development programs that take into account the interrelationships between teachers’
beliefs and their technology integration practices. It would be helpful in improving
technology integration trainings. As an international phenomenon, technology is an
important part of our everyday lives and efforts to improve teaching and learning
(Sandholtz, Ringstaff, & Dwyer, 1997; Voogt, Tilya, & van den Akker, 2009;
Williams, Linn, Ammon, & Gearhart, 2004). With the importance of technology in
education, technology integration has been greatly emphasized in teacher training and
professional development (Lawless & Pellegrino, 2007). However, it has been
criticized that teachers have not been provided with adequate support that goes
beyond learning specific technology skills (e.g., using a particular tool or software
program) (Llorens, Salanova, & Grau, 2002). Learning technologies (Internet, CD-
ROM) offer students, as well as their teachers, new opportunities to construct
knowledge that has not before been available in this easy and quick mode.
Item 1 Yes No
Do you use technology in the classroom?
We should keep in mind the fact that even if students probably have more time to
spend on their studies than their teachers do, the study period is always limited in
hours and weeks according to their study programmes. However, it could then be
argued that the Internet causes confusion in this aspect with its unorganized huge
amount of information and communication possibilities. One of the most important
features of educational multimedia is the interactivity (feedback) between material
and user, and hence the stimulation to better learning. Also, the fact that students can
contribute in a new way to their own production of learning material creates a new
learning paradigm. We believe that the transition from passive consumers to active
producers of educational material would improve learning. In the future we can see
teachers and students collaborating in producing learning material.
In short, to promote teachers’ technology integration practice in the classroom, it has
been suggested that second-order barriers to technology integration should be
identified and overcome; positive changes in teacher beliefs could help surmount
second-order barriers (Ertmer, 2005; Hew & Brush, 2007). Thus, we examined how
teachers’ beliefs are related to their technology integration practices.
In doing so, first, we reviewed the literature to determine the teacher beliefs that
should be examined. Second, we examined teachers’ (a) beliefs about the nature of
knowledge and learning, as well as (b) beliefs about effective ways of teaching. Last,
we investigated how such beliefs are related to teachers’ technology integration
practice. Throughout the investigation, it was expected that information about
relationships between teacher beliefs and technology integration would suggest how
to take teacher beliefs into consideration so as to facilitate technology integration.
Item 2 Yes No
Every student can pay attention your voice easily?
Analysis: During this interview, it was considered that majority of students easily pay
attention on the teacher’s voice because of the well disciplined class and silence of
students. Majority, about 70% of students can understand the lecture in the class.
Analysis: It was considered from the above table, about 85% of teachers focus on
objectives of the topic which they are delivering in the classroom teaching and
learning process. Majority of teacher believe that by focusing on the objectives we
can easily complete our course at the end of session.
Item 3 Yes No
Do you know about objectives of topic which you deliver? 85% 15%
Item 4 Yes No
Do students easily understand the topics? 80% 20%
Analysis: During teacher’s interview, it was considered from the above table that
about 80% of students easily understand the lecture. Because most of the teachers use
Av- Aids and different technologies like computer and multimedia etc. Teachers
believed that technology can be used to help engage students in thinking critically to
promote self regulated learning and improve literacy skills.
Analysis: It was analyzed from the above table; about 80% of teachers could
complete their course of studies at the end of session. Majority of teachers were
focused on their tasks and objectives of studies till end of session.
Item 5 Yes No
Do you complete your subject course at the end of session? 80% 20%
Item 6 Yes No
Do you nurture student self-confidence? 60% 40%
Analysis The analysis of information in the above table considered that 60% of the
teachers are trying to nurture the students self confidence through extracurricular
activities or national or international system of testing. They believe that self-
confidence is not inherited; it is learned. Teacher told that, learning any valuable skill
requires lots of practice. Give students time to explore new skills in different ways.
Take advantage of curiosity. The more students learn, the more self-confidence will
grow. Sometime they build their confidence by appreciations and encouragement
regarding to their accomplishments.
Analysis: Majority of teachers were satisfied with schools physical working
environment. They said that their classes are well decorated, good space for seating
arrangement and good lightning system, so the students couldn’t find any difficulty
during classroom activities or teaching and learning process. Seventy percent teachers
responded positively with this item statement.
