1. EMS Assignment
Q.1: Define the term EducationalManagementand explain its scope
Ans: Educational Management:
Educational management is both a field of academic study and a collective group
of professionals that includes principals, teachers and other education
Educational management, also sometimes known as educational
administration, is commonly associated with elementary and secondary
schools as well as institutes of higher learning like colleges and
universities. Educational management professionals can also be found
working in governmental agencies, private companies, and not-for-
profit organizations. Those working in educational management might
act as policy-makers, researchers, or consultants to help evaluate and
develop ways to enrich and enhance the educational system at all levels.
Most educational management professionals have earned at least a
master's degree and many are licensed teachers or principals.
The process of planning, organizing, directing and controlling the
activities of an institution by utilizing human and material resources so
as to effectively and efficiently accomplish functions of teaching,
extension work and research.
2. Scope of Educational Management:
Everything concerned with the education of the child through the agency of the
school, will be included in educational management.
To organize library, museum, hostel etc.
To maintain the schoolrecords.
To evaluate of pupil achievement.
To provide the material equipment, such as building, furniture, farms
laboratories, library, museum, art gallery etc.
To prepare timetable.
To maintain discipline.
To cooperate with departmental authorities and implementing the orders of
the higher educational authorities.
To organize guidance service.
To prepare the curriculum for the different classes.
To organize a systematic co-curricular programme.
To supervise schoolwork.
To organize exhibitions and museums.
To coordinate the work of home, schooland community.
To provide various auxiliary services like mid-day meals, school uniform,
To organize health and physical education.
To finance and budget.
3. Q.2: Enlist the School System Theories and define social system
Ans: List of School System Theories:
Following is the list of School System Theories:
1) Bureaucratic Administration/ Organizational Theory
2) Social System Theory
3) Open System Theory
4) Contingency Theory
Social System Theory
Providing Meaning to Theory. General systems theory, which
includes the narrower field of social systems, is a cross-disciplinary
body of scientific thought that developed during the twentieth
century. Social systems perspective: a philosophical viewpoint on the
relationship of person with their social environment.
It is comprehensive
o It offers greater potential for description and integration
of disparate theories into a single framework that any
It provides suggestive leads
o For all sectors of human behavior
It has the potential to provide a common language.
o It allows the reduction of theories to a framework that
can be mastered.
4. o Providing Meaning to Theory
General systems theory, which includes the narrower field of social
systems, is a cross-disciplinary body of scientific thought that
developed during the twentieth century.
Social systems perspective: a philosophical viewpoint on the
relationship of person with their social environment.
Social systems model: meaning that it is at the same time a
hypothesis to be tested, primarily through its application to
Systems perspective provides the best theoretical basis for the
study of human communication.
o Systems/Systemic Thinking
o A set of things or parts forming a whole.
o A complex unity formed of many often diverse parts subject
to a common plan or serving a common purpose.
o Using the mind to recognize pattern, conceive unity, and
form some coherent wholeness – to seek to complete the
Social System Theory is “holonistic” requiring:
Specification of the focal system
Specification of the units or components that constitute that
Specification of the significant environmental systems
Specification of one’s own position relative to the focal
Each social entity whether large or small, complex or simple, is a
This term is borrowed from Greek language to express the idea
that each entity is simultaneously a part and a whole.
A social unit is made up of parts to which it is the whole (supra
system) and at the same time is part of some larger whole
What is central is that any system is by definition both part and
6. Q.3: What do you mean by COMMUNICATION? and define its role in
teaching learning process.
Two-way process of reaching mutual understanding, in which participants not
only exchange (encode-decode) information, news, ideas and feelings but
also create and share meaning. In general, communication is a means of connecting
people or places. In business, it is a key function of management--
an organization cannot operate without communication between
levels, departments and employees.
7. Communication, Teaching and Learning
PEDAGOGICAL APPROACHES and ACTIVITIES
If we are using the media, libraries, archives and other information providers
(including the Internet or new technologies) in the classroom, we need to consider
our ways of teaching: how are we using media and other information providers?
How do they impact the ways in which information is communicated to students?
Communication models can provide a framework for conceptualizing the place of
MIL (Media and information literacy) within the teaching and learning experience.
