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  1. •Prepared by : supervisor by: 1.Saad Antar dr.Bayram Dawod 2.Aeman Waleed 3.Emad Akram 4.Emad Hamo 5.Nassar Kamiran Duhok Polytechnic University College of Health and Medical Technology, Shekhan Medical Laboratories Technology First stage
  2. • Vacuum • Maximum speed • Temperature control • Volume of samples
  3. Small bench top centrifuges • Maximum speed 4000 to 6000 rpm • RCF is 3000 g force • Can operate at ambient temperature • Rotors used
  4. Low speed centrifugation • Refrigerated centrifuge • Maximum speed of 6000 rev.per minute • RCF is 6500g force • Large carrying capacity • Interchangeable rotors • Accurate balance needs to be done • For RBCs, nuclei and chloroplasts
  5. High speed centrifuge • Very high speed • They can go upto 25,000 rev perminute • RCF is 60,000 g force • Interchangeable rotors • Used for pelleting micro organisms, cellular debris and so on
  6. Ultracentrifuges • Very high speed of 70,000 rpm and more • Rotors are run in high vacuum • Lot of sophistication is required • Rotors do not have to be aerodynamically designed • RCF of 500,000 g force • Can be used for membrane fractionation and viruses and so on
  7. Ultracentrifuges can be of 2 types • Preparative ultracentrifuge • Analytical ultracentrifuge
  8. Preparative ultracentrifugation • Maximum speed of 80,000 rpm • RCF is 600,000 g force • Sealed evacuated rotor chamber • Temperature monitoring system • Electronic circuits that detect rotor imbalance • Flexible drive shaft • Protected in armor shield • Table top centrifuges present • Used for sub cellular organelles, viruses etc.
  9. Analytical ultracentrifuge • They have a system for detection • i.e. they have optical systems • They have 3 types of optical systems a)Absorbance optical system b) Alternative schlieron system c)Rayleigh optical system
  10. Rotors Types of rotors: a) Fixed angle rotors
  11. • Swing out bucket rotor
  12. • Vertical rotors
  13. References 1: Mikkelsen, Susan R.; Cortón, Eduardo (2004-02-20). Bioanalytical Chemistry. Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. doi:10.1002/0471623628.ch13. ISBN 978-0- 471-54447-0. 2: Vogel-Prandtl, Johanna Ludwig Prandtl: A Biographical Sketch, Remembrances and Documents Archived 2017-10-25 at the Wayback Machine, English trans. V. Vasanta Ram. The International Centre for Theoretical Physics Trieste, Italy, pub. August 14, 2004. pp. 10–11. 3: "Basics of Centrifugation". Cole-Parmer. Archived from the original on 24 February 2012. Retrieved 11 March 2012. 4: M. Saad Bhamla, Brandon Benson, Chew Chai, Georgios Katsikis, Aanchal Johri & Manu Prakash (10 January 2017). "Hand-powered ultralow-cost paper centrifuge". Nature. 1: 0009. 5: van Loon, Jack J.W.A.; Krausse, Jutta; Cunha, Humberto; Goncalves, Joao; Almeida, Hugo; Schiller, Peter (June 2008). Ouwehand, L. (ed.). THE LARGE DIAMETER CENTRIFUGE, LDC, FOR LIFE AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY. "Life in space for life on Earth" : proceedings of the symposium 22–27 June 2008, Angers, France. Vol. 553. European Space Agency. p. 92.