Item 7 Yes No
Are you satisfied with your schools physical working
environment?(Heating, lighting, and space etc) 70% 30%
Item 8 Yes No
Do you have command on your subjects? 70% 30%
Analysis: Seventy percent teachers responded positively with this item statement,
because they believed that without command on subjects teachers couldn’t achieve
their targets or objectives. Majority of teacher believe that having command on
subjects, they can easily clear the concepts of students. It also indicated that 30%
teacher were lack of command on subject knowledge, so they were fail to provide
knowledge about subject and clarify the concepts of students.
Analysis: During teacher interview, it was analyzed that about 80% of teachers
assigning the homework to student for the purpose of self study and attached with
subject at their home without wasting of time. First of all sense of duty, most of the
teacher responded that, by doing daily homework a student will become more
responsible towards his duties related to life as well as educational institute. Because
this is something through which one will always be ready and prepare to hard work
will not take it easy. On the other hand students who did not get daily homework has
seen lazy and careless or couch potato.
Item 9 Yes No
Do you assigning homework? 80% 20%
Analysis: During the teacher’s interview and analysis from the above information in
the table, it could be considered that majority (70%) have polite behavior in the class
because they believe that by polite behavior in the class students easily understand the
instructions. Majority of teachers responded that punishment is not a good way to
control the students, by polite behavior we can easily control the students and manage
Item 10 Yes No
Have you polite behavior in the class? 70% 30%
4.2 H.M interview questionnaire
S.NO Standard achievements Response from Headmaster
Does school have a well experienced teacher
for the biological sciences subject?
Is there any availability for good biological
sciences books in the school beside course
Headmaster stated that all teachers
have good command over their
He stated that most of the students
don’t have interest in reading books.
Do the school time table allows the complete
credit hours for the subject?
Instead of course book, does the teacher use
any other biological sciences equipment to
introduce it to the students?
He stated that 40 min of Biology
class for theory is ideal.
He stated that lack of equipment is
the main issue at this point.
Practical Skills (Experimentation)
Are the students able to perform experiments
on different tasks?
He stated that there is no proper lab
for it but teachers conduct sessions
for it by their own efforts.
Do the students have knowledge about cell
biology and molecular biology?
Can student practically use lab apparatus
according to the requirement?
He agreed about the basic
knowledge of theoretical knowledge
He stated that lack of equipment
doesn’t allow them to teach about
the internet usage to students
4.3 Human resources
YES NO 1-Not
1 Are there H.M and
enough staff at school?
2 H.M, and staff is
2 Co-curricular activities
held in the school.
2 Activities like
celebrating day of
3 Speech, debate and drama
competition held in
2 If they work bit
hard they can
4 School involves in any
competition with other
1 Government has to
take action for such
5 Teachers try to involve
students in some physical
activities in the classroom
or within school premises.
3 Teacher is an artist
he can achieve a lot
of things at low
6 Students can talk in
2 Authorities have to
involve and put
pressure on staff to
7 Lower staff available for
cleaning and security
3 It is good to have
8 School celebrates days of
Quaid-i- azam, Allama
Iqbal and other
personalities and national
3 By such events
9 Teachers are well trained 3 It is good to have
and highly qualified. for good progress
10 All teachers and other
staff working well
2 Some reports have
been in notice
11 Participation of students
and their parents highly
appreciated in programs
3 It is good for
students that they
watched by their
12 Ration of participation of
students and their parents
2 Its very sad that
parents are not that
keen to participate
in such programs.
13 Relation between
headmaster and teachers
with lower staff members
is very good and gentle.
3 As a school and its
members are like a
family so they
should live like
14 Relation between staff and
parents is beneficial and
progressive for the
2 They should
relation for the
betterment of the
15 Co-ordination between
teachers is very attractive,
energetic and healthy.