These models provide the opportunity to closely examine the roles of teachers,
students and the media, libraries, archives and other information providers in the
classroom. Many of these models share the components listed below (Shannon and
Weaver, 1948; Schramm, 1954; Berlo, 1960):
Feedback (receiver to sender and vice versa as the loop continues)
Identify the ways in which this model could be applied to the learning experience
in your classroom. What roles do you assume as teacher? What roles are available
to your students? How is the learning experience shaped by these roles? How is the
feedback process managed in the teaching-learning process? How can your
knowledge of MIL help to improve this process?
Consider the opportunities students have to critically examine the platforms
through which they receive information in your classroom. Related to this are
notions of teaching about and through the media, libraries, archives and other
information providers. Through which media are students receiving information in
your classroom? What is the impact of these media on the teaching and learning
experience? Identify the media and sources of information that students have
access to in your classroom. Explain the rationale and selection process for
including these in the curriculum.
8. Teaching about MIL requires awareness and analysis of the media, libraries,
archives and other information providers and the role they play in lifelong learning
and the conveying and shaping of information and messages(i.e. the media and
technology themselves become the subject of study in the classroom). Teaching
through the media and other information providers requires an awareness and
analysis on the part of teachers of their own role and the role of the media and
technology in the teaching and learning process. Phrased differently, what is being
taught through media and/or technology in the classroom? Is there a particular
topic or subject that is being taught through the use of technology or the media?
How can teachers apply MIL skills to what they are teaching?
Identify general examples of teaching about MIL and through the media, libraries,
archives and other information providers. Describe specific activities/examples in
your classroom where both of these approaches are used. What do these
approaches offer to students in terms of their learning experience?
When communication is effective, both the student and the teacher benefit.
Communication makes learning easier, helps students achieve goals, increases
opportunities for expanded learning, strengthens the connection between student
and teacher, and creates an overall positive experience
Self Esteem: In general, people want to be heard. If a teacher shows interest in a student’s
opinions, that student will feel that their thoughts or ideas are appreciated. This increases self
esteem and confidence. A confident student is less likely to second guess his answers on tests,
and a self-assured student is more likely to speak up in class. Class participation leads to
increased learning for the entire class.
Class Performance: Teachers who reward student communication and class participation
will notice an improvement in overall class performance. A teacher can gauge the effectiveness
of a lecture by student feedback. By asking questions, a teacher can determine if students were
able to retain the imparted information. If there are a lack of responses from the class, it is likely
that the students were unable to understand the lecture. This can lead to poor performance on
A degree of communication is required in every profession, and communication skills are
necessary at even the most preliminary stages of career growth. For example, an applicant must
be able to communicate her skills and abilities during an interview in order to acquire a job.
13. Job Analysis & Its Components
Job analysis: The process of describing and recording many aspects or
elements of the job.
The outcome of job analysis has two components
Job description: A written summary of task requirements. This is the
physical and environmental characteristics of the work to be done.
Job specification: A written summary of work requirements (knowledge,
skills, aptitudes, attitudes)
Job Analysis: Importance & Purpose
Legal validation of employment decisions
Defines duties & tasks
Identifies reporting relationships
Basis for determining relative worth of jobs
When Job Analysis is Used
1. Most commonly for personnel selection
2. Forrecruitment in providing realistic job data
3. Forlegal compliance
4. Forperformance appraisal
5. To identify job similarity for easy transfer
6. Job evaluation
7. Job redesign and re-engineering
16. Q.5: Write a note on the following:
Accounting is the process of recording, summarizing, analyzing, and
interpreting financial (money related) activities to permit individuals and
organizations to make informed judgments and decisions. By law all
businesses must keep accounting records. Decisions are based on
accounting information for profit and non-profit companies alike. There
are different types of business organizations:
17. Service business—doctors, lawyers, barber shop, etc.
Merchandising business—purchases goods for resale
Manufacturing business—produces a product to sell
Private business—object is to earn a profit o Sole
Proprietorship—owned by one persons o Corporation—
owned by investors called stockholders (The business—not
the owners—are responsible for the company’s obligations.)
THE ELEMENTS OF ACCOUNTING ASSETS:
Assets are items with money value that are owned by a business. Some
examples are: cash, accounts receivable (selling goods or services on
credit), equipment (office, store, delivery, etc.), and supplies (office,
store, delivery, etc.).
Liabilities are debts owed by the business. Paying cash is often not
possible or convenient, so businesses purchase goods and services on
credit. The name of the account used is Accounts Payable. Another type
of liability is Notes Payable. This is a formal written promise to pay a
specific amount of money at a definite future date.
The difference between Assets and Liabilities is Owner’s Equity. The
can also be called capital, proprietorship, or net worth.
THE ACCOUNTING EQUATION:
Assets = Liabilities + Owner’s Equity This equation must always
18. BUSINESS TRANSACTIONS AND THE ACCOUNTING
A transaction is any activity that changes the value of a firm’s assets,
liabilities, or owner’s equity. Each transaction has a dual effect on the
basic accounting elements. A transaction may affect more than two
accounts in a transaction. This is called a combined entry. Withdrawal
(Drawing) is the removal of business assets for personal use by the
owner. This transaction decreases the asset taken and the value of the
Record keeping in school is the maintenance of information about each
student, which includes basic biographical data, contact information,
educational progress and modifications, attendance, discipline, and
medical concerns. These records not only document information about
the student, they also contain information on which a school is judged
and funded. Many laws exist concerning the use and availability of these
records to non-school personnel.
Record keeping in education is a very big part of the "business" of
school, as accurate records keep educators accountable and facilitate the
transfer of students, who are less likely to finish school in the system in
which they started than they were years ago. Accurate biographical
information, transcripts, medical records and special needs modifications
must be transferred with a student from school to school, whether the
school is within or outside the student's previous system. Decisions
about a child's future education are often made based on school records,
stressing the need for accuracy. Because of the Family Educational
19. Rights and Privacy Act, parents of students younger than 18 and
students who are 18 or older have the right to inspect and amend school
records. Decision about the school's future are also made based on
school records, and federal funding often relies on information contained
in them. Each school or school system must utilize a method of creating,
keeping, storing and disposing of records that maintain their integrity
Records Come in Different Forms
20. Yahaya (2007), Olagboye (2004), Durosaro, (2002) & Akubue,
(1991), also listed some specific importance which peculiar to each
school records as;
1. Admission and withdrawal Register:
This is a permanent record book into which is entered information
regarding the entry and exit, including the details of the education and
progress of each pupil that ever passes through the school;
The importance includes
Serves as a historical document or reference with
detailed records of every child who was admitted
into the school
The admission register is a reference for tracing the
entry progress and exit of any student admitted into
It is useful in supplying information on the personal
and family background of student.
It becomes a vital document for the settlement of
legal controversies and claims.
Yielding reliable data which may be needed for the
planning and administration of the educational
Showing student(s) who withdraw from the school
Promoting accountability as well as enhance
21. 2. Attendance Register
An attendance register is a book in which the presence or absence of
students in a school is recorded on a daily basis. It is a statutory record
that must be kept by every school. This record is kept on individual class
The class teacher is the custodian of this record.
Its importance includes:
Providing necessary data that may be requested from
time to time either by researchers, planners or ministry
Information from it could assist considerably in
determining the amount of grant to be given to a
It could be used to identify a child’s interest and
problems and to take administrative decisions.
It is also helpful in identifying sick students, truants,
absentees and students who attend school regularly.
3. The log Book
The log book is a historical record of events that have significant effects
on the schools activities.
Their importances are as follows;
It records detailed happenings, during the visit of dignities
whose signatures appear in the schoolvisitor’s book
It gives background information to a new manager.
It amplifies the local history of a village or town, especially the
role of the school in such development.
It reveals important events or occurrences in the life of the
school E.g. new building, rainstorm, collapsed building, motor
vehicles, and accidents in school, expulsion or fire disaster.
22. 4. The Visitors book
The book is meant for recording the visit of important personalities,
including officials from the ministries of education or other related
government agencies or any other school related visitors.
It provides a record of the interest shown by the
community in the school
It could serves as a means of getting the contact
addresses of very important people who have shown
interest in the school.
5. Staff and Students’ personal files
It is necessary that the school should have as much information on every
one of teachers and students as possible without violating their privacy.
it provides current and first hand information on the
staffing as well as studentary situation.
It helps in checking ghost workers and other financial
abuse in schools.
It makes it easy to locate a teacher’s or student’s
relatives during emergency.
23. 6. Corporal punishment book
The book contains the names of pupils who create disciplinary problems
in school and the nature of punishment awarded mostly canning,
flogging, whipping and hard knocks.
To ensure that proper procedure is followed in
It reduces cases of misuse of punishment
Recording and noting student name in the book
naturally reduces indiscipline in schools.
7. Commulative Record folder
Students’ commulative record folder is a storehouse of information on
student cognitive, affective and psychomotor development.
It reflects continuous assessment on students
educational or academic progress.
It also reflect students performance in extracurricular
It could be useful by researchers on both child
development study and school management.
8. Students report sheet/card
It keeps data on student’s academic performance in
It assists in monitoring student’s academic progress
It is a compliment to commulative record folders.
24. 9. Lesson note/plan
i. It gives information on what a teacher plans to teach the students at a
period of time.
ii. It clearly shows the teachers level of preparedness and his level of
iii. It psyches and challenges teachers for the task ahead
10. Scheme and record of work book
It reflects estimate of academic work which a teacher expects to
accomplish in each subject based on number of lessons he will have
during each term.
i. it assists head teachers or educational administrators to know what is
being taught in school.
ii. It assists in enforcing accountability and continuity in the work of
iii. It clearly shows teacher adherence to the syllabus and how and when
the work is done.
iv. It is a means of evaluating teacher’s competency and efficiency.
11. Record of work book or weekly diary
A carefully kept record of work is a strong stimulus to dutiful and
progressive work. Pertinently it shows the ability of the teacher to
organize the year’s work his resourcefulness and enthusiasm regarding
the progress of the pupils.
25. 12. School time-table
i. It provides information on when classes begin, when school opens and
ii. It shows activities to be performed by the teacher and student
iii. It assists in regulating the activities of students and staff of a
iv. It facilitates and enhances student interest and attention and prevent
mental and physical strain.
13. Staff time book and movement book
i. They provide information on when staff report and or close at work.
ii. They promote regular attendance and punctuality
iii. They help checking truancy and gross indiscipline in staff.
14. The school cash Register
i. It is a record of financial transactions in schools
ii. It gives information about income and expenditures
iii. It promotes accountability and prevent corrupt and sharp practices.
15. Transfer and leaving certificate
Transfer and leaving certificate licensed the formal exist of the pupils
after completion of study or leaving during the course of study in a
school. Other vital school records which are very paramount to the
effective management of the school system are, mark book, heath record,
report files, board of governors minutes book and others,
principal/headmaster announcement book and staff information book,
handing over/taking over file, national policy on education, subject
curricula, anecdotal/record, report on guidance and counseling
The roles of head teacher and school records are synonymous because
effectiveness and efficiency of head teacher depends largely on these
vital documents. However class teacher should complement this task by
effectively discharging their duties by proper keep and maintain these
academic records for which they have direct responsibility.
“A group of related records (such as minutes of a board, payrolls, and
purchase orders) that are normally used and filed as a unit and that
normally have the same retention requirements.” (NY SARA Glossary
Hubley J. London: Macmillan; 1993. Communicating Health.
Abbatt F, McMahon R. London: Macmillan; 1993. Teaching Health Care
Workers, second edition.
Durosaro D.C (2007) management of Schoolrecords. The crafts of
Education manage D.C Durosaro, S. Ogunsaju (ed) Ilorin. Indemic print
Akubue, A. U (1991) Classroomorganisation and manage A5-point, strategy
Nuskka publisher Ltd.
Olagboye, A.A (2004) Introduction to Educational management in Nigeria.
Ibadan: Daily graphics (Nigeria) limited
Yahaya L.A (2007) Records keeping. Guidance and counseling in junior
secondaryschools under universal basic education program Paper presented
at Workshop for principal vice principal and selected teachers on records
keeping, continuous assessment and management strategies in Kwara state
junior secondary schools.