2 Teachers should
students and other
issues so they can
16 Students behavior and
response to the teacher is
very energetic and within
the context of the learning
and regarding teaching
2 It is very important
for students to take
interest as they are
the center of the
17 The curriculum is helping
students to improve their
skills and develop good
behavior and leading them
2 Thinkers made the
curriculum for the
on path of becoming
youth, so it’d pay
18 Step for improving human
resource and improving
social, moral, cultural
values taken in the context
of curriculum so students
can be an influence for the
2 It is very essential
as we all get
education for this
4.4 Physicalfacilities checklist
Physical Facilities Available Not
1.School is situated at
Not at commercial
2.Office of the Principal Good
3.School furniture Not proper
4.Teachers staff room Not proper
7.Audiovisual center Nil
8.Laboratories Not proper
9.Biology lab Not proper
10.Computer lab Not proper
12.Drawing/ Art room Nil
13.Black boards Good
14.First Aid Box/ Kit Nil
15.Medical clinic Nil
16.Library Not proper
17.Books Not proper
18.Parents Meeting Room Not proper
4.5 Laboratories facilities checklist
Sr No. Physical Facilities Available Not
1. Laboratories Not proper
2. Biology lab Not proper lab
3. Computer lab Not proper lab
5. First Aid Box/ Kit Nil
6. Black board Nil
7. Chemicals Few Chemicals
8. Slides Not proper
9. Dissecting boxes Not proper
10. Beakers Not proper
11. Petri dishes Good
12. Lab furniture Nil
13. Models Good
14. Charts Good
15. Lab oven Nil
16. Lab incubator Nil
17. Microscopes Not proper
18. Freezer Nil
19. Water Not proper
The findings are analyzed by the collected checklist
According to the responses of the checklist following are the positive and
4.1 POSITIVE TRENDS
1. Availability of classrooms and biology lab.
2. Most of the teachers use Technology
3. Chapters in book to understand biology and its history.
4. Experiments in books to understand the main aspects of the biology.
5. Book is rich with examples and practice work
6. Lessons in book enhancing the knowledge about biology.
7. Teachers are well trained and biology graduate.
8. Encouragement of striving for technology which is almost compulsory in
9. Most of the teachers assigning Homework to students
10. Competition among teachers
11. Collaboration among students
12. Interaction and Participation among students
4.2 NEGATIVE TRENDS
1. Book is in English, so most Urdu or Sindhi medium students can’t learn by
themselves as they found English as hard component to understand.
2. Government schools usually teach in regional languages.
3. They have poor memorizing skills.
4. It’s hard to understand biology without labs or without actually performing on
experiments as many topics required practical for understanding.
5. Teachers do not pay much attention on students in government schools mostly.
6. There is communication gap in between teachers and students.
7. Students don’t know basic knowledge of biology and they also are not as
interested as one should have to be.
8. Lack of punctuality among teachers and students
9. Lack of reading skills
10. Dependence only on books not on other instructional materials/AV-Aids
11. Lack of physical facilities
12. Not proper instruments in labs
13. Not proper chemicals
14. Not proper microscopes
4.3 FINDINGS OF TEACHERS CHECKLIST
Teacher’s response via checklist is quite similar with students but over some points
they are quite differ from students. Collected data of teacher’s checklist shows that
students have less interest in biological science subject. Even some of the students
don’t have their course books. Every Student should have course book of biological
science according to teachers because teaching by book is the only and available
method to teach the student properly.
Lack of biological science lab and equipment are the essential problem for the
teachers to transfer the appropriate knowledge of biological science. Practically
working with biological science is necessary for the students to gain knowledge about
their subject. About the practical working the students were not able to perform well
The teachers were performing practical in front of students but they were not getting
chance to do it by their own hands so they are found very weak in practical working.
Teachers show some of the equipment to the students but they also don’t refer to any
book of biological science to the students.
4.4 FINDINGS OF HEADMASTER CHECKLIST
The collected data of Headmaster’s checklist shows that’s there is a lack of finance
for the school. That is the main cause for the school to provide complete facilities to
the students for the course of biological science. The schools don’t have equipments
for the teaching of biological science.
Teachers of the school are trying to fill the loops by their own efforts. Some teachers
teach the students properly but this is not so much efficient or effective for teaching
and learning process. Students are also losing their interest because of have
equipments issue. Books which are related to the course are free but other books
which are helpful and recommended are not available in the school which is also the
major issue for the teaching of biological science in the school. Collected data from
the headmaster checklist shows that the teaching staff of the school is quite
experience in biological science but they don’t have much facility to teach the
students properly. Some of the students know very well about the biological science
but that is their own effort.
4.5 PROBLEMS FOR IMPLEMENTING BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE
From all the participants consent that there is a lot of problem to implement biological
science curriculum such as insufficient teaching aids and biological science lab is the
main and common problem for which they can’t follow effective teaching-learning
approach. Modern era of education is fully dependent upon experimentation or
practical and without its implementation higher goals of learning as well as teaching
can’t be achieved.
There are so many other related reasons which are being hurdle in between
implementation of biological science at the elementary/secondary level such as lack
of subject based training, lack of availability of good biological science lab in our
We are providing such biological science labs which take too much time in
processing which fad up students and also teachers. All the teachers claim that they
don’t have modified lab in which student can practice what they have read in the
books. They also admitted that lack of proper labs, electric supply, library or books
apart from the text books etc. are also liable for learning environment.
All teachers have admitted that they don’t have any idea about goal, aims and
objectives set by the government of Pakistan in biological science subject. All
teachers also admit that they don’t take any steps if learning objectives have not been
Actually teachers admit that they don’t have clear idea about the learning objectives
and they don’t have any skills to measure the learning objectives achieved or not as
result they are not able to apply the prescribed learning of curriculum in the school
and class. Most students in school are unaware of biological science as science is not
been taught at primary level and coming into the 6th class or middle level it became
very hard for them to understand the biological science as most of the students don’t
have biological science books at home and at school.
The situation at government schools are very vulnerable and government have to take
harsh steps with serious approach towards the implementation of curriculum
biological science, otherwise our new generation won’t be able to compete with other
students of private organizations as they are providing light in the dark for the country
and most parents are not willing to enroll their children in government schools, even a
labor who earns four to five hundred daily wants his/her child to take education from
private school even they are also not worth more than government school, I’m not
talking about good private schools but those street schools who doesn’t even have
proper school building.
From all the aspects of this research and interview with teachers, students and
headmaster it is certain that implementation of curriculum biological science subject
as per requirement of curriculum wing and the authorities. Situation at most
government schools are not as one could have desired after making the curriculum for
the country. Biological science subject was introduced at secondary level first but
observing its needs are far more superior than this government decided to implement
it from middle section to manage it in more decent way. Biological science subject
based on all the developments and all the things related with the Biology and its
innovation, for that an organization must require well equipped labs, trained and
qualified teachers with resources.
Unfortunately, in the school I researched about implementation of Biology subject
have not have these facilities as per requirement.
To achieve the curriculum goals and objectives, government and non-government
organizations, who are trying very hard to improve Biological learning and skills
among peoples, should take some short and long term plans by considering existent
condition of Biology knowledge and prevailing problems which are hindrances for
implementing computer science curriculum.
This research explored some challenges of implementing Biological science
curriculum at school level. If government school should be facilitated with qualified
teacher, extra books for the learners in school library, time by time teachers training
and students motivation, same government schools will provide genius students to put
their hand in development of the country as young generation is the raw material and
resources of better future.
Recruiting high qualified and subject specialist teachers, providing adequate training
for their professional development, providing sufficient material for learning and
developing skills can be solution of these problems.
Considering all the above mentioned challenges with some problems, the
following suggestions should be considered:
This research has found that the teachers have very little knowledge about the
aims and objectives of biological science curriculum. If most of the teachers
don’t know the aims and objectives of biological science curriculum, it is very
hard to achieve desired goals of curriculum. So, the teacher training is
crucially important. Training would help teachers to enrich their knowledge
about teaching methodology and using teaching aids which will also help them
to fulfill the aims and objectives of the curriculum.
Teachers guide is an important instructional material. It helps teachers to
follow proper teaching methods and conduct classroom activity perfectly as
desired in the curriculum documents.
Authority concern should make sure to provide teachers guide to every
Biological Science is a discipline, like Math’s, Physics, or History. It has a
body of knowledge, established techniques, and thinking skills, that will last
students a lifetime. The core skill set of Biological Science is independent of
new methodologies and techniques.
The class room instructions should be guided by curriculum.
The class room learning time must be used effectively.
The attention must be given to practical’s (hands-on-training) as per the
The instructors must check students’ progress frequently.
The text book should highlight the modern concept of Biological Science with
well-planned and properly graded material. By doing so, the students would be
able to acquire the knowledge of Biological Science with great deal of
There should be well organized and well equipped laboratories for Biological
Teacher should more emphasis on the practice of what they have learnt in the
class or what they have taught in the book they should practice it.
There should be accountability of every individual who is responsible of
implementing curriculum or each and every individual of education
department should be responsible and accountable of every act happen in the
schools and also modify the contents with passage of time with the change in
the subject as per new researches.
The appointments of teachers must not be based on favoritism or biasness as it
is the matter of development of country.